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Telomere research

Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
Q F Yang, L Liu, Y Liu, Z G Zhou
Telomeres generally consist of short repeats of minisatellite DNA sequences and are useful in chromosome identification and karyotype analysis. To date, telomeres have not been characterized in the economic brown seaweed Saccharina japonica, thus its full cytogenetic research and genetic breeding potential has not been realized. Herein, the tentative sequence of telomeres in S. japonica was identified by PCR amplification with primers designed based on the Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence (TTTAGGG)n , which was chosen out of 3 possible telomeric repeat DNA sequences typically present in plants and algae...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Anderson Sanches de Melo, Rosana Maria Dos Reis, Rodrigo do Tocantins Calado de Saloma Rodrigues, Ricardo de Carvalho Cavalli, Heloisa Bettiol, Viviane Cunha Cardoso, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Marco Antonio Barbieri, Carolina Sales Vieira
Physiologically, a reduction in telomere length (LTL) occurs with aging, but epigenetic changes may accelerate telomere shortening and also facilitate the onset of oxidative/inflammatory stress and the development of clinical/metabolic comorbidities in life spam. Although individuals born small for gestational age (SGA) may be related to those epigenetic changes, the assessment of LTL in individuals born SGA has yielded conflicting results (only cross-sectional studies) and has not been carried out in longitudinal studies...
November 18, 2016: Gene
Soheir Adam, Dario Melguizo Sanchis, Ghada El-Kamah, Sujith Samarasinghe, Sameer Alharthi, Lyle Armstrong, Majlinda Lako
Bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) are a group of disorders with complex pathophysiology characterized by a common phenotype of peripheral cytopenia and/or a hypoplastic bone marrow. Understanding genetic factors contributing to the pathophysiology of BMFS has enabled the identification of causative genes and development of diagnostic tests. To date more than 40 mutations in genes involved in maintenance of genomic stability, DNA repair, ribosome and telomere biology have been identified. In addition, pathophysiological studies have provided insights into several biological pathways leading to the characterization of genotype/phenotype correlations as well as the development of diagnostic approaches and management strategies...
November 21, 2016: Stem Cells
Feridoun Karimi-Busheri, Aghdass Rasouli-Nia, Michael Weinfeld
Cryopreservation and biobanking of stem cells are becoming increasingly important as stem cell technology and application attract the interest of industry, academic research, healthcare and patient organisations. Stem cell are already being used in the treatment of some diseases and it is anticipated that stem cell therapy will play a central role in future medicine. Similarly, the discovery of both hematopoietic and solid tumor stem cells and their clinical relevance have profoundly altered paradigms for cancer research as the cancer stem cells are considered promising new targets against cancer...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiaofei Xu, Xinxia Chen, Xiruo Zhang, Yixun Liu, Zhao Wang, Peng Wang, Yanzhi Du, Yingying Qin, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: Are telomere length and telomerase activity associated with biochemical primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Shortened telomere length and diminished telomerase activity were associated with biochemical POI. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: POI is a result of pathological reproductive aging and encompasses occult, biochemical and overt stages. Studies have indicated telomere length as a biomarker for biological aging...
November 11, 2016: Human Reproduction
Xu Gao, Ute Mons, Yan Zhang, Lutz Philipp Breitling, Hermann Brenner
Telomere length (TL) is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. As a preventable environmental hazard of morbidity and mortality, smoking has been reported to promote TL attrition by producing a variety of oxidants and free radicals. Since DNA methylation has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathways of smoking and smoking-induced diseases, this study aimed to address whether the smoking-associated DNA methylation changes could be associated with accelerated TL shortening...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Epidemiology
Magdalena Malgowska, Karolina Czajczynska, Dorota Gudanis, Aleksander Tworak, Zofia Gdaniec
G-quadruplexes are non-canonical secondary structures which may be formed by guanine rich sequences, both in vitro and in living cells. The number of biological functions assigned to these structural motifs has grown rapidly since the discovery of their involvement in the telomere maintenance. Knowledge of the G-quadruplexes' three-dimensional structures plays an important role in understanding of their conformational diversity, physiological functions, and in the design of novel drugs targeting the G-quadruplexes...
November 2, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Zaheer Ahmed, Zahid Hussain Shah, Hafiz Mamoon Rehman, Khurram Shahzad, Ihsanullah Daur, Abdalla Elfeel, Mahmood Ul Hassan, Ali Khalid Elsafori, Seung Hwan Yang, Gyuhwa Chung
For human food security, the preservation of 7.4 million ex-situ germplasm is a global priority. However, ex-situ-conserved seeds are subject to aging, which reduces their viability and ultimately results in the loss of valuable genetic material over long periods. Recent progress in seed biology and genomics has revealed new opportunities to improve the long-term storage of ex-situ seed germplasm. This review summarizes the recent improvements in seed physiology and genomics, with the intention of developing genomic tools for evaluating seed aging...
November 1, 2016: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Catherine H Freudenreich, Xiaofeng A Su
Early screens in yeast for mutations exhibiting sensitivity to DNA damage identified nuclear pore components, but their role in DNA repair was not well understood. Over the last decade, studies have revealed that several types of persistent DNA lesions relocate to either the nuclear pore complex (NPC) or nuclear envelope. Of these two sites, the nuclear pore appears to be crucial for DNA repair of persistent double-strand breaks (DSBs), eroded telomeres, and sites of fork collapse at expanded CAG repeats. Using a combination of cell biological imaging techniques and yeast genetic assays for DNA repair, researchers have begun to understand both the how and why of lesion relocation to the NPC...
October 30, 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Josine E Verhoeven, Jue Lin, Dóra Révész, Owen M Wolkowitz, Brenda W J H Penninx
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
Ahu Karademir Andersson, Marita Cohn
Naumovozyma castellii (Saccharomyces castellii) is a member of the budding yeast family Saccharomycetaceae. It has been extensively used as a model organism for telomere biology research and has gained increasing interest as a budding yeast model for functional analyses owing to its amenability to genetic modifications. Owing to the suitable phylogenetic distance to S. cerevisiae, the whole genome sequence of N. castellii has provided unique data for comparative genomic studies, and it played a key role in the establishment of the timing of the whole genome duplication and the evolutionary events that took place in the subsequent genomic evolution of the Saccharomyces lineage...
October 28, 2016: Yeast
Louisia Starnino, Lambert Busque, Jean-Claude Tardif, Bianca D'Antono
BACKGROUND: Shorter telomere length (TL) may signal premature cellular aging and increased risk for disease. While depression and psychosocial stress have been associated with shorter telomeres, other psychological risk factors for cardiovascular disease have received less attention. PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between TL and psychological risk factors (symptoms of anxiety and depression, hostility and defensiveness traits) for heart disease, and to examine whether chronological age and sex moderate the associations observed...
2016: PloS One
J J Cai, X L Guo
Telomeres are DNA tandem repeats at the ends of chromosomes in eukaryotic cells and play important roles in maintaining the stability and integrity of chromosomes. Telomeres are gradually shortened with cell proliferation, and when they are shortened to a certain length, the cells experience senescence and apoptosis. However, a small number of cells can maintain the length of telomeres and restore their function through related mechanisms (activation of telomerase or other mechanisms), and some cells may even be immortalized...
July 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Paola Caria, Silvia Cantara, Daniela Virginia Frau, Furio Pacini, Roberta Vanni, Tinuccia Dettori
Extensive research is dedicated to understanding if sporadic and familial papillary thyroid carcinoma are distinct biological entities. We have previously demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC) cells exhibit short relative telomere length (RTL) in both blood and tissues and that these features may be associated with chromosome instability. Here, we investigated the frequency of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) amplification, and other recently reported genetic alterations in sporadic PTC (sPTC) and fPTC, and assessed correlations with RTL and BRAF mutational status...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Luise A Seeker, Rebecca Holland, Sarah Underwood, Jennifer Fairlie, Androniki Psifidi, Joanna J Ilska, Ainsley Bagnall, Bruce Whitelaw, Mike Coffey, Georgios Banos, Daniel H Nussey
Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples...
2016: PloS One
Marla C McPherson, Hans H Cheng, Mary E Delany
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known...
October 5, 2016: Vaccine
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies rRNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
R C R Noronha, L M R Barros, R E F Araújo, D F Marques, C Y Nagamachi, C Martins, J C Pieczarka
BACKGROUND: Cytogenetic studies were conducted in the Brazilian Amazon turtles, Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1912 (PEX) and Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 (PUN) to understand their karyoevolution. Their chromosomal complements were compared using banding techniques (C, G-, Ag-NOR and Chromomycin A3) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and efforts were made to establish evolutionary chromosomal relationships within the Podocnemidae family. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both species have a chromosome complement of 2n = 28...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
Hannah Watson, Mark Bolton, Britt J Heidinger, Winnie Boner, Pat Monaghan
Repeated exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids during development can have long-term detrimental effects on survival and fitness, potentially associated with increased telomere attrition. Nestling birds are regularly handled for ecological research, yet few authors have considered the potential for handling-induced stress to influence hormonally mediated phenotypic development or bias interpretations of subsequent focal measurements. We experimentally manipulated the handling experience of the semi-precocial nestlings of European Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus to simulate handling in a typical field study and examined cumulative effects on physiology and condition in late postnatal development...
October 2016: Ibis
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