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Nursery reared

Kimberly S Grant, Julie M Worlein, Jerrold S Meyer, Melinda A Novak, Rose Kroeker, Kendra Rosenberg, Caroline Kenney, Thomas M Burbacher
Cortisol is a well-known glucocorticoid that can be used as a biomarker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical activity. To explore basal cortisol physiology during pregnancy and infancy in Macaca nemestrina monkeys, hair was collected from a convenience sample of 22 healthy mother-infant dyads. Adult females were housed in pairs as part of a small breeding colony at the Washington National Primate Research Center and infants were reared in a specialized nursery. Maternal samples were collected from females during a pregnancy-detection ultrasound and immediately following labor and delivery...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Julie Brown, John Kam Hung Sinn, Aileen Chua, Elizabeth Clare Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Child restraint fit is important for crash protection. For newborns, standards universally require a rear-facing restraint and some upper limit on size, but historically there has been no specification of a lower design limit and there is concern over whether low birthweight infants (LBW) are adequately restrained. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of harness fit for newborns of low and normal weight in a range of modern child restraints. METHODS: A convenience sample of infants (1...
July 15, 2016: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Elizabeth A Simpson, Krisztina V Jakobsen, Fabrice Damon, Stephen J Suomi, Pier F Ferrari, Annika Paukner
In visually complex environments, numerous items compete for attention. Infants may exhibit attentional efficiency-privileged detection, attention capture, and holding-for face-like stimuli. However, it remains unknown when these biases develop and what role, if any, experience plays in this emerging skill. Here, nursery-reared infant macaques' (Macaca mulatta; n = 10) attention to faces in 10-item arrays of nonfaces was measured using eye tracking. With limited face experience, 3-week-old monkeys were more likely to detect faces and looked longer at faces compared to nonfaces, suggesting a robust face detection system...
May 25, 2016: Child Development
Hanie A Elfenbein, Laura Del Rosso, Brenda McCowan, John P Capitanio
Behavior and health, including the incidence of chronic idiopathic diarrhea, can vary widely among NHP reared indoors. We hypothesized that factors during gestation account for some of the variability in chronic diarrhea risk that cannot be explained by postnatal environment, genes, or known physiologic deficits. We hypothesized that, among macaques reared indoors postnatally, outdoor housing during gestation (when the dam engaged with a large, species-typical social group) would be protective against diarrhea as compared with gestation experienced in an indoor setting...
2016: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Amanda M Dettmer, Lauren J Wooddell, Kendra L Rosenberg, Stefano S K Kaburu, Melinda A Novak, Jerrold S Meyer, Stephen J Suomi
Early life experience and socioeconomic status (SES) are well-established predictors of health outcomes in people. Both factors likely influence health outcomes via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. However, it is unclear how early experience and HPA axis activity influence adult social status. We studied differentially reared female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, N = 90) as models to test the hypothesis that chronic HPA axis activity assessed via hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) mediated the relationship between early life experience and adult social rank...
April 25, 2016: Social Neuroscience
Sharon A Bauer, Kate C Baker
Nursery rearing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) alters behaviors but may be necessitated by maternal rejection or death, for research protocols, or for derivation of SPF colonies. The Tulane National Primate Research Center maintains a nursery-reared colony that is free from 9 pathogens as well as a mother-reared colony free from 4 pathogens, thus affording an opportunity to assess the outcomes of differential rearing. Nursery-reared macaques had continuous contact with 2 peers and an artificial surrogate (peer rearing)...
April 2016: Comparative Medicine
Ashley N Edes, Barbara A Wolfe, Douglas E Crews
Disrupted rearing history is a psychological and physical stressor for nonhuman primates, potentially resulting in multiple behavioral and physiological changes. As a chronic, soma-wide stressor, altered rearing may be best assessed using a holistic tool such as allostatic load (AL). In humans, AL estimates outcomes of lifetime stress-induced damage. We predicted mother-reared gorillas would have lower AL than nursery-reared and wild-caught conspecifics. We estimated AL for 27 gorillas housed at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium between 1956 and 2014...
March 2016: Zoo Biology
Erin L Kinnally, John P Capitanio
BACKGROUND: Early experiences influence the developing organism, with lifelong and potentially adaptive consequences. It has recently become clear that the effects of early experiences are not limited to the exposed generation, but can influence physiological and behavioral traits in the next generation. Mechanisms of transgenerational effects of parental early experiences on offspring development are often attributed to prenatal or postnatal parental influence, but recent data suggest that germ-line plasticity may also play a role in the transgenerational effects of early experiences...
2015: Frontiers in Zoology
Yuko Hiratani, Naohiro Hohashi
BACKGROUND: Nursing interventions that aim to enhance the family environment are necessary to help single-parent families with children to improve family functioning. The cultural and social factors that are unique to Japan's remote islands should be considered to assess the influence of this unique setting on family functioning. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the family functioning of child-rearing single-parent families living in different environments and to investigate the association between family demographics and family functioning...
June 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
N E Guindon, N T Antaya, R G Cabral, N L Whitehouse, T J Earleywine, P S Erickson
Twenty-eight newborn Holstein heifer calves from the university herd and 8 newborn Holstein heifer calves from a commercial herd were blocked by birth and herd into 1 of 4 treatments: conventional [20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat] milk replacer (MR; treatment C) with (1) or without (0) human visitation, or a higher plane of MR nutrition (28% CP, 20% fat) regimen (treatment A) with (1) or (0) without human visitation. Calves on C MR treatments received 454g of MR from d 2 to 41. Calves on A MR received 916g of MR from d 2 to 8 and 1134g of MR from d 9 to 41...
December 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Sarah Frias-Torres, Casper van de Geer
Rearing coral fragments in nurseries and subsequent transplantation onto a degraded reef is a common approach for coral reef restoration. However, if barnacles and other biofouling organisms are not removed prior to transplantation, fish will dislodge newly cemented corals when feeding on biofouling organisms. This behavior can lead to an increase in diver time due to the need to reattach the corals. Thus, cleaning nurseries to remove biofouling organisms such as algae and invertebrates is necessary prior to transplantation, and this cleaning constitutes a significant time investment in a restoration project...
2015: PeerJ
H Schulte-Wissermann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2015: Kinderkrankenschwester: Organ der Sektion Kinderkrankenpflege
Ross E Vanderwert, Elizabeth A Simpson, Annika Paukner, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier F Ferrari
A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain encodes the actions and intentions of others. The discovery of an action-production-perception mechanism underpinning such a capacity advanced our knowledge of how these processes occur; however, no study has examined how the early postnatal environment may shape action-production-perception. Here, we examined the effects of social experience on action-production-perception in 3-day-old rhesus macaques that were raised either with or without their biological mothers...
2015: Developmental Neuroscience
Robert D Latzman, Hani D Freeman, Steven J Schapiro, William D Hopkins
A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, five-factor model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily and neurobiologically based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially housed, captive chimpanzees residing in 2 independent colonies of apes...
November 2015: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Paul W C Green, Martin A Hamilton, Michele D Sanchez, Marcella R Corcoran, Bryan N Manco, Chris P Malumphy
Climate change, unseasonal fire and urbanization are contributing to the decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis populations in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Infestation of pines with the invasive pine tortoise scale (PTS, Toumeyella parvicornis) is accelerating this decline. Pine trees in the Bahamas are larger and healthier and are not infested with PTS although they are subject to some of the same environmental pressures as the trees in TCI. Volatile compounds were collected from wild and nursery-reared P...
April 2015: Chemistry & Biodiversity
Kyoko Nomura, Yuka Yamazaki, Larry D Gruppen, Saki Horie, Masumi Takeuchi, Jan Illing
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the difficulties Japanese female doctors face in continuing professional practice. DESIGN: A qualitative study using the Kawakita Jiro method. SETTING: A survey conducted in 2011 of 13 private Japanese medical school alumni associations. PARTICIPANTS: 359 female doctors. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Barriers of balancing work and gender role. RESULTS: The female doctors reported that professional practice was a struggle with long working hours due to a current shortage of doctors in Japan...
2015: BMJ Open
Andrea W Clay, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Kim A Bard, Terry L Maple, Marcus J Marr
This research traces the long-term effects on health, well-being, personality, and behavior of adult chimpanzees as a function of their attachment to a primary human caregiver assessed when they were 1 year of age. Of the 46 chimpanzees assessed at 1 year of age, we assessed health in 43 individuals, adult behavior in 20 individuals, and adult well-being and personality in 21 individuals. Attachment disorganization was found to be a significant predictor of stereotypic rocking in adult chimpanzees, F(1, 18) = 7...
May 2015: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Amanda M Dettmer, Ashley M Murphy, Stephen J Suomi
Though cognitive testing of infant monkeys has been practiced for the past 40 years, these assessments have been limited primarily to nursery-reared infants due to the confounds of separating mother-reared infants for assessments. Here, we describe a pilot study in which we developed a cognitive testing apparatus for socially housed, mother-peer-reared rhesus macaques under 1 year of age (Macaca mulatta) that allowed the infants to freely return to their mothers for contact comfort. Infants aged 151.2 ± 18...
April 2015: Developmental Psychobiology
B C S Meireles, B Goldschmidt, F C Resende, C A A Lopes, L W F Nascimento
Saimiri (squirrel monkey) is a neotropical primate of the Simian genus that has been bred in captivity for the development of research into human and animal health. They have been widely used in studies in ophthalmology, toxicology, pharmacology, psychiatry, neuroscience, vaccines and drug tests (such as malaria and measles agents), as well as effects on interactive behavior and cognition of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in man. The main concern of non-human primate (NHP) research centers is focused on the establishment of self-sustaining breeding colonies providing good quality research animals...
February 2016: Laboratory Animals
R G Rwegasira, M Mwatawala, G M Rwegasira, J Offenberg
The African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, is being utilized as a biocontrol agent and may also be targeted for future protein production. Rearing of mated queens in nurseries for colony production is needed to cater for such demands. Thus, newly mated queens must be collected for use as seed stocks in the nurseries. To collect mated queens efficiently it is important to identify when sexuals occur in mature colonies. We studied the occurrence of sexuals in O. longinoda colonies for 2 years in Tanga, Tanzania, a region characterized by a bimodal rainfall pattern...
April 2015: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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