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Roohollah Shirani Faradonbeh, Mahdi Hasanipanah, Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh, Danial Jahed Armaghani, Masoud Monjezi
Air overpressure (AOp) is one of the most adverse effects induced by blasting in the surface mines and civil projects. So, proper evaluation and estimation of the AOp is important for minimizing the environmental problems resulting from blasting. The main aim of this study is to estimate AOp produced by blasting operation in Miduk copper mine, Iran, developing two artificial intelligence models, i.e., genetic programming (GP) and gene expression programming (GEP). Then, the accuracy of the GP and GEP models has been compared to multiple linear regression (MLR) and three empirical models...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ligang Zheng, Gang Li, Yalei Wang, Xiaochao Zhu, Rongkun Pan, Yan Wang
To investigate the effect of blockage ratios on the explosion suppression by powder suppressant, an experimental study was performed to suppress the methane-air explosion in a 5L duct with different blockage ratios and various concentrations of BC dry powder. The results indicate that flames experienced both the spherical and finger-shaped stages. Furthermore, the smoothness of flame front initially decreased and then increased. Flame propagation velocities were higher with larger blockage ratios except for φ = 1...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
L Géli, P Henry, C Grall, J-B Tary, A Lomax, E Batsi, V Riboulot, E Cros, C Gürbüz, S E Işık, A M C Sengör, X Le Pichon, L Ruffine, S Dupré, Y Thomas, D Kalafat, G Bayrakci, Q Coutellier, T Regnier, G Westbrook, H Saritas, G Çifçi, M N Çağatay, M S Özeren, N Görür, M Tryon, M Bohnhoff, L Gasperini, F Klingelhoefer, C Scalabrin, J-M Augustin, D Embriaco, G Marinaro, F Frugoni, S Monna, G Etiope, P Favali, A Bécel
Understanding micro-seismicity is a critical question for earthquake hazard assessment. Since the devastating earthquakes of Izmit and Duzce in 1999, the seismicity along the submerged section of North Anatolian Fault within the Sea of Marmara (comprising the "Istanbul seismic gap") has been extensively studied in order to infer its mechanical behaviour (creeping vs locked). So far, the seismicity has been interpreted only in terms of being tectonic-driven, although the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) is known to strike across multiple hydrocarbon gas sources...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Stefan Stein, Wei Zhao, Oliver Hentschel, Christopher Bickmann, Stephan Roth, Thomas Frick, Michael Schmidt
Laser drop on demand jetting of Cu-base braze droplets was proven a suitable method for joining wires to electrode structures of electronic devices, particularly if the electrical contacts need to withstand high thermal loads. During joining, a braze preform of 600 µm diameter is placed inside a capillary, molten by a laser pulse and subsequently ejected from the capillary by inert gas overpressure similarly to conventional solder ball bumping processes. However, since the liquidus temperature of the used braze material of 990 °C is about 760 °C higher than of standard Sn-based solders used in electronics packaging, the system technology was modified significantly to enable jetting of CuSn alloys...
April 16, 2018: Optics Express
Rodrigo Fernández Feito, Richard M Dinsdale, Alan J Guwy, Giuliano C Premier
A novel and fully automated sequential injection analysis manifold coupled to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus with amperometric detection, is described. The sequential injection manifold was isolated from the high voltage by inserting an air plug into the circuit. Small buffer reservoirs were used to avoid the need to pump fresh buffer to the interface during the electrophoretic separation. No decoupling device was used to mitigate the interference from the high voltage electric field, instead the potential shift induced by the separation voltage, was accounted for...
April 27, 2018: Electrophoresis
A Sundaramurthy, M Skotak, E Alay, G Unnikrishnan, H Mao, X Duan, S T Williams, T H Harding, N Chandra, J Reifman
It is unclear whether combat eyewear used by U. S. Service members is protective against blast overpressures (BOPs) caused by explosive devices. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which BOP bypasses eyewear and increases eye surface pressure. We performed experiments and developed three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of a head form (HF) equipped with an advanced combat helmet (ACH) and with no eyewear, spectacles, or goggles in a shock tube at three BOPs and five head orientations relative to the blast wave...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Rachael Allen, Cara T Motz, Andrew Feola, Kyle Chesler, Raza Haider, Sringanesh Ramachandra Rao, Lara Skelton, Steven Fliesler, Machelle T Pardue
Acoustic blast overpressure (ABO) injury in military personnel and civilians is often accompanied by delayed visual deficits. However, most animal model studies dealing with blast-induced visual defects have focused on short-term (≤1 month) changes. Here, we evaluated long-term (≤8 months) retinal structure and function deficits in rats with ABO injury. Adult male Long Evans rats were subjected to ABO from a single blast (∼ 190 dB SPL, ∼ 63 kPa, @80 psi), generated by a shock tube device. Retinal function (electroretinography), visual function (optokinetic tracking), retinal thickness (spectral domain-optical coherence tomography), and spatial cognition/exploratory motor behavior (Y-maze) were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months post-blast...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Daniel R Viete, Bradley R Hacker, Mark B Allen, Gareth G E Seward, Mark J Tobin, Chris S Kelley, Gianfelice Cinque, Andrew R Duckworth
Large earthquakes occur in rocks undergoing high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism during subduction. Rhythmic major-element zoning in garnet is a common product of such metamorphism, and one that must record a fundamental subduction process. We argue that rhythmic major-element zoning in subduction zone garnets from the Franciscan Complex, California, developed in response to growth-dissolution cycles driven by pressure pulses. Using electron probe microanalysis and novel techniques in Raman and synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy, we demonstrate that at least four such pressure pulses, of magnitude 100-350 MPa, occurred over less than 300,000 years...
March 2018: Science Advances
Erik Hayman, Kaspar Keledjian, Jesse Alan Stokum, Adam Pampori, Volodymyr Gerzanich, J Marc Simard
Primary blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) accounts for a significant proportion of wartime trauma. Previous studies have demonstrated direct brain injury by blast waves, but the effect of the location of the blast epicenter on the skull with regard to brain injury remains poorly characterized. In order to investigate the role of the blast epicenter location, we modified a previously established rodent model of cranium-only bTBI to evaluate two specific blast foci: a rostrally focused blast centered on the Bregma (B-bTBI), which excluded the foramen magnum region, and a caudally focused blast centered on the occipital crest, which included the Foramen Magnum region (FM-bTBI)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kue-Young Kim, Junho Oh, Weon Shik Han, Kwon Gyu Park, Young Jae Shinn, Eungyu Park
Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; however, understanding the flow mechanisms in various geological formations is essential for safe storage using this technique. This study presents, for the first time, a two-phase (CO2 and brine) flow visualization under reservoir conditions (10 MPa, 50 °C) for a highly heterogeneous conglomerate core obtained from a real CO2 storage site. Rock heterogeneity and the porosity variation characteristics were evaluated using X-ray computed tomography (CT)...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Sedman, A Hepper
INTRODUCTION: This paper outlines aspects of UK Ministry of Defence's research and development of blast overpressure protection technologies appropriate for use in body armour, with the aim of both propagating new knowledge and updating existing information. METHODS: Two simple models are introduced not only to focus the description of the mechanism by which the lungs can be protected, but also to provide a bridge between fields of research that may hold the key to further advances in protection technology and related body armour...
March 19, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Harsha T Garimella, Reuben H Kraft, Andrzej J Przekwas
Subject-specific computer models (male and female) of the human head were used to investigate the possible axonal deformation resulting from the primary phase blast-induced skull flexures. The corresponding axonal tractography was explicitly incorporated into these finite element models using a recently developed technique based on the embedded finite element method. These models were subjected to extensive verification against experimental studies which examined their pressure and displacement response under a wide range of loading conditions...
2018: PloS One
Hailong Song, Landry M Konan, Jiankun Cui, Catherine E Johnson, Martin Langenderfer, DeAna Grant, Tina Ndam, Agnes Simonyi, Tommi White, Utkan Demirci, David R Mott, Doug Schwer, Graham K Hubler, Ibolja Cernak, Ralph G DePalma, Zezong Gu
Explosive blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), a "signature wound" of recent military conflicts, commonly affects service members. While past blast injury studies have provided insights into TBI with moderate- to high-intensity explosions, the impact of primary low-intensity blast (LIB)-mediated pathobiology on neurological deficits requires further investigation. Our prior considerations of blast physics predicted ultrastructural injuries at nanoscale levels. Here, we provide quantitative data using a primary LIB injury murine model exposed to open field detonation of 350 g of high-energy explosive C4...
March 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Víctor Cutillas, María Martínez Galera, Łukasz Rajski, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
Supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry has been evaluated for pesticide residues in food. In order to check its advantages and limitations it was developed a method to identify and quantify 164 pesticides in three different matrices (tomato, orange and leek). A carbon dioxide gradient with methanol (containing 1 mM ammonium formate) was used allowing a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min that made the total run time of 12 min without any problem of overpressure. Addition of a post column flow 150 μL/min of Methanol with ammonium formate/formic acid was necessary to improve the ionization...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Christopher Hernandez, Lenitza Nieves, Al C de Leon, Rigoberto Advincula, Agata A Exner
Shell-stabilized gas nanobubbles have recently captured the interest of the research community for their potential application as ultrasound contrast agents for molecular imaging and therapy of cancer. However, the very existence of submicron gas bubbles (especially uncoated bubbles) has been a subject of controversy in part due to their predicted Laplace overpressure reaching several atmospheres, making them supposedly thermodynamically unstable. In addition, the backscatter resulting from ultrasound interactions with nanoparticles is not predicted to be readily detectable at clinically relevant frequencies...
March 28, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea Ravignani, Stephanie Gross, Maxime Garcia, Ana Rubio-Garcia, Bart de Boer
Vocal communication is a crucial aspect of animal behavior. The mechanism which most mammals use to vocalize relies on three anatomical components. First, air overpressure is generated inside the lower vocal tract. Second, as the airstream goes through the glottis, sound is produced via vocal fold vibration. Third, this sound is further filtered by the geometry and length of the upper vocal tract. Evidence from mammalian anatomy and bioacoustics suggests that some of these three components may covary with an animal's body size...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Maciej Skotak, Eren Alay, Namas Chandra
Measurement issues leading to the acquisition of artifact-free shock wave pressure-time profiles are discussed. We address the importance of in-house sensor calibration and data acquisition sampling rate. Sensor calibration takes into account possible differences between calibration methodology in a manufacturing facility, and those used in the specific laboratory. We found in-house calibration factors of brand new sensors differ by less than 10% from their manufacturer supplied data. Larger differences were noticeable for sensors that have been used for hundreds of experiments and were as high as 30% for sensors close to the end of their useful lifetime...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Judith Elger, Christian Berndt, Lars Rüpke, Sebastian Krastel, Felix Gross, Wolfram H Geissler
There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability...
February 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Fredrik K Eriksen, Renaud Toussaint, Antoine Léo Turquet, Knut J Måløy, Eirik G Flekkøy
By means of digital image correlation, we experimentally characterize the deformation of a dry granular medium confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell due to air injection at a constant overpressure high enough to deform it (from 50 to 250 kPa). Air injection at these overpressures leads to the formation of so-called pneumatic fractures, i.e., channels empty of beads, and we discuss the typical deformations of the medium surrounding these structures. In addition we simulate the diffusion of the fluid overpressure into the medium, comparing it with the Laplacian solution over time and relating pressure gradients with corresponding granular displacements...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Zhihua Huang, Zhihong Li, Yongjian Su, Yongfeng Zhu, Wei Zeng, Guiguang Chen, Zhiqun Liang
The coarse perlite 40-80 mesh was selected as an immobilizing material and put into a packed bed reactor (PBR) to continuously convert maltose to isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs). The PBR was prepared by mixing the thermo-inactivated cells (TIC) from Aspergillus niger J2 strain with the coarse perlite, then the mixture was put into an overpressure-resistant column. Compared with diatomite 40-80 mesh and thin perlite 80-120 mesh in PBR, coarse perlite was chosen as the best filtration aid, when the ratio of coarse perlite versus TIC was 1:1...
February 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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