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Telomere research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161754/the-sorghum-bicolor-reference-genome-improved-assembly-gene-annotations-a-transcriptome-atlas-and-signatures-of-genome-organization
#1
Ryan F McCormick, Sandra K Truong, Avinash Sreedasyam, Jerry Jenkins, Shengqiang Shu, David Sims, Megan Kennedy, Mojgan Amirebrahimi, Brock D Weers, Brian McKinley, Ashley Mattison, Daryl T Morishige, Jane Grimwood, Jeremy Schmutz, John E Mullet
Sorghum bicolor is a drought tolerant C4 grass used for production of grain, forage, sugar, and lignocellulosic biomass and a genetic model for C4 grasses due to its relatively small genome (~800 Mbp), diploid genetics, diverse germplasm, and colinearity with other C4 grass genomes. In this study, deep sequencing, genetic linkage analysis, and transcriptome data were used to produce and annotate a high-quality reference genome sequence. Reference genome sequence order was improved, 29.6 Mbp of additional sequence was incorporated, the number of genes annotated increased 24% to 34,211, average gene length and N50 increased, and error frequency was reduced 10-fold to 1 per 100 kbp...
November 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161636/infant-hpa-axis-as-a-potential-mechanism-linking-maternal-mental-health-and-infant-telomere-length
#2
Benjamin W Nelson, Nicholas B Allen, Heidemarie Laurent
Maternal depression has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) functioning and shorter telomere length in offspring. In contrast, research suggests that individual differences in mindfulness may act as a protective factor against one's own telomere degradation. Currently, research has yet to investigate the association between longitudinal changes in maternal mental health (depressive symptoms and mindfulness) and salivary infant telomere length, and whether such changes might be mediated by alterations in infant cortisol response...
November 18, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160297/structural-and-functional-analyses-of-the-mammalian-tin2-tpp1-trf2-telomeric-complex
#3
Chunyi Hu, Rekha Rai, Chenhui Huang, Cayla Broton, Juanjuan Long, Ying Xu, Jing Xue, Ming Lei, Sandy Chang, Yong Chen
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that play essential roles in protecting chromosome ends. Mammalian telomeres consist of repetitive DNA sequences bound by the shelterin complex. In this complex, the POT1-TPP1 heterodimer binds to single-stranded telomeric DNAs, while TRF1 and TRF2-RAP1 interact with double-stranded telomeric DNAs. TIN2, the linchpin of this complex, simultaneously interacts with TRF1, TRF2, and TPP1 to mediate the stable assembly of the shelterin complex. However, the molecular mechanism by which TIN2 interacts with these proteins to orchestrate telomere protection remains poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160296/structure-of-the-fission-yeast-s-pombe-telomeric-tpz1-poz1-rap1-complex
#4
Jing Xue, Hongwen Chen, Jian Wu, Miho Takeuchi, Haruna Inoue, Yanmei Liu, Hong Sun, Yong Chen, Junko Kanoh, Ming Lei
Telomeric shelterin complex caps chromosome ends and plays a crucial role in telomere maintenance and protection. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, shelterin is composed of telomeric single- and double-stranded DNA-binding protein subcomplexes Pot1-Tpz1 and Taz1-Rap1, which are bridged by their interacting protein Poz1. However, the structure of Poz1 and how Poz1 functions as an interaction hub in the shelterin complex remain unclear. Here we report the crystal structure of Poz1 in complex with Poz1-binding motifs of Tpz1 and Rap1...
November 21, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150481/identification-of-pleiotropic-cancer-susceptibility-variants-from-genome-wide-association-studies-reveals-functional-characteristics
#5
Yi-Hsuan Wu, Rebecca E Graff, Michael N Passarelli, Joshua D Hoffman, Elad Ziv, Thomas J Hoffmann, John S Witte
BACKGROUND: There exists compelling evidence that some genetic variants are associated with the risk of multiple cancer sites (i.e., pleiotropy). However, the biological mechanisms through which the pleiotropic variants operate are unclear. METHODS: We obtained all cancer risk associations from the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute GWAS Catalog, and correlated cancer risk variants were clustered into groups. Pleiotropic variant groups and genes were functionally annotated...
November 17, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136848/convertible-dna-ends-based-silver-nanoprobes-for-colorimetric-detection-human-telomerase-activity
#6
Wenjing Chen, Lei Wang, Rong He, Xiaowen Xu, Wei Jiang
Human telomerase is an endogenous ribonucleoprotein that is over-expressed in most types of malignant cancer cells. Sensitive and specific detection of telomerase activity is crucial for better understanding its role in cancer cells and further exploring its function in cancer diagnosis. Here, we develop convertible DNA ends-based silver nanoprobes for sensitive and specific colorimetric detection telomerase activity. Silver nanoprobes are constructed by modifying telomerase binding substrates (TS) that are pre-hybridized with complementary sequences onto silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), via the coordination between consecutive cytosines in TS strand and AgNPs...
February 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134130/recent-progress-in-the-research-of-cold-inducible-rna-binding-protein
#7
REVIEW
Peng Zhong, He Huang
Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a cold-shock protein which can be induced after exposure to a moderate cold-shock in different species ranging from amphibians to humans. Expression of CIRP can also be regulated by hypoxia, UV radiation, glucose deprivation, heat stress and H2O2, suggesting that CIRP is a general stress-response protein. In response to stress, CIRP can migrate from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and regulate mRNA stability through its binding site on the 3'-UTR of its targeted mRNAs...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124890/new-perspectives-on-telomerase-rna-structure-and-function
#8
REVIEW
Cherie Musgrove, Linnea I Jansson, Michael D Stone
Telomerase is an ancient ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that protects the ends of linear chromosomes from the loss of critical coding sequences through repetitive addition of short DNA sequences. These repeats comprise the telomere, which together with many accessory proteins, protect chromosomal ends from degradation and unwanted DNA repair. Telomerase is a unique reverse transcriptase (RT) that carries its own RNA to use as a template for repeat addition. Over decades of research, it has become clear that there are many diverse, crucial functions played by telomerase RNA beyond simply acting as a template...
November 9, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118011/comparative-genome-analysis-of-programmed-dna-elimination-in-nematodes
#9
Jianbin Wang, Shenghan Gao, Yulia Mostovoy, Yuanyuan Kang, Maxim Zagoskin, Yongqiao Sun, Bing Zhang, Laura K White, Alice Easton, Thomas B Nutman, Pui-Yan Kwok, Songnian Hu, Martin K Nielsen, Richard E Davis
Programmed DNA elimination is a developmentally regulated process leading to the reproducible loss of specific genomic sequences. DNA elimination occurs in unicellular ciliates and a variety of metazoans, including invertebrates and vertebrates. In metazoa, DNA elimination typically occurs in somatic cells during early development, leaving the germline genome intact. Reference genomes for metazoa that undergo DNA elimination are not available. Here, we generated germline and somatic reference genome sequences of the DNA eliminating pig parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the horse parasite Parascaris univalens...
November 8, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114353/a-chromosomal-analysis-of-nepa-cinerea-linnaeus-1758-and-ranatra-linearis-linnaeus-1758-heteroptera-nepidae
#10
Robert B Angus, Constance Jeangirard, Desislava Stoianova, Snejana Grozeva, Valentina G Kuznetsova
An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae). A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂) / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀), whereas R...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102816/leukocyte-telomere-length-variation-in-different-stages-of-schizophrenia
#11
Pawan Kumar Maurya, Lucas Bortolotto Rizzo, Gabriela Xavier, Priscila Farias Tempaku, Vanessa Kiyomi Ota, Marcos L Santoro, Letícia M Spíndola, Patrícia S Moretti, Diego R Mazzotti, Ary Gadelha, Eduardo S Gouvea, Cristiano Noto, Michael Maes, Quirino Cordeiro, Rodrigo A Bressan, Elisa Brietzke, Sintia Iole Belangero
Recent research has demonstrated that telomere maintenance might be a key integrating point for the cumulative effect of genetic and environmental factors in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Eighty-one participants with antipsychotic-naïve FEP, 173 with SCZ and 438 HC were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using the Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I (SCID-I). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) were used to measure symptoms severity...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100249/longer-telomere-length-in-elite-master-sprinters-relationship-to-performance-and-body-composition
#12
Herbert Gustavo Simoes, Caio Victor Sousa, Thiago Dos Santos Rosa, Samuel da Silva Aguiar, Lysleine Alves Deus, Erica Carine Campos Caldas Rosa, Angelica Amorim Amato, Rosangela Vieira Andrade
Emergent evidence suggests that the long-term healthy lifestyle of master athletes may attenuate aging. We compared telomere length (TL) of high-level master sprinters and non-athlete age-matched controls, and analyzed the relationships of TL with performance and body fat. Elite master sprinters (n=11; aged 50.1±9.2yrs) and healthy untrained controls (n=10; aged 45.4±10.9yrs) had blood samples collected for biochemical and biomolecular analyses. Master sprinters had longer TL, lower body fat and BMI, and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls (p<0...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097300/kinetic-evidence-for-interaction-of-tmpyp4-with-two-different-g-quadruplex-conformations-of-human-telomeric-dna
#13
Cristina Pérez-Arnaiz, Natalia Busto, Javier Santolaya, José M Leal, Giampaolo Barone, Begoña García
BACKGROUND: Stabilization of G-quadruplex helices by small ligands has attracted growing attention because they inhibit the activity of the enzyme telomerase, which is overexpressed in >80% cancer cells. TMPyP4, one of the most studied G-quadruplex ligands, is used as a model to show that the ligands can exhibit different binding features with different conformations of a human telomeric specific sequence. METHODS: UV-Vis, FRET melting Assay, Isothermal Titration Calorimetry, Time-resolved Fluorescence lifetime, T-Jump and Molecular Dynamics...
October 30, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096714/isolation-and-prolonged-expansion-of-oral-mesenchymal-stem-cells-under-clinical-grade-gmp-compliant-conditions-differentially-affects-stemness-properties
#14
Athina Bakopoulou, Danae Apatzidou, Eleni Aggelidou, Evangelia Gousopoulou, Gabriele Leyhausen, Joachim Volk, Aristeidis Kritis, Petros Koidis, Werner Geurtsen
BACKGROUND: Development of clinical-grade cell preparations is central to meeting the regulatory requirements for cellular therapies under good manufacturing practice-compliant (cGMP) conditions. Since addition of animal serum in culture media may compromise safe and efficient expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for clinical use, this study aimed to investigate the potential of two serum/xeno-free, cGMP culture systems to maintain long-term "stemness" of oral MSCs (dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and alveolar bone marrow MSCs (aBMMSCs)), compared to conventional serum-based expansion...
November 2, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081607/molecular-docking-based-screening-of-triterpenoids-as-potential-g-quadruplex-stabilizing-ligands-with-anti-cancer-activity
#15
Sittichai Sillapapongwarakorn, Somchai Yanarojana, Darawan Pinthong, Amnuay Thithapandha, Jiraporn Ungwitayatorn, Porntip Supavilai
Triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (GLTs) exhibit a broad spectrum of anti-cancer properties, including anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic activities. Current research studies revealed the role by GLTs in inducing apoptosis and suppression of telomerase activity of cancer cells with much lower toxicity to healthy cells. Compounds selectively binding and stabilizing G-quadruplex structures could inhibit the telomerase or downregulate the oncogenes and may act as anti-cancer agents...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067974/telomere-length-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-coronary-artery-disease
#16
REVIEW
Joyeeta Bhattacharyya, Keichiro Mihara, Deborshi Bhattacharjee, Manjarí Mukherjee
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease whose prevalence remains unabated especially in developing countries. Both lifestyle factors and genetic predisposition contribute to this disorder. Though notable achievements have been made in the medical, interventional and surgical management of CAD, the need for its prevention is more important. Among other modalities, this calls for defining evidence-based new biomarkers, which on their own or in combination with other known biomarkers may predict the risk of CAD to enable institution of appropriate preventive strategies...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043077/recent-advances-in-understanding-werner-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Raghavendra A Shamanna, Deborah L Croteau, Jong-Hyuk Lee, Vilhelm A Bohr
Aging, the universal phenomenon, affects human health and is the primary risk factor for major disease pathologies. Progeroid diseases, which mimic aging at an accelerated rate, have provided cues in understanding the hallmarks of aging. Mutations in DNA repair genes as well as in telomerase subunits are known to cause progeroid syndromes. Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by accelerated aging, is an autosomal-recessive genetic disorder. Hallmarks that define the aging process include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulation of nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and altered intercellular communication...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040510/genomic-fragmentation-and-extrachromosomal-telomeric-repeats-impact-assessment-of-telomere-length-in-human-spermatozoa-quantitative-experiments-and-systematic-review
#18
P Kurjanowicz, S Moskovtsev, C Librach
STUDY QUESTION: Can differences in DNA isolation alter assessment of sperm telomere length (spTL) and do they account for conflicting results in the literature on spTL and male fertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: DNA isolation methods preferentially include or exclude short, extrachromosomal (EC) telomere-specific sequences that alter spTL measurements, and are responsible for a proportion of the disparity observed between investigations. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The relationship between spTL and male fertility has become an active area of research...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986099/downregulation-of-pin1-in-human-atherosclerosis-and-its-association-with-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-senescence
#19
Lei Lv, Meng Ye, Rundan Duan, Kai Yuan, Jiaquan Chen, Wei Liang, Zhaoxiong Zhou, Lan Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers and implicated to regulate cell growth and apoptosis. Thus far, however, no role for Pin1 has been described in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were used to assess Pin1 protein level in human normal and atherosclerotic tissues. β-galactosidase staining, cumulative population doubling level, telomerase activity, and relative telomere length measurement were used to confirm VSMC senescence...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978030/genetic-profile-and-biological-implication-of-pin2-trf1-interacting-telomerase-inhibitor-1-pinx1-in-human-cancers-an-analysis-using-the-cancer-genome-atlas
#20
Wei-Juan Huang, Mei Li, Xiao-Han Jin, Xiao-Jia Huang, Wei Zhao, Xiao-Peng Tian
Pin2/TRF1-interacting telomere inhibitor 1 (PinX1) was originally identified as a telomerase inhibitor, involved in maintaining telomerase activity, telomere length, and chromosomal stability. However, research has shown that PinX1 can have opposing molecular status in its expression patterns in several other tumor types. We thus investigated the genetic profile and biological implication of PinX1 in several human cancers using the cBioportal database. Our results showed that PinX1 deletion accounted for the most alterations, with the frequency of its deletion regularly occurring in pathological types of carcinosarcoma and adenocarcinoma...
September 15, 2017: Oncotarget
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