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Telomere research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727617/genome-wide-control-of-heterochromatin-replication-by-the-telomere-capping-protein-trf2
#1
Aaron Mendez-Bermudez, Liudmyla Lototska, Serge Bauwens, Marie-Josèphe Giraud-Panis, Olivier Croce, Karine Jamet, Agurtzane Irizar, Macarena Mowinckel, Stephane Koundrioukoff, Nicolas Nottet, Genevieve Almouzni, Mare-Paule Teulade-Fichou, Michael Schertzer, Mylène Perderiset, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo, Michelle Debatisse, Eric Gilson, Jing Ye
Hard-to-replicate regions of chromosomes (e.g., pericentromeres, centromeres, and telomeres) impede replication fork progression, eventually leading, in the event of replication stress, to chromosome fragility, aging, and cancer. Our knowledge of the mechanisms controlling the stability of these regions is essentially limited to telomeres, where fragility is counteracted by the shelterin proteins. Here we show that the shelterin subunit TRF2 ensures progression of the replication fork through pericentromeric heterochromatin, but not centromeric chromatin...
May 3, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719834/genomic-instabilities-cellular-senescence-and-aging-in-vitro-in-vivo-and-aging-like-human-syndromes
#2
REVIEW
Gabriel Lidzbarsky, Danielle Gutman, Huda Adwan Shekhidem, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon
As average life span and elderly people prevalence in the western world population is gradually increasing, the incidence of age-related diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, and dementia is increasing, bearing social and economic consequences worldwide. Understanding the molecular basis of aging-related processes can help extend the organism's health span, i.e., the life period in which the organism is free of chronic diseases or decrease in basic body functions. During the last few decades, immense progress was made in the understanding of major components of aging and healthy aging biology, including genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic changes, proteostasis, nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion, and intracellular communications...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696773/complex-phenotype-of-dyskeratosis-congenita-and-mood-dysregulation-with-novel-homozygous-rtel1-and-tph1-variants
#3
Rachel A Ungar, Neelam Giri, Maryland Pao, Payal P Khincha, Weiyin Zhou, Blanche P Alter, Sharon A Savage
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome caused by germline mutations in telomere biology genes. Patients have extremely short telomeres for their age and a complex phenotype including oral leukoplakia, abnormal skin pigmentation, and dysplastic nails in addition to bone marrow failure, pulmonary fibrosis, stenosis of the esophagus, lacrimal ducts and urethra, developmental anomalies, and high risk of cancer. We evaluated a patient with features of DC, mood dysregulation, diabetes, and lack of pubertal development...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695838/leukocyte-telomere-length-and-diet-in-the-apparently-healthy-middle-aged-asklepios-population
#4
Tim De Meyer, Sofie Bekaert, Marc L De Buyzere, Dirk D De Bacquer, Michel R Langlois, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Thierry C Gillebert, Ernst R Rietzschel, Inge Huybrechts
Telomere length is a prognostic biomarker for aging diseases. As it is unknown whether diet plays a role in these associations, we aimed to assess the impact of diet on telomere length. Moreover, given that telomere length is modulated by oxidative stress and inflammation, an additional goal was to evaluate whether the latter may mediate possible telomere - diet associations. Southern blot measured leukocyte telomere length and food frequency questionnaire data were compared for 2509 apparently healthy men and women (~35 to 55 years) from the Asklepios population...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681056/a-cytological-approach-to-study-meiotic-recombination-and-chromosome-dynamics-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-meiocytes-in-three-dimensions
#5
Aurélie Hurel, Dylan Phillips, Nathalie Vrielynck, Christine Mézard, Mathilde Grelon, Nicolas Christophorou
During meiotic prophase I chromosomes undergo dramatic conformational changes that accompany chromosome condensation, pairing and recombination between homologs. These changes include the anchoring of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and their clustering to form a bouquet. In plants, these events have been studied and illustrated in intact meiocytes of large genome species. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent genetic model where major molecular pathways that control synapsis and recombination between homologs have been uncovered...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680649/an-initiator-codon-mutation-in-sde2-causes-recessive-embryonic-lethality-in-holstein-cattle
#6
Sébastien Fritz, Chris Hoze, Emmanuelle Rebours, Anne Barbat, Méline Bizard, Amanda Chamberlain, Clémentine Escouflaire, Christy Vander Jagt, Mekki Boussaha, Cécile Grohs, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Maëlle Philippe, Amélie Vallée, Yves Amigues, Benjamin J Hayes, Didier Boichard, Aurélien Capitan
Researching depletions in homozygous genotypes for specific haplotypes among the large cohorts of animals genotyped for genomic selection is a very efficient strategy to map recessive lethal mutations. In this study, by analyzing real or imputed Illumina BovineSNP50 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) genotypes from more than 250,000 Holstein animals, we identified a new locus called HH6 showing significant negative effects on conception rate and nonreturn rate at 56 d in at-risk versus control mating. We fine-mapped this locus in a 1...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672834/formation-of-g-wires-bimolecular-and-tetramolecular-quadruplex-cation-induced-structural-polymorphs-of-g-rich-dna-sequence-of-human-sytx-gene
#7
Saami Ahmed, Mahima Kaushik, Swati Chaudhary, Shrikant Kukreti
An exceptional property of auto-folding into a range of intra- as well as intermolecular quadruplexes by guanine-rich oligomers (GROs) of promoters, telomeres and various other genomic locations is still one of the most attractive areas of research at present times. The main reason for this attention is due to their established in vivo existence and biological relevance. Herein, the structural status of a 20-nt long G-rich sequence with two G5 stretches (SG20) is investigated using various biophysical and biochemical techniques...
April 19, 2018: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666837/cancer-telomeres-and-white-crows
#8
REVIEW
Alan K Meeker
This mini-review article discusses past and present prostate-focused research on telomere and telomerase biology conducted at Johns Hopkins, through the eyes of a Donald S Coffey trainee. Included are past discoveries of abnormalities in telomere biology in the context of prostate cancer and its pre-malignant precursor prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN); the finding that telomerase activity is androgen-regulated in the prostate, and the potential role of telomerase in prostate epithelial stem cells. Also reviewed are more recent results showing that in situ telomere length measurements in patient tissue specimens may have utility in risk assessment and as a prognostic biomarker...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614790/microrna-regulation-of-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-tert-micro-machines-pull-strings-of-papier-m%C3%A3-ch%C3%A3-puppets
#9
REVIEW
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Qaisar Mansoor, Nada Alaaeddine, Baojun Xu
Substantial fraction of high-quality information is continuously being added into the existing pool of knowledge related to the biology of telomeres. Based on the insights gleaned from decades of research, it is clear that chromosomal stability needs a highly controlled and dynamic balance of DNA gain and loss in each terminal tract of telomeric repeats. Telomeres are formed by tandem repeats of TTAGGG sequences, which are gradually lost with each round of division of the cells. Targeted inhibition of telomerase to effectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells has attracted tremendous attention and overwhelmingly increasingly list of telomerase inhibitors truthfully advocates pharmacological significance of telomerase...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608728/insights-into-an-extensively-fragmented-eukaryotic-genome-de-novo-genome-sequencing-of-the-multinuclear-ciliate-uroleptopsis-citrina
#10
Weibo Zheng, Chundi Wang, Ying Yan, Feng Gao, Thomas G Doak, Weibo Song
Ciliated protists are a large group of single-celled eukaryotes with separate germline and somatic nuclei in each cell. The somatic genome is developed from the zygotic nucleus through a series of chromosomal rearrangements, including fragmentation, DNA elimination, de novo telomere addition, and DNA amplification. This unique feature makes them perfect models for research in genome biology and evolution. However, genomic research of ciliates has been limited to a few species, owing to problems with DNA contamination and obstacles in cultivation...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606212/review-plant-g-quadruplex-g4-motifs-in-dna-and-rna-abundant-intriguing-sequences-of-unknown-function
#11
REVIEW
Brianna D Griffin, Hank W Bass
DNA sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex (G4) structures can be predicted and mapped in plant genomes using computerized pattern search programs. Non-telomeric G4 motifs have recently been found to number in the thousands across many plant species and enriched around gene promoters, prompting speculation that they may represent a newly uncovered and ubiquitous family of cis-acting elements. Comparative analysis shows that monocots exhibit five to ten times higher G4 motif density than eudicots, but the significance of this difference has not been determined...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600857/from-cellular-rna-to-smart-rna-multiple-roles-of-rna-in-genome-stability-and-beyond
#12
Flavia Michelini, Ameya P Jalihal, Sofia Francia, Chance Meers, Zachary T Neeb, Francesca Rossiello, Ubaldo Gioia, Julio Aguado, Corey Jones-Weinert, Brian Luke, Giuseppe Biamonti, Mariusz Nowacki, Francesca Storici, Piero Carninci, Nils G Walter, Fabrizio d'Adda di Fagagna
Coding for proteins has been considered the main function of RNA since the "central dogma" of biology was proposed. The discovery of noncoding transcripts shed light on additional roles of RNA, ranging from the support of polypeptide synthesis, to the assembly of subnuclear structures, to gene expression modulation. Cellular RNA has therefore been recognized as a central player in often unanticipated biological processes, including genomic stability. This ever-expanding list of functions inspired us to think of RNA as a "smart" phone, which has replaced the older obsolete "cellular" phone...
March 30, 2018: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577468/maternal-fetal-cross-talk-through-cell-free-fetal-dna-telomere-shortening-microchimerism-and-inflammation
#13
Shi-Bin Cheng, Sarah Davis, Surendra Sharma
There exists a strong correlation between unscheduled inflammation at the maternal-fetal interface and the continuum of pregnancy complications. In normal pregnancy, immunological tolerance is established to protect the semi-allogeneic fetus. There has been extensive research on how the immunity, endovascular trophoblast migration, and hormonal nexus are orchestrated during pregnancy at the maternal-fetal interface to program a normal pregnancy outcome. It is not clear what contributes to the plasticity of uterine immune tolerance, fetal survial, and long-term post-partum health of the mother and the offspring...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565457/improving-diagnosis-prognosis-and-prediction-by-using-biomarkers-in-crc-patients-review
#14
Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Persefoni Fragkiadaki, Theodoros Mariolis Sapsakos, George Papadakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis, John Tsiaoussis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers. In fact, it is placed in the third place among the most diagnosed cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and in the second one for the most diagnosed cancer in women, following breast cancer. Moreover, its high mortality rates classifies it among the leading causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. Thus, in order to help clinicians to optimize their practice, it is crucial to introduce more effective tools that will improve not only early diagnosis, but also prediction of the most likely progression of the disease and response to chemotherapy...
March 21, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554280/g-quadruplexes-and-g-quadruplex-ligands-targets-and-tools-in-antiviral-therapy
#15
Emanuela Ruggiero, Sara N Richter
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical nucleic acids secondary structures that form within guanine-rich strands of regulatory genomic regions. G4s have been extensively described in the human genome, especially in telomeres and oncogene promoters; in recent years the presence of G4s in viruses has attracted increasing interest. Indeed, G4s have been reported in several viruses, including those involved in recent epidemics, such as the Zika and Ebola viruses. Viral G4s are usually located in regulatory regions of the genome and implicated in the control of key viral processes; in some cases, they have been involved also in viral latency...
March 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547021/telomere-uncapping-and-vascular-aging
#16
Richard Garrett Morgan, Anthony J Donato, Ashley E Walker
While most telomere biology research continues to focus on telomere shortening, there is increasing evidence that telomere deprotection, or "uncapping", is more biologically and possibly clinically important. Telomeres form t-loops to prevent the chromosome ends from appearing as a double-stranded DNA break and initiating a DNA damage response. Breakdown of the t-loop structure, referred to as uncapping, can lead to cellular senescence and increased oxidative stress and inflammation in tissues. In this review, we will describe how telomere uncapping potentially leads to age-related vascular dysfunction, and increased cellular senescence, oxidative stress, and inflammation...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534446/chemotherapeutic-induced-cardiovascular-dysfunction-physiological-effects-early-detection-the-role-of-telomerase-to-counteract-mitochondrial-defects-and-oxidative-stress
#17
REVIEW
Nabeel Quryshi, Laura E Norwood Toro, Karima Ait-Aissa, Amanda Kong, Andreas M Beyer
Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mt DNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525892/when-the-ends-are-really-the-beginnings-targeting-telomerase-for-treatment-of-gbm
#18
REVIEW
Saumya R Bollam, Michael E Berens, Harshil D Dhruv
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-throughput genomic sequencing has identified alterations in the gene encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) as points of interest for elucidating the oncogenic mechanism of multiple different cancer types, including gliomas. In gliomas, the TERT promoter mutation (TPM) and resultant overexpression of TERT are observed mainly in the most aggressive (primary glioblastoma/grade IV astrocytoma) and the least aggressive (grade II oligodendroglioma) cases...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504461/state-of-the-science-using-telomeres-as-biomarkers-during-the-first-1-000-days-of-life
#19
Sarah Oerther, Rebecca Lorenz
Telomere biology shows promise as an integrative biomarker of exposures and increased occurrence of chronic disease and early mortality. This integrative review examined the state of the science regarding toxicokinetic risks and maternal factors in humans and in vivo models that are correlated with telomere length during the first 1,000 days of life. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework assisted in guiding this integrative by aiding researchers in identifying, selecting, and critically appraising the literature...
March 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486769/association-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-with-premature-telomere-attrition
#20
Mangalathu S Rajeevan, Janna Murray, Lisa Oakley, Jin-Mann S Lin, Elizabeth R Unger
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a severely debilitating condition of unknown etiology. The symptoms and risk factors of ME/CFS share features of accelerated aging implicated in several diseases. Using telomere length as a marker, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that ME/CFS is associated with accelerated aging. METHODS: Participant (n = 639) data came from the follow-up time point of the Georgia CFS surveillance study...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
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