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Telomere research

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226264/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-hispanic-schizophrenia-patients-under-treatment-with-olanzapine
#1
Nancy Monroy-Jaramillo, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Luis Carlos Aviña-Cervantes, David L Roberts, Dawn I Velligan, Consuelo Walss-Bass
Different lines of evidence indicate that patients with schizophrenia (SZ) exhibit accelerated aging. Leukocyte telomere length (TL), an aging marker, is associated with age-related and chronic pathologies, including schizophrenia. We analyzed leukocyte TL in 170 SZ patients of Hispanic ancestry grouped based on antipsychotic treatment, compared to 126 matched controls. The group under treatment with atypical antipsychotics was further subdivided according to the risk of medication to cause metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212542/two-stage-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-a-novel-susceptibility-locus-associated-with-melanoma
#2
Katherine J Ransohoff, Wenting Wu, Hyunje G Cho, Harvind C Chahal, Yuan Lin, Hong-Ji Dai, Christopher I Amos, Jeffrey E Lee, Jean Y Tang, David A Hinds, Jiali Han, Qingyi Wei, Kavita Y Sarin
Genome-wide association studies have identified 21 susceptibility loci associated with melanoma. These loci implicate genes affecting pigmentation, nevus count, telomere maintenance, and DNA repair in melanoma risk. Here, we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of melanoma. The stage 1 discovery phase consisted of 4,842 self-reported melanoma cases and 286,565 controls of European ancestry from the 23andMe research cohort and the stage 2 replication phase consisted of 1,804 melanoma cases and 1,026 controls from the University of Texas M...
February 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191385/selection-of-efficient-taq-dna-polymerase-to-optimize-t-dna-genotyping-method-for-rapid-detection-of-mutant-arabidopsis-thaliana-plants
#3
Inna B Chastukhina, Liliia R Nigmatullina, Lia R Valeeva, Eugene V Shakirov
Plants harbor homologues of various animal genes involved in phosphorus metabolism, telomere biology and other cellular processes. Compared to experiments with many other multicellular organisms, research in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana takes advantage of short generation time and an ever increasing arsenal of genetic and transgenic tools, including large collections of T-DNA knockout and activation lines. The availability of thousands of publicly available transgenic Arabidopsis lines provides a unique opportunity to address a number of important biological questions...
December 2016: BioNanoScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173752/an-approach-of-identifying-differential-nucleosome-regions-in-multiple-samples
#4
Lingjie Liu, Jianming Xie, Xiao Sun, Kun Luo, Zhaohui Steve Qin, Hongde Liu
BACKGROUND: Nucleosome plays a role in transcriptional regulation through occluding the binding of proteins to DNA sites. Nucleosome occupancy varies among different cell types. Identification of such variation will help to understand regulation mechanism. The previous researches focused on the methods for two-sample comparison. However, a multiple-sample comparison (n ≥ 3) is necessary, especially in studying development and cancer. METHODS: Here, we proposed a Chi-squared test-based approach, named as Dimnp, to identify differential nucleosome regions (DNRs) in multiple samples...
February 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154163/less-than-ideal-cardiovascular-health-is-associated-with-shorter-leukocyte-telomere-length-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-1999-2002
#5
Samson Y Gebreab, Zerai G Manna, Rumana J Khan, Pia Riestra, Ruihua Xu, Sharon K Davis
BACKGROUND: The associations between individual cardiovascular disease risk factors and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) have been inconclusive. We investigated the association between LTL and overall cardiovascular health (CVH) as defined by the American Heart Association and whether the association is modified by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 5194 adults (aged ≥20) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152565/sphere-induced-rejuvenation-of-swine-and-human-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-is-primarily-caused-by-telomere-elongation
#6
Ni Xu, Yao Chen, Kevin C Dean, Xiaoqin Lu, Xiao Liu, Wei Wang, Douglas C Dean, Henry J Kaplan, Ling Gao, Fangtian Dong, Yongqing Liu
Müller cells are the major supportive and protective glial cells in the retina with important functions in histogenesis and synaptogenesis during development, and in maintenance of mature neurons as they show to secrete various cytokines and manifest potentials of self-renewal and transdifferentiation into retinal neurons following injury in the vertebrate retinas. The swine retina has a visual streak structure similar to the human macular where cone photoreceptors are highly concentrated, thereby can serve as a better model for studying retinal diseases and for formulating cell-based therapeutics than the rodent retinas...
February 2, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147207/discrimination-and-telomere-length-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#7
Sze Yan Liu, Ichiro Kawachi
OBJECTIVES: Chronic stress from experiencing discrimination can lead to long-term changes in psychological and physiologic responses, including shorter leukocyte telomere length. We examined the association between leukocyte telomere length and variations in the association by race or type of discrimination. METHODS: Our study consisted of 3868 US-born non-Hispanic black (hereinafter, black) and non-Hispanic white (hereinafter, white) adult participants from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study biomarker sample with complete sociodemographic and discrimination information...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139645/visualization-of-aging-associated-chromatin-alterations-with-an-engineered-tale-system
#8
Ruotong Ren, Liping Deng, Yanhong Xue, Keiichiro Suzuki, Weiqi Zhang, Yang Yu, Jun Wu, Liang Sun, Xiaojun Gong, Huiqin Luan, Fan Yang, Zhenyu Ju, Xiaoqing Ren, Si Wang, Hong Tang, Lingling Geng, Weizhou Zhang, Jian Li, Jie Qiao, Tao Xu, Jing Qu, Guang-Hui Liu
Visualization of specific genomic loci in live cells is a prerequisite for the investigation of dynamic changes in chromatin architecture during diverse biological processes, such as cellular aging. However, current precision genomic imaging methods are hampered by the lack of fluorescent probes with high specificity and signal-to-noise contrast. We find that conventional transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) tend to form protein aggregates, thereby compromising their performance in imaging applications...
January 31, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133587/non-radioactive-trf-assay-modifications-to-improve-telomeric-dna-detection-efficiency-in-plants
#9
Liliia R Nigmatullina, Margarita R Sharipova, Eugene V Shakirov
The length of telomeric DNA is often considered a cellular biomarker of aging and general health status. Several telomere length measuring assays have been developed, of which the most common is the Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis, which typically involves the use of radioactively labeled oligonucleotide probes. While highly effective, this method potentially poses substantial health concerns and generates radioactive waste. Digoxigenin (DIG) alternatives to radioactive probes have been developed and used successfully in a number of assays...
December 2016: BioNanoScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115627/reversible-manipulation-of-the-g-quadruplex-structures-and-enzymatic-reactions-through-supramolecular-host-guest-interactions
#10
Tian Tian, Yanyan Song, Lai Wei, Jiaqi Wang, Boshi Fu, Zhiyong He, Xi-Ran Yang, Fan Wu, Guohua Xu, Si-Min Liu, Conggang Li, Shaoru Wang, Xiang Zhou
Supramolecular chemistry addresses intermolecular forces and consequently promises great flexibility and precision. Biological systems are often the inspirations for supramolecular research. The G-quadruplex (G4) belongs to one of the most important secondary structures in nucleic acids. Until recently, the supramolecular manipulation of the G4 has not been reported. The present study is the first to disclose a supramolecular switch for the reversible control of human telomere G4s. Moreover, this supramolecular switch has been successfully used to manipulate an enzymatic reaction...
January 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068329/the-primacy-of-nf1-loss-as-the-driver-of-tumorigenesis-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-plexiform-neurofibromas
#11
A Pemov, H Li, R Patidar, N F Hansen, S Sindiri, S W Hartley, J S Wei, A Elkahloun, S C Chandrasekharappa, J F Boland, S Bass, J C Mullikin, J Khan, B C Widemann, M R Wallace, D R Stewart
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor-predisposition disorder due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. A virtually pathognomonic finding of NF1 is the plexiform neurofibroma (PN), a benign, likely congenital tumor that arises from bi-allelic inactivation of NF1. PN can undergo transformation to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma. To better understand the non-NF1 genetic contributions to PN pathogenesis, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNASeq profiling and genome-wide copy-number determination for 23 low-passage Schwann cell cultures established from surgical PN material with matching germline DNA...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055115/measurement-of-t-cell-telomere-length-using-amplified-signal-fish-staining-and-flow-cytometry
#12
Andrea L Henning, Danielle E Levitt, Jakob L Vingren, Brian K McFarlin
Exposure to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS), and physiologically challenging stimuli either positively or negatively affect leukocyte maturity. Cellular maturity has implications for the effectiveness of host response to bacterial or viral infection and/or tissue injury. Thus, the ability to accurately assess cellular maturity and health is important to fully understand immune status and function. The most common technique for measuring cellular maturity is to measure telomere length; however, existing techniques are not optimized for single-cell measurements using flow cytometry...
January 5, 2017: Current Protocols in Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050886/evaluation-of-cortisol-and-telomere-length-measurements-in-ethnically-diverse-women-with-breast-cancer-using-culturally-sensitive-methods
#13
Julio Ramirez, May Elmofty, Esperanza Castillo, Mindy DeRouen, Salma Shariff-Marco, Laura Allen, Scarlett Lin Gomez, Anna María Nápoles, Leticia Márquez-Magaña
The under-representation of ethnic minority participants, who are more likely to be socially disadvantaged in biomedical research, limits generalizability of results and reductions in health disparities. To facilitate investigations of how social disadvantage "gets under the skin," this pilot study evaluated low-intensity methods for collecting hair and saliva samples from multiethnic breast cancer survivors (N = 70) and analysis of biomarkers of chronic stress (cortisol levels) and biological age (telomere length)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050263/peculiarities-of-yeasts-and-human-telomerase-rnas-processing
#14
M P Rubtsova, D P Vasilkova, Yu V Naraykina, O A Dontsova
Telomerase is one of the major components of the telomeres -- linear eukaryotic chromosome ends - maintenance system. Linear chromosomes are shortened during each cell division due to the removal of the primer used for DNA replication. Special repeated telomere sequences at the very ends of linear chromosomes prevent the deletion of genome information caused by primer removal. Telomeres are shortened at each replication round until it becomes critically short and is no longer able to protect the chromosome in somatic cells...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027549/damage-of-chromosoms-under-irradiation-of-human-blood-lymphocytes-and-development-of-bystander-effect
#15
O V Shemetun
OBJECTIVE: the research the distribution of radiation induced damages among chromosomes and their bands in irra diated in vitro human blood lymphocytes and in unirradiated bystander cells.Material and methods of research: cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by semi micromethod D.A. Hungerford, modeling of radiation induced bystander effect in mixed cultures consisting of irradiated in vitro and non irradiated blood lymphocytes from persons of different gender, GTG staining of metaphase chromosomes and their cytogenetic analysis...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025427/the-role-of-tert-clptm1l-snps-htert-expression-and-telomere-length-in-the-pathogenesis-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Jelena Carkic, Nadja Nikolic, Sanja Radojevic-Skodric, Jovana Kuzmanovic-Pficer, Gavrilo Brajovic, Marija Antunovic, Jelena Milasin, Branka Popovic
The aim of this study was to assess TERT-CLPTM1L single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs402710 C/T in the CLPTM1L gene; rs2736100 A/C and rs2736098 G/A in the TERT gene) as risk factors for development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to investigate the relationship between the analyzed polymorphisms, relative telomere length (RTL), telomerase expression and clinicopathologic characteristics of OSCC in a Serbian population. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples and buccal swabs from cancer-free controls were genotyped using PCR-RFLP, while tumor RTL values and telomerase expression were estimated by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013268/rna-g-quadruplexes-emerging-mechanisms-in-disease
#17
Anne Cammas, Stefania Millevoi
RNA G-quadruplexes (G4s) are formed by G-rich RNA sequences in protein-coding (mRNA) and non-coding (ncRNA) transcripts that fold into a four-stranded conformation. Experimental studies and bioinformatic predictions support the view that these structures are involved in different cellular functions associated to both DNA processes (telomere elongation, recombination and transcription) and RNA post-transcriptional mechanisms (including pre-mRNA processing, mRNA turnover, targeting and translation). An increasing number of different diseases have been associated with the inappropriate regulation of RNA G4s exemplifying the potential importance of these structures on human health...
December 23, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986793/a-snp-based-linkage-map-of-the-arctic-charr-salvelinus-alpinus-genome-provides-insights-into-the-diploidization-process-after-whole-genome-duplication
#18
Cameron M Nugent, Anne A Easton, Joseph D Norman, Moira M Ferguson, Roy G Danzmann
Diploidization, which follows whole genome duplication events, does not occur evenly across the genome. In salmonid fishes, certain pairs of homeologous chromosomes preserve tetraploid loci in higher frequencies toward the telomeres due to residual tetrasomic inheritance. Research suggests this occurs only in homeologous pairs where one chromosome arm has undergone a fusion event. We present a linkage map for Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), a salmonid species with relatively fewer chromosome fusions. Genotype by sequencing identified 19,418 SNPs, and a linkage map consisting of 4508 markers was constructed from a subset of high quality SNPs and microsatellite markers that were used to anchor the new map to previous versions...
February 9, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981152/telomeres-and-stress-promising-avenues-for-research-in-psycho-oncology
#19
REVIEW
Eleanor Law, Afaf Girgis, Lambert Sylvie, Janelle Levesque, Hilda Pickett
A cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment is a stressful experience with the potential for long-term health consequences for both patients and their caregivers. It is now well-established that psychological stress is associated with detrimental effects on physical health. Recent studies have investigated the link between telomeres, the protective cap at the end of chromosomes, and stress, suggesting that stress potentially impacts on cellular aging through telomere shortening, with subsequent consequences for health...
April 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943596/the-telomere-lengthening-conundrum-it-could-be-biology
#20
Melissa Bateson, Daniel Nettle
Longitudinal studies of human leucocyte telomere length often report a percentage of individuals whose telomeres appear to lengthen. However, based on theoretical considerations and empirical data, Steenstrup et al. (Nucleic Acids Research, 2013, vol 41(13): e131) concluded that this lengthening is unlikely to be a real biological phenomenon and is more likely to be an artefact of measurement error. We dispute the logic underlying this claim. We argue that Steenstrup et al.'s analysis is incomplete because it failed to compare predictions derived from assuming a scenario with no true telomere lengthening with alternative scenarios in which true lengthening occurs...
December 12, 2016: Aging Cell
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