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Jorge Carrapita, Ana Margarida Abrantes, Sofia Campelos, Ana Cristina Gonçalves, Dulce Cardoso, Ana Bela Sarmento-Ribeiro, Clara Rocha, Jorge Nunes Santos, Maria Filomena Botelho, José Guilherme Tralhão, Olivier Farges, Jorge Maciel Barbosa
It was reported that prevention of acute portal overpressure in small-for-size livers by inflow modulation results in a better postoperative outcome. The aim is to investigate the impact of portal blood flow reduction by splenic artery ligation after major hepatectomy in a murine model. Forty-eight rats were subjected to an 85% hepatectomy or 85% hepatectomy and splenic artery ligation. Both groups were evaluated at 24, 48, 72 and 120 post-operative hours: liver function, regeneration and viability. All methods and experiments were carried out in accordance with Coimbra University guidelines...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Khim Karki, Yiqing Huang, Sooyeon Hwang, Andrew D Gamalski, M Stanley Whittingham, Guangwen Zhou, Eric A Stach
Layered transition metal oxides such as LiNi0.8Co 0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) are highly desirable battery electrodes. However, these materials suffer from thermal runaway caused by deleterious oxygen loss and surface phase transitions when in highly overcharged and overheated conditions, prompting serious safety concerns. Using in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy techniques, we demonstrate that surface oxygen loss and structural changes in the highly overcharged NCA particles are suppressed by exposing them to an oxygen-rich environment...
October 6, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Angela M Boutté, Shonnette F Grant, Jitendra R Dave
Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is an increasingly valuable tool for determining relative or quantitative protein abundance in brain tissues. A plethora of technical and analytical methods are available, but straightforward and practical approaches are often needed to facilitate reproducibility. This aspect is particularly important as an increasing number of studies focus on models of traumatic brain injury or brain trauma, for which brain tissue proteomes have not yet been fully described. This text provides suggested techniques for robust identification and quantitation of brain proteins by using molecular weight fractionation prior to mass spectrometry-based proteomics...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Zachary S Bailey, W Brad Hubbard, Pamela J VandeVord
Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matthew Kuriakose, Maciej Skotak, Anthony Misistia, Sudeepto Kahali, Aravind Sundaramurthy, Namas Chandra
The end plate mounted at the mouth of the shock tube is a versatile and effective implement to control and mitigate the end effects. We have performed a series of measurements of incident shock wave velocities and overpressures followed by quantification of impulse values (integral of pressure in time domain) for four different end plate configurations (0.625, 2, 4 inches, and an open end). Shock wave characteristics were monitored by high response rate pressure sensors allocated in six positions along the length of 6 meters long 229 mm square cross section shock tube...
2016: PloS One
Zachary S Bailey, Michael B Grinter, Pamela J VandeVord
Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Katsuki Niwa, Kunio Mizutari, Toshiyasu Matsui, Takaomi Kurioka, Takeshi Matsunobu, Satoko Kawauchi, Yasushi Satoh, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani, Yasushi Kobayashi
The ear is the organ that is most sensitive to blast overpressure, and ear damage is most frequently seen after blast exposure. Blast overpressure to the ear results in sensorineural hearing loss, which is untreatable and is often associated with a decline in the quality of life. In this study, we used a rat model to demonstrate the pathophysiological and structural changes in the inner ear that replicate pure sensorineural hearing loss associated with blast injury using laser-induced shock wave (LISW) without any conductive hearing loss...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bridget R Scanlon, Robert C Reedy, Frank Male, Michael Hove
The water footprint of oil production, including water used for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback-produced (FP) water, is increasingly important in terms of HF water sourcing and FP water management. Here, we evaluate trends in HF water use relative to supplies and FP water relative to disposal using well by well analysis in the Bakken Play. HF water use per well increased by ∼6 times from 2005-2014, totaling 24.5 × 10(9) gal (93 × 10(9) L) for ∼10 140 wells. Water supplies expanded to meet increased demand, including access of up to ∼33 × 10(9) gal/year (125 × 10(9) L/year) from Lake Sakakawea, expanding pipeline infrastructure by hundreds of miles and allowing water transfers from irrigation...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Qiangling Duan, Huahua Xiao, Wei Gao, Liang Gong, Jinhua Sun
An experimental investigation of spontaneous ignition and flame propagation at high-pressure hydrogen release via cylindrical tubes with varying cross-section is presented. Tubes with different transverse cross-sections are considered in the experiments: (1) local contraction, (2) local enlargement, (3) abrupt contraction, and (4) abrupt enlargement. The results show that the presence of the varying cross-section geometries can significantly promote the occurrence of spontaneous ignition. Compared to the tube with constant cross-section, the minimum pressure release needed for spontaneous ignition for the varying cross-sections tubes is considerably lower...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Cheng-Hao Chang, Pawel L Urban
Extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds from liquid matrixes with high yields, and transferring the extracts to detectors in real time, is challenging. Common extraction procedures involve heating the samples to release the analytes to the gas phase and, in some cases, trapping the gas-phase analytes into sorbents or containers. Here, we propose a new method for fast extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds from liquid matrixes. This method involves dissolution of a carrier gas in the liquid sample by applying a moderate overpressure (∼150 kPa) and stirring the sample...
September 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Ying Wang, Yanling Wei, Samuel Oguntaya, Donna Wilder, Lawrence Tong, Yan Su, Irene Gist, Peethambaran Arun, Joseph Long
Chemokines and their receptors are of great interest within the milieu of immune responses elicited in CNS in response to trauma. Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), which is also known as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury, brain ischemia, Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the time-course of CCL2 accumulation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following exposures to single and repeated blast overpressures of varied intensities along with the neuropathological changes and motor deficits resulting from these blast conditions...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Leonid A Turkevich, Joseph Fernback, Ashok G Dastidar, Paul Osterberg
There is a concern that engineered carbon nanoparticles, when manufactured on an industrial scale, will pose an explosion hazard. Explosion testing has been performed on 20 codes of carbonaceous powders. These include several different codes of SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), MWCNTs (multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and CNFs (carbon nanofibers), graphene, diamond, fullerene, as well as several different control carbon blacks and graphites. Explosion screening was performed in a 20 L explosion chamber (ASTM E1226 protocol), at a concentration of 500 g/m(3), using a 5 kJ ignition source...
May 2016: Combustion and Flame
Sean McIntire, Lee Boujie
Inner ear barotrauma can occur when the gas-filled chambers of the ear have difficulty equalizing pressure with the outside environment after changes in ambient pressure. This can transpire even with small pressure changes. Hypobaric or hyperbaric environments can place significant stress on the structures of the middle and inner ear. If methods to equalize pressure between the middle ear and other connected gas-filled spaces (i.e., Valsalva maneuver) are unsuccessful, middle ear overpressurization can occur...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Chuanfu Huang, Vitaly V Kresin
This note describes a system for transferring a load of high purity lithium metal into a molecular or cluster beam source. A hot loading vessel is thoroughly baked out while empty and overpressured with argon. A clean Li rod is then dropped in through a long narrow tube. The thoroughly degassed interior of the vessel and the rapid melting of the inserted rod facilitate contamination-free transfer of the highly reactive liquid metal into the source oven.
June 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Frank H Hedlund, Robert S Selig, Eva K Kragh
At a brewery, the base plate-to-shell weld seam of a 90-m(3) vertical cylindrical steel tank failed catastrophically. The 4 ton tank "took off" like a rocket leaving its contents behind, and landed on a van, crushing it. The top of the tank reached a height of 30 m. The internal overpressure responsible for the failure was an estimated 60 kPa. A rupture disc rated at < 50 kPa provided overpressure protection and thus prevented the tank from being covered by the European Pressure Equipment Directive. This safeguard failed and it was later discovered that the rupture disc had been installed upside down...
June 2016: Safety and Health At Work
Tetsuro Hirono, Kenichi Tsuda, Wataru Tanikawa, Jean-Paul Ampuero, Bunichiro Shibazaki, Masataka Kinoshita, James J Mori
Near-trench slip during large megathrust earthquakes (megaquakes) is an important factor in the generation of destructive tsunamis. We proposed a new approach to assessing the near-trench slip potential quantitatively by integrating laboratory-derived properties of fault materials and simulations of fault weakening and rupture propagation. Although the permeability of the sandy Nankai Trough materials are higher than that of the clayey materials from the Japan Trench, dynamic weakening by thermally pressurized fluid is greater at the Nankai Trough owing to higher friction, although initially overpressured fluid at the Nankai Trough restrains the fault weakening...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ashton Barnett-Vanes, Anna Sharrock, Theofano Eftaxiopoulou, Hari Arora, Warren Macdonald, Anthony M J Bull, Sara M Rankin
BACKGROUND: Understanding of the cellular immune response to primary blast lung injury (PBLI) is limited, with only the neutrophil response well documented. Moreover, its impact on the immune response in distal organs remains poorly understood. In this study, a rodent model of isolated primary blast injury was used to investigate the acute cellular immune response to isolated PBLI in the circulation and lung, including the monocyte response, and investigate distal subacute immune effects in the spleen and liver 6 hours after injury...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Courtney Bricker-Anthony, Lauren D'Surney, Brendan Lunn, Jessica Hines-Beard, Minhee Jo, Alexandra Bernardo-Colon, Tonia S Rex
PURPOSE: Erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising neuroprotective agent and is currently in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The goal of this study was to determine if EPO is also protective in traumatic eye injury. METHODS: The left eyes of anesthetized DBA/2J or Balb/c mice were exposed to a single 26 psi overpressure air-wave while the rest of the body was shielded. DBA/2J mice were given intraperitoneal injections of EPO or buffer and analyses were performed at 3 or 7 days post-blast...
June 7, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Vikas Mishra, Maciej Skotak, Heather Schuetz, Abi Heller, James Haorah, Namas Chandra
Injury severity in blast induced Traumatic Brain Injury (bTBI) increases with blast overpressure (BOP) and impulse in dose-dependent manner. Pure primary blast waves were simulated in compressed gas shock-tubes in discrete increments. Present work demonstrates 24 hour survival of rats in 0-450 kPa (0-800 Pa∙s impulse) range at 10 discrete levels (60, 100, 130, 160, 190, 230, 250, 290, 350 and 420 kPa) and determines the mortality rate as a non-linear function of BOP. Using logistic regression model, predicted mortality rate (PMR) function was calculated, and used to establish TBI severities...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hesam Sarvghad-Moghaddam, Asghar Rezaei, Mariusz Ziejewski, Ghodrat Karami
Underwash occurs as the incoming shockwaves enter the helmet subspace and develop a high pressure region at the opposite side of the head. The mechanism leading to the underwash is yet not well understood. To investigate this effect, the turbulent, supersonic flow of compressible air approaching the head-helmet assembly from different directions was studied through computational fluid dynamics simulations. The effects of different incident overpressures and helmet gap size on the underwash incidence were further evaluated...
June 7, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
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