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Positive reinforcement training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052630/mastering-the-game-of-go-without-human-knowledge
#1
David Silver, Julian Schrittwieser, Karen Simonyan, Ioannis Antonoglou, Aja Huang, Arthur Guez, Thomas Hubert, Lucas Baker, Matthew Lai, Adrian Bolton, Yutian Chen, Timothy Lillicrap, Fan Hui, Laurent Sifre, George van den Driessche, Thore Graepel, Demis Hassabis
A long-standing goal of artificial intelligence is an algorithm that learns, tabula rasa, superhuman proficiency in challenging domains. Recently, AlphaGo became the first program to defeat a world champion in the game of Go. The tree search in AlphaGo evaluated positions and selected moves using deep neural networks. These neural networks were trained by supervised learning from human expert moves, and by reinforcement learning from self-play. Here we introduce an algorithm based solely on reinforcement learning, without human data, guidance or domain knowledge beyond game rules...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050951/microinjection-of-baclofen-and-cgp7930-into-the-ventral-tegmental-area-suppresses-alcohol-self-administration-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#2
REVIEW
Paola Maccioni, Irene Lorrai, Andrea Contini, Kimberly Leite-Morris, Giancarlo Colombo
Systemic administration of the orthosteric agonist, baclofen, and several positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the GABAB receptor has repeatedly been reported to decrease operant oral alcohol self-administration in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the mesolimbic dopamine system to the reducing effect of baclofen and GABAB PAMs on the reinforcing properties of alcohol. To this end, baclofen or the GABAB PAM CGP7930 were microinjected into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of selectively bred, Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats trained to self-administer alcohol...
October 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985300/focus-on-early-career-gps-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-multi-faceted-educational-intervention-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing
#3
Laura Deckx, Sibyl Anthierens, Parker J Magin, Simon Morgan, Lawrie McArthur, Lucy Yardley, Anthea Dallas, Paul Little, Mieke L van Driel
Background: We conducted an educational intervention emphasizing rational antibiotic prescribing in early-career General Practitioners (GP) in vocational training (trainees). The intervention consisted of an online introduction module, an online communication training module, face-to-face workshops, and cases to be discussed one-on-one by the trainee-supervisor dyad during regular scheduled education sessions. Objectives: To explore the participants' experiences with the intervention...
July 17, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935007/an-international-survey-of-approaches-to-chair-restraint-of-nonhuman-primates
#4
Jennifer L McMillan, Mollie A Bloomsmith, Mark J Prescott
Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913671/the-effect-of-educational-program-based-on-precede-model-in-promoting-prostate-cancer-screening-in-a-sample-of-iranian-men
#5
Ali Khani Jeihooni, Seyyed Mansour Kashfi, Mahmood Hatami, Abulqasim Avand, Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases among men. This study aimed to assess the effect of educational program based on Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model in promoting prostate cancer screening in a sample of Iranian men. This is a quasi-experimental study carried out on 300 men aged 40 to 70 (the subjects 150 experimental and 150 control groups) in Shiraz City, Fars Province, Iran, in 2016. The participants of the intervention group attended training based on the PRECEDE model...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911327/negotiating-power-relations-gender-equality-and-collective-agency-are-village-health-committees-transformative-social-spaces-in-northern-india
#6
Kerry Scott, Asha S George, Steven A Harvey, Shinjini Mondal, Gupteswar Patel, Kabir Sheikh
BACKGROUND: Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India...
September 15, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892027/novel-object-recognition-test-for-the-investigation-of-learning-and-memory-in-mice
#7
Lindsay M Lueptow
The object recognition test (ORT) is a commonly used behavioral assay for the investigation of various aspects of learning and memory in mice. The ORT is fairly simple and can be completed over 3 days: habituation day, training day, and testing day. During training, the mouse is allowed to explore 2 identical objects. On test day, one of the training objects is replaced with a novel object. Because mice have an innate preference for novelty, if the mouse recognizes the familiar object, it will spend most of its time at the novel object...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885007/stereoselective-differences-between-the-reinforcing-and-motivational-effects-of-cathinone-derived-4-methylmethcathinone-mephedrone-in-self-administering-rats
#8
Helene L Philogene-Khalid, Steven J Simmons, Sunil Nayak, Rose M Martorana, Shu H Su, Yohanka Caro, Brona Ranieri, Kathryn DiFurio, Lili Mo, Taylor A Gentile, Ali Murad, Allen B Reitz, John W Muschamp, Scott M Rawls
Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC)) (MEPH) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) of the synthetic cathinone class. MEPH has a chiral center and exists as two enantiomers (R-,S-MEPH), yet stereospecific effects of MEPH have not been extensively investigated in preclinical assays. Because significant behavioral and neurochemical differences can exist between enantiomers, probing effects of stereochemistry on biological activity enables separation of adverse and therapeutic effects. Our prior work showed that R-MEPH, relative to S-MEPH, produced greater locomotor activation, place preference, and facilitation of brain reward thresholds in rodents...
September 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876994/encouraging-critical-clinical-thinking-cct-skills-in-first-year-veterinary-students
#9
Duncan C Ferguson, Leslie Klis McNeil, David J Schaeffe, Eric M Mills
First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854982/knowledge-of-standard-precautions-and-barriers-to-compliance-among-healthcare-workers-in-the-lower-manya-krobo-district-ghana
#10
Sandra Enyonam Akagbo, Priscillia Nortey, Mercy M Ackumey
BACKGROUND: Implementing standard precautions (SP) has been a major challenge for health care workers (HCWs) especially those in developing countries thereby compromising their safety and increasing their exposure to blood-related pathogens. Compliance with safety precautions and occupational accidents among health workers are often unreported. The literature on knowledge and compliance to SP in Ghana is scanty. We report findings of a study that examined knowledge of SP, compliance and barriers to compliance with SP among HCWs in two health facilities in Ghana...
August 30, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844062/motion-video-based-quantitative-analysis-of-the-lifting-thrusting-method-a-comparison-between-teachers-and-students-of-acupuncture
#11
Wen-Chao Tang, Hua-Yuan Yang, Tang-Yi Liu, Ming Gao, Gang Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare objective measures of needle manipulation between students and teachers of acupuncture using motion video analysis technology, to help support instructional acupuncture education. METHODS: A total of 30 teachers and 60 students participated in this study. Acupuncture needles were inserted at LI11 and motion videos were recorded for three subtypes of 'lifting-thrusting' manipulation: (1) 'mild reinforcing-attenuating'; (2) 'reinforcing'; and (3) 'attenuating'...
August 26, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832432/elevating-oral-health-interprofessional-practice-among-pediatricians-through-a-statewide-quality-improvement-learning-collaborative
#12
Joni D Nelson, Sharon M Spencer, Christine E Blake, Justin B Moore, Amy B Martin
CONTEXT: Because of persistent effects of early childhood caries and impacts of dental health professional shortages areas, the integration of oral health in primary care settings is a public health priority. In this study, we explored oral health interprofessional practice (OHIP) as an integrative pathway to reduce oral health disparities. OHIP can include performing oral health risk assessments, describing the importance of fluoride in the drinking water, implementing fluoride varnish application, and referring patients to a dental home...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744647/antioxidant-and-antiamnestic-effects-of-potassium-comenate-and-comenic-acid-under-conditions-of-normobaric-hypoxia-with-hypercapnia
#13
L V Shurygina, E I Zlishcheva, A N Kravtsova, A A Kravtsov
Potassium comenate and comenic acid exhibit manifest and virtually identical antioxidant activity under conditions of hypoxia with hypercapnia. The effects of these drugs on conditioned reflex training with positive reinforcement differ significantly. Potassium comenate promotes retention of the learning capacity and memory in hypoxic rats at the level of intact control, that is, exhibits a pronounced protective antiamnestic effect, while comenic acid only facilitates training of the conditioned reflex with positive reinforcement...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711513/the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-function-stress-management-training-in-glycemic-control-in-children-and-in-mental-health-of-mother-caring-for-child-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Mozhdeh Saghaei, Pouya Omidi, Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Parvin Safavi
AIM: The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care...
July 3, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704139/influencing-safety-in-australian-agriculture-and-fisheries
#15
Kristin E McBain-Rigg, Richard C Franklin, Jemma C King, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, i.e., people who can influence others, are important for helping engender action to enact solutions into practice...
2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-cbd-on-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-self-administration-in-male-and-female-long-evans-rats
#16
Alison G P Wakeford, Bradley B Wetzell, Rebecca L Pomfrey, Matthew M Clasen, William W Taylor, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680108/behavioral-inefficiency-on-a-risky-decision-making-task-in-adulthood-after-adolescent-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#17
Kelsey M Miller, Mary-Louise Risher, Shawn K Acheson, Matthew Darlow, Hannah G Sexton, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta, H S Swartzwelder
Adolescence is a period of development in neural circuits that are critical for adult functioning. There is a relationship between alcohol exposure and risky decision-making, though the enduring effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on risky decision-making in adulthood have not been fully explored. Studies using positive reinforcement have shown that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure results in higher levels of risky decision-making in adulthood, but the effects of AIE on punishment-mediated decision-making have not been explored...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670249/the-effect-of-the-training-program-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-asthma-based-on-the-precede-model-in-ahvaz-iran
#18
Mina Motaghi Nejad, Ghodratollah Shakeri Nejad, Heshmatollah Tavakol, Maria Cheraghi
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the training program based on the Precede model and its main components on improving the quality of life in patients with asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a randomized quasi-experimental study done on 120 patients with asthma who were referred to the Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz who were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The data collection tool consisted of two questionnaires...
June 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663109/the-reinforcing-value-and-liking-of-resistance-training-and-aerobic-exercise-as-predictors-of-adult-s-physical-activity
#19
Kyle D Flack, LuAnn Johnson, James N Roemmich
OBJECTIVE: Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults...
June 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656616/embedding-assessment-in-a-simulation-skills-training-program-for-medical-and-midwifery-students-a-pre-and-post-intervention-evaluation
#20
Arunaz Kumar, Debra Nestel, Christine East, Margaret Hay, Irene Lichtwark, Gayle McLelland, Deidre Bentley, Helen Hall, Shavi Fernando, Sebastian Hobson, Luke Larmour, Philip Dekoninck, Euan M Wallace
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based programs are increasingly being used to teach obstetrics and gynaecology examinations, but it is difficult to establish student learning acquired through them. Assessment may test student learning but its role in learning itself is rarely recognised. We undertook this study to assess medical and midwifery student learning through a simulation program using a pre-test and post-test design and also to evaluate use of assessment as a method of learning. METHODS: The interprofessional simulation education program consisted of a brief pre-reading document, a lecture, a video demonstration and a hands-on workshop...
June 28, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
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