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Telomere research

Richard Garrett Morgan, Anthony J Donato, Ashley E Walker
While most telomere biology research continues to focus on telomere shortening, there is increasing evidence that telomere deprotection, or "uncapping", is more biologically and possibly clinically important. Telomeres form t-loops to prevent the chromosome ends from appearing as a double-stranded DNA break and initiating a DNA damage response. Breakdown of the t-loop structure, referred to as uncapping, can lead to cellular senescence and increased oxidative stress and inflammation in tissues. In this review, we will describe how telomere uncapping potentially leads to age-related vascular dysfunction, and increased cellular senescence, oxidative stress, and inflammation...
March 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Nabeel Quryshi, Laura E Norwood Toro, Karima Ait-Aissa, Amanda Kong, Andreas M Beyer
Although chemotherapeutics can be highly effective at targeting malignancies, their ability to trigger cardiovascular morbidity is clinically significant. Chemotherapy can adversely affect cardiovascular physiology, resulting in the development of cardiomyopathy, heart failure and microvascular defects. Specifically, anthracyclines are known to cause an excessive buildup of free radical species and mitochondrial DNA damage (mt DNA) that can lead to oxidative stress-induced cardiovascular apoptosis. Therefore, oncologists and cardiologists maintain a network of communication when dealing with patients during treatment in order to treat and prevent chemotherapy-induced cardiovascular damage; however, there is a need to discover more accurate biomarkers and therapeutics to combat and predict the onset of cardiovascular side effects...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saumya R Bollam, Michael E Berens, Harshil D Dhruv
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-throughput genomic sequencing has identified alterations in the gene encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) as points of interest for elucidating the oncogenic mechanism of multiple different cancer types, including gliomas. In gliomas, the TERT promoter mutation (TPM) and resultant overexpression of TERT are observed mainly in the most aggressive (primary glioblastoma/grade IV astrocytoma) and the least aggressive (grade II oligodendroglioma) cases...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Sarah Oerther, Rebecca Lorenz
Telomere biology shows promise as an integrative biomarker of exposures and increased occurrence of chronic disease and early mortality. This integrative review examined the state of the science regarding toxicokinetic risks and maternal factors in humans and in vivo models that are correlated with telomere length during the first 1,000 days of life. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses framework assisted in guiding this integrative by aiding researchers in identifying, selecting, and critically appraising the literature...
March 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Mangalathu S Rajeevan, Janna Murray, Lisa Oakley, Jin-Mann S Lin, Elizabeth R Unger
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a severely debilitating condition of unknown etiology. The symptoms and risk factors of ME/CFS share features of accelerated aging implicated in several diseases. Using telomere length as a marker, this study was performed to test the hypothesis that ME/CFS is associated with accelerated aging. METHODS: Participant (n = 639) data came from the follow-up time point of the Georgia CFS surveillance study...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Tania-Marisa Freitas-Simoes, Montserrat Cofán, Maria A Blasco, Nora Soberón, Miguel Foronda, Dolores Corella, Eva M Asensio, Mercè Serra-Mir, Irene Roth, Carlos Calvo, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Ricardo P Casaroli-Marano, Mónica Doménech, Sujatha Rajaram, Joan Sabaté, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Shortening of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of aging. Epidemiologic studies of LTL in relation to dietary fatty acids have reported conflicting results. The red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid status is a valid objective biomarker of long-term dietary intake of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (C20:5n-3 and C22:6n-3). In healthy older individuals, we investigated whether LTL relates to the RBC proportions of the main dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and to the RBC proportion of arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), a fatty acid that can generate pro-inflammatory lipid mediators once released from cell membranes...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jean-Marc Zingg
The hydrophobicity of vitamin E poses transport and metabolic challenges to regulate its bioavailability and to prevent its accumulation in lipid-rich tissues such as adipose tissue, brain, and liver. Water-soluble precursors of vitamin E (α-tocopherol, αT), such as its esters with acetate (αTA), succinate (αTS), or phosphate (αTP), have increased solubility in water and stability against reaction with free radicals, but they are rapidly converted during their uptake into the lipid-soluble vitamin E. Therefore, the bioavailability of these precursors as intact molecules is low; nevertheless, at least for αTS and αTP, the recent research has revealed unique regulatory effects on signal transduction and gene expression and the modulation of cellular events ranging from proliferation, survival/apoptosis, lipid uptake and metabolism, phagocytosis, long term potentiation, cell migration, telomere maintenance, and angiogenesis...
2018: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
Sathishkumar Baskaran, Markus Mayrhofer, Hanna Göransson Kultima, Tobias Bergström, Lioudmila Elfineh, Lucia Cavelier, Anders Isaksson, Sven Nelander
Background: Primary glioblastoma cell (GC) cultures have emerged as a key model in brain tumor research, with the potential to uncover patient-specific differences in therapy response. However, there is limited quantitative information about the stability of such cells during the initial 20-30 passages of culture. Methods: We interrogated three patient derived GC cultures at dense time intervals during the first 30 passages of culture. Combining state-of-the-art signal processing methods with a mathematical model of growth, we estimated clonal composition, rates of change, affected pathways and correlations between altered gene dosage and transcription...
February 15, 2018: Neuro-oncology
A Z Pollack, K Rivers, K A Ahrens
STUDY QUESTION: Is telomere length related to parity among a nationally representative sample of US reproductive age women? SUMMARY ANSWER: History of live birth was associated with shorter telomere length. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Shorter telomeres have been linked with a range of chronic health conditions and mortality and parity has been associated with health indicators. However, there is a lack of research on how parity relates to telomere length...
February 14, 2018: Human Reproduction
Aurelia C Kucera, Britt J Heidinger
Collection of semen may be useful for a wide range of applications including studies involving sperm quality, sperm telomere dynamics, and epigenetics. Birds are widely used subjects in biological research and are ideal for studies involving repeated sperm samples. However, few resources are currently available for those wishing to learn how to collect and extract DNA from avian sperm. Here we describe cloacal massage, a gentle, non-invasive manual technique for collecting avian sperm. Although this technique is established in the literature, it can be difficult to learn from the available descriptions...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ai-Jiao Guan, Xiu-Feng Zhang, Xin Sun, Qian Li, Jun-Feng Xiang, Li-Xia Wang, Ling Lan, Feng-Min Yang, Shu-Juan Xu, Xiao-Meng Guo, Ya-Lin Tang
G-quadruplex has attracted considerable attention due to their prevalent distribution in functional genomic regions and transcripts, which can importantly influence biological processes such as regulation of telomere maintenance, gene transcription and gene translation. Artificial receptor study has been developed for accurate identification of G-quadruplex from DNA species, since it is important for the G-quadruplex related basic research, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. Herein, fluorescent dye ThT-E, a derivative of the known fluorescence probe Thioflavin T (ThT), was designed and synthesized to effectively differentiate various G-quadruplex structures from other nucleic acid forms...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shun-Chiao Chang, Marta Crous-Bou, Jennifer Prescott, Bernard Rosner, Naomi M Simon, Wei Wang, Immaculata De Vivo, Olivia I Okereke
BACKGROUND: Research links psychological stress to accelerated cellular aging. Here we examined whether long-term patterns of depression and caregiving burden, forms of chronic psychological stress, were associated with shorter telomere length, a biomarker of cellular aging. METHODS: The study included 1250 healthy older women (mean: 68.0; range: 60-81 years) in the Nurses' Health Study. Long-term patterns in depressive symptoms and caregiving activity (separated into care of children/grandchildren vs...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Livio Provenzi, Roberto Giorda, Monica Fumagalli, Uberto Pozzoli, Francesco Morandi, Giunia Scotto di Minico, Fabio Mosca, Renato Borgatti, Rosario Montirosso
Very preterm (VPT) infants (gestational age < 32 weeks) require long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), even in absence of severe morbidities. During NICU stay, life-saving interventions occur and include invasive and painful skin-breaking procedures (NICU-related stress), which constitute a major early adverse experience for VPT infants. Telomeres are repeat-sequence at the end of chromosomes, which shorten with age and are highly susceptible to life adversities: the exposure to early adverse experiences is associated with shorter telomere length (TL)...
January 20, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Kimberly T Sibille, Huaihou Chen, Emily J Bartley, Joseph Riley, Toni L Glover, Christopher D King, Hang Zhang, Yenisel Cruz-Almeida, Burel R Goodin, Adriana Sotolongo, Megan E Petrov, Matthew Herbert, Hailey W Bulls, Jeffrey C Edberg, Roland Staud, David Redden, Laurence A Bradley, Roger B Fillingim
Introduction: Individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) show increased morbidity and mortality. Telomere length, a measure of cellular aging, predicts increased morbidity and mortality. Telomeres shorten with persisting biological and psychosocial stress. Living with chronic OA pain is stressful. Previous research exploring telomere length in people with OA has produced inconsistent results. Considering pain severity may clarify the relationship between OA and telomeres. Objectives: We hypothesized that individuals with high OA chronic pain severity would have shorter telomeres than those with no or low chronic pain severity...
May 2017: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 137 in vol. 3, PMID: 27981152.].
January 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
Sneha Paul, Anunay Samanta
G-Quadruplex DNA has been a recent target for the anti-cancer agents and its binding interactions with small molecules, often used as anti-cancer drugs, have become an important area of research. Considering that psoralens have long been studied in the context of duplex DNA, but very little is known about its potential as a G-Quadruplex binder and its excited state interaction with the latter has not been explored, we have studied herein the binding of a planar water soluble psoralen derivative, 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethyl psoralen (AMT), with the 22-mer human telomeric G-quadruplex forming sequence, AGGG(TTAGGG)3, labeled here as (hTel22), and investigate the consequences of photo-excitation of AMT by calorimetric and spectroscopic techniques...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Sonja Entringer, Karin de Punder, Claudia Buss, Pathik D Wadhwa
Research on mechanisms underlying fetal programming of health and disease risk has focused primarily on processes that are specific to cell types, organs or phenotypes of interest. However, the observation that developmental conditions concomitantly influence a diverse set of phenotypes, the majority of which are implicated in age-related disorders, raises the possibility that such developmental conditions may additionally exert effects via a common underlying mechanism that involves cellular/molecular ageing-related processes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Abraham Aviv, Jerry W Shay
Epidemiological studies have principally relied on measurements of telomere length (TL) in leucocytes, which reflects TL in other somatic cells. Leucocyte TL (LTL) displays vast variation across individuals-a phenomenon already observed in newborns. It is highly heritable, longer in females than males and in individuals of African ancestry than European ancestry. LTL is also longer in offspring conceived by older men. The traditional view regards LTL as a passive biomarker of human ageing. However, new evidence suggests that a dynamic interplay between selective evolutionary forces and TL might result in trade-offs for specific health outcomes...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Rachael V Wilbourn, Joshua P Moatt, Hannah Froy, Craig A Walling, Daniel H Nussey, Jelle J Boonekamp
Telomere length (TL) has become a biomarker of increasing interest within ecology and evolutionary biology, and has been found to predict subsequent survival in some recent avian studies but not others. Here, we undertake the first formal meta-analysis to test whether there is an overall association between TL and subsequent mortality risk in vertebrates other than humans and model laboratory rodents. We identified 27 suitable studies and obtained standardized estimates of the hazard ratio associated with TL from each...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
F Criscuolo, S Smith, S Zahn, B J Heidinger, M F Haussmann
Telomeres, the non-coding ends of linear chromosomes, are thought to be an important mechanism of individual variability in performance. Research suggests that longer telomeres are indicative of better health and increased fitness; however, many of these data are correlational and whether these effects are causal are poorly understood. Experimental tests are emerging in medical and laboratory-based studies, but these types of experiments are rare in natural populations, which precludes conclusions at an evolutionary level...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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