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Telomere research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324509/human-telomeric-g-quadruplex-structures-and-g-quadruplex-interactive-compounds
#1
Clement Lin, Danzhou Yang
G-quadruplexes are noncanonical secondary structures formed in DNA sequences containing consecutive runs of guanines. It has been shown that the 3' G-rich single-stranded overhangs of human telomeres can form G-quadruplex structures, and the human telomeric DNA G-quadruplexes are considered attractive targets for anticancer drugs. G-quadruplex-interactive compounds have been shown to inhibit telomerase access as well as telomere capping. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful method in determining the G-quadruplex structures under physiologically relevant conditions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324502/telomeres-and-nextgen-co-fish-directional-genomic-hybridization-telo-dgh%C3%A2
#2
Miles J McKenna, Erin Robinson, Edwin H Goodwin, Michael N Cornforth, Susan M Bailey
The cytogenomics-based methodology of Directional Genomic Hybridization (dGH™) emerged from the concept of strand-specific hybridization, first made possible by Chromosome Orientation FISH (CO-FISH), the utility of which was demonstrated in a variety of early applications, often involving telomeres. Similar to standard whole chromosome painting (FISH), dGH™ is capable of identifying inter-chromosomal rearrangements (translocations between chromosomes), but its distinctive strength stems from its ability to detect intra-chromosomal rearrangements (inversions within chromosomes), and to do so at higher resolution than previously possible...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324500/analysis-of-yeast-telomerase-by-primer-extension-assays
#3
Min Hsu, Neal F Lue
Telomeres are specialized nucleoprotein structures located at eukaryotic chromosomal termini, which are required for chromosome stability and are maintained by a reverse transcriptase named telomerase. Budding yeast has served as an extremely useful model system for analyzing telomere maintenance because the organism offers a wide range of genetic and biochemical tools. Several milestones in telomerase research have been reached through investigation of the yeast system. For example, the consequence of telomerase loss was first characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324495/telomere-length-analysis-by-quantitative-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-q-fish
#4
Isabelle Ourliac-Garnier, Arturo Londoño-Vallejo
Length is a functional parameter of telomeres, the nucleoprotein structures that protect chromosome ends. The availability of highly specific, high affinity probes for telomeric repeat sequences allowed the development of quantitative approaches aimed at measuring telomere length directly on chromosomes or in interphase nuclei. Here, we describe a general method for telomere quantitative FISH on metaphase chromosomes and discuss its most common applications in research.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324494/analysis-of-average-telomere-length-in-human-telomeric-protein-knockout-cells-generated-by-crispr-cas9
#5
Jun Xu, Zhou Songyang, Dan Liu, Hyeung Kim
Telomeres play an important role in ensuring the integrity of the genome. Telomere shortening can lead to loss of genetic information and trigger DNA damage responses. Cultured mammalian cells have served as critical model systems for studying the function of telomere binding proteins and telomerase. Tremendous heterogeneity can be observed both between species and within a single cell population. Recent advances in genome editing (such as the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 platform) have further enabled researchers to carry out loss-of-function analysis of how disrupting key players in telomere maintenance affects telomere length regulation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324493/introduction-to-telomeres-and-telomerase
#6
Zhou Songyang
Telomeres are ends of chromosomes that play an important part in the biology of eukaryotic cells. Continued optimization and development of technologies have enabled researchers to probe the mechanisms of telomere maintenance in ever expanding areas. A combination of molecular, genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches has revealed the complex and coordinated action of telomerase and telomere-associated proteins. The length and integrity of telomeres are maintained to prevent telomere dysfunction, which has been linked to senescence, aging, disease, and cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297596/relationship-between-current-depressive-symptoms-and-telomere-length-in-a-large-multiethnic-sample
#7
Nicholas D Wignall, Martin Deschner, Harry M Evans, E Sherwood Brown
OBJECTIVE: Previous research has suggested that depressive symptoms may be associated with telomere length; however, findings have been mixed, and few studies have sought to generalize the results beyond samples of white individuals. The present study, conducted from August 2013 through August 2015, sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and leukocyte telomere length in a large (N = 2,710), multiethnic sample (African American, white, Hispanic) and to determine if this relationship differed across ethnic/racial groups...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281540/t-ell-tale-signs-of-aging
#8
Reshma Taneja, Brian K Kennedy
Transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALEs) have emerged as powerful tools for genome editing. A recent study published by Cell Research reports that fusion of thioredoxin to TALEs unlocks their full potential in live-cell imaging to accurately analyze genome instability, telomere attrition and epigenetic alterations that are hallmarks of aging.
March 10, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253088/association-between-telomere-length-chronic-kidney-disease-and-renal-traits-a-systematic-review
#9
Oluwatoyin I Ameh, Ikechi G Okpechi, Collet Dandara, André-Pascal Kengne
Telomere length (TL) is an important biological variable that can influence a variety of disease-related complex traits as well as host-environment interactions such as drug and nutritional responses. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common global health challenge especially with the currently aging world population. We conducted a PubMed database search according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews. Studies in adults (18 years and above) in which TL was determined and correlated with CKD, renal traits, and function were included, while animal model studies were excluded...
March 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249683/electrocardiogram-qrs-duration-and-associations-with-telomere-length-a-cross-sectional-analysis-in-australian-rural-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-population
#10
Yuling Zhou, Herbert Jelinek, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
Prolonged electrocardiogram QRS durations are often present in aging populations. Shorter telomere length is considered a biomarker of cellular aging. Decreased telomere length has been associated with coronary artery risk, and ventricular remodeling. However, the association between telomeres and cardiac conduction abnormalities, such as increased QRS duration are not well understood. A retrospective cross-sectional population was obtained from the CSU Diabetes Screening Research Initiative database where 273 participants had both ECG-derived QRS duration and DNA to permit leukocyte telomere length (LTL) determination...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235830/telomere-length-is-predictive-of-breast-cancer-risk-in-brca2-mutation-carriers
#11
Birna Thorvaldsdottir, Margret Aradottir, Olafur A Stefansson, Sigridur K Bodvarsdottir, Jorunn E Eyfjörd
BACKGROUND: Germline BRCA2 mutations increase risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. BRCA2 has been shown to play a role in telomere protection and maintenance. Telomere length (TL) has been studied as a modifying factor for various diseases, including breast cancer. Previous research on TL in BRCA mutation carriers has produced contradicting results. METHODS: We measured blood TL, using a high-throughput monochrome multiplex qPCR method, in a well-defined Icelandic cohort of female BRCA2 mutation carriers (n=169), sporadic breast cancer patients (n=561) and healthy controls (n=537)...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226264/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-hispanic-schizophrenia-patients-under-treatment-with-olanzapine
#12
Nancy Monroy-Jaramillo, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Luis Carlos Aviña-Cervantes, David L Roberts, Dawn I Velligan, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Different lines of evidence indicate that patients with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit accelerated aging. Leukocyte telomere length (TL), an aging marker, is associated with age-related and chronic pathologies, including schizophrenia. We analyzed leukocyte TL in 170 SZ patients of Hispanic ancestry grouped based on antipsychotic treatment, compared to 126 matched controls. The group under treatment with atypical antipsychotics was further subdivided according to the risk of medication to cause metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212542/two-stage-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-novel-susceptibility-locus-associated-with-melanoma
#13
Katherine J Ransohoff, Wenting Wu, Hyunje G Cho, Harvind C Chahal, Yuan Lin, Hong-Ji Dai, Christopher I Amos, Jeffrey E Lee, Jean Y Tang, David A Hinds, Jiali Han, Qingyi Wei, Kavita Y Sarin
Genome-wide association studies have identified 21 susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. These loci implicate genes affecting pigmentation, nevus count, telomere maintenance, and DNA repair in melanoma risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of melanoma. The stage 1 discovery phase consisted of 4,842 self-reported melanoma cases and 286,565 controls of European ancestry from the 23andMe research cohort and the stage 2 replication phase consisted of 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls from the University of Texas M...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191385/selection-of-efficient-taq-dna-polymerase-to-optimize-t-dna-genotyping-method-for-rapid-detection-of-mutant-arabidopsis-thaliana-plants
#14
Inna B Chastukhina, Liliia R Nigmatullina, Lia R Valeeva, Eugene V Shakirov
Plants harbor homologues of various animal genes involved in phosphorus metabolism, telomere biology and other cellular processes. Compared to experiments with many other multicellular organisms, research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana takes advantage of short generation time and an ever increasing arsenal of genetic and transgenic tools, including large collections of T-DNA knockout and activation lines. The availability of thousands of publicly available transgenic Arabidopsis lines provides a unique opportunity to address a number of important biological questions...
December 2016: BioNanoScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173752/an-approach-of-identifying-differential-nucleosome-regions-in-multiple-samples
#15
Lingjie Liu, Jianming Xie, Xiao Sun, Kun Luo, Zhaohui Steve Qin, Hongde Liu
BACKGROUND: Nucleosome plays a role in transcriptional regulation through occluding the binding of proteins to DNA sites. Nucleosome occupancy varies among different cell types. Identification of such variation will help to understand regulation mechanism. The previous researches focused on the methods for two-sample comparison. However, a multiple-sample comparison (n ≥ 3) is necessary, especially in studying development and cancer. METHODS: Here, we proposed a Chi-squared test-based approach, named as Dimnp, to identify differential nucleosome regions (DNRs) in multiple samples...
February 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154163/less-than-ideal-cardiovascular-health-is-associated-with-shorter-leukocyte-telomere-length-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-1999-2002
#16
Samson Y Gebreab, Zerai G Manna, Rumana J Khan, Pia Riestra, Ruihua Xu, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: The associations between individual cardiovascular disease risk factors and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) have been inconclusive. We investigated the association between LTL and overall cardiovascular health (CVH) as defined by the American Heart Association and whether the association is modified by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 5194 adults (aged ≥20) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152565/sphere-induced-rejuvenation-of-swine-and-human-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-is-primarily-caused-by-telomere-elongation
#17
Ni Xu, Yao Chen, Kevin C Dean, Xiaoqin Lu, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Douglas C Dean, Henry J Kaplan, Ling Gao, Fangtian Dong, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells in the retina with important functions in histogenesis and synaptogenesis during development, and in maintenance of mature neurons as they show to secrete various cytokines and manifest potentials of self-renewal and transdifferentiation into retinal neurons following injury in the vertebrate retinas. The swine retina has a visual streak structure similar to the human macular where cone photoreceptors are highly concentrated, thereby can serve as a better model for studying retinal diseases and for formulating cell-based therapeutics than the rodent retinas...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147207/discrimination-and-telomere-length-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#18
Sze Yan Liu, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVES: Chronic stress from experiencing discrimination can lead to long-term changes in psychological and physiologic responses, including shorter leukocyte telomere length. We examined the association between leukocyte telomere length and variations in the association by race or type of discrimination. METHODS: Our study consisted of 3868 US-born non-Hispanic black (hereinafter, black) and non-Hispanic white (hereinafter, white) adult participants from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study biomarker sample with complete sociodemographic and discrimination information...
March 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139645/visualization-of-aging-associated-chromatin-alterations-with-an-engineered-tale-system
#19
Ruotong Ren, Liping Deng, Yanhong Xue, Keiichiro Suzuki, Weiqi Zhang, Yang Yu, Jun Wu, Liang Sun, Xiaojun Gong, Huiqin Luan, Fan Yang, Zhenyu Ju, Xiaoqing Ren, Si Wang, Hong Tang, Lingling Geng, Weizhou Zhang, Jian Li, Jie Qiao, Tao Xu, Jing Qu, Guang-Hui Liu
Visualization of specific genomic loci in live cells is a prerequisite for the investigation of dynamic changes in chromatin architecture during diverse biological processes, such as cellular aging. However, current precision genomic imaging methods are hampered by the lack of fluorescent probes with high specificity and signal-to-noise contrast. We find that conventional transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) tend to form protein aggregates, thereby compromising their performance in imaging applications...
January 31, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133587/non-radioactive-trf-assay-modifications-to-improve-telomeric-dna-detection-efficiency-in-plants
#20
Liliia R Nigmatullina, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
The length of telomeric DNA is often considered a cellular biomarker of aging and general health status. Several telomere length measuring assays have been developed, of which the most common is the Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis, which typically involves the use of radioactively labeled oligonucleotide probes. While highly effective, this method potentially poses substantial health concerns and generates radioactive waste. Digoxigenin (DIG) alternatives to radioactive probes have been developed and used successfully in a number of assays...
December 2016: BioNanoScience
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