keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Positive reinforcement training

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301189/differential-effects-of-neural-inactivation-of-the-dorsolateral-striatum-on-response-and-latent-extinction
#1
Jarid Goodman, Amanda Gabriele, Mark G Packard
The present study examined the role of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in extinction behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained on the straight alley maze, in which they were reinforced to traverse a straight runway and retrieve food reward at the opposite end of the maze. After initial acquisition, animals were given extinction training using 1 of 2 distinct protocols: response extinction or latent extinction. For response extinction, the animal was released from the same starting position and had the opportunity to perform the originally reinforced approach response to the goal end of the maze, which no longer contained food...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298887/automated-operant-conditioning-in-the-mouse-home-cage
#2
Nikolas A Francis, Patrick O Kanold
Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298209/implementation-of-evidence-informed-practice-through-central-network-actors-a-case-study-of-three-public-health-units-in-canada
#3
Reza Yousefi Nooraie, Alexandra Marin, Robert Hanneman, Lynne Lohfeld, Maureen Dobbins
BACKGROUND: Workforce development is an important aspect of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) interventions. The social position of individuals in formal and informal social networks, and the relevance of formal roles in relation to EIDM are important factors identifying key EIDM players in public health organizations. We assessed the role of central actors in information sharing networks in promoting the adoption of EIDM by the staff of three public health units in Canada, over a two-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented...
March 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294133/the-gabab-positive-allosteric-modulator-adx71441-attenuates-alcohol-self-administration-and-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#4
Eric Augier, Russell S Dulman, Ruslan Damadzic, Andrew Pilling, J Paul Hamilton, Markus Heilig
GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABAB receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator on alcohol-related behaviors in rats...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287586/introducing-clicker-training-as-a-cognitive-enrichment-for-laboratory-mice
#5
Charlotte Leidinger, Felix Herrmann, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Nadine Baumgart, Jan Baumgart
Establishing new refinement strategies in laboratory animal science is a central goal in fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU. Previous research determined a profound impact of gentle handling protocols on the well-being of laboratory mice. By introducing clicker training to the keeping of mice, not only do we promote the amicable treatment of mice, but we also enable them to experience cognitive enrichment. Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training using a conditioned secondary reinforcer, the "click" sound of a clicker, which serves as a time bridge between the strengthened behavior and an upcoming reward...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279667/preclinical-assessment-of-the-abuse-potential-of-the-orexin-receptor-antagonist-suvorexant
#6
Stephanie Born, David V Gauvin, Suman Mukherjee, Richard Briscoe
Suvorexant (Belsomra(®)) is a dual orexin receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of insomnia. Because of its pharmacology within the central nervous system, intended therapeutic indication, and first-in-class status, an assessment of suvorexant abuse liability potential was required prior to marketing approval. The nonclinical abuse liability potential studies for suvorexant included: 1) rat drug-dependence model to assess physical dependence following abrupt cessation; 2) rat drug-discrimination model to examine the potential similarity of the interoceptive or subjective effects of suvorexant to those elicited by zolpidem and morphine; 3) self-administration model to assess the relative reinforcing efficacy of suvorexant in rhesus monkeys conditioned to self-administer methohexital...
March 6, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245946/the-relationship-between-counselors-technical-skills-clients-in-session-verbal-responses-and-outcome-in-smoking-cessation-treatment
#7
Helena Lindqvist, Lars Forsberg, Pia Enebrink, Gerhard Andersson, Ingvar Rosendahl
BACKGROUND: The technical component of Motivational Interviewing (MI) posits that client language mediates the relationship between counselor techniques and subsequent client behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesized technical component of MI in smoking cessation treatment in more depth. METHOD: Secondary analysis of 106 first treatment sessions, derived from the Swedish National Tobacco Quitline, and previously rated using the Motivational Interviewing Sequential Code for Observing Process Exchanges (MI-SCOPE) Coder's Manual and the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity code (MITI) Manual, version 3...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223940/reconsideration-of-serial-visual-reversal-learning-in-octopus-octopus-vulgaris-from-a-methodological-perspective
#8
Alexander Bublitz, Severine R Weinhold, Sophia Strobel, Guido Dehnhardt, Frederike D Hanke
Octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) are generally considered to possess extraordinary cognitive abilities including the ability to successfully perform in a serial reversal learning task. During reversal learning, an animal is presented with a discrimination problem and after reaching a learning criterion, the signs of the stimuli are reversed: the former positive becomes the negative stimulus and vice versa. If an animal improves its performance over reversals, it is ascribed advanced cognitive abilities. Reversal learning has been tested in octopus in a number of studies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221674/effects-of-visitor-numbers-on-captive-european-red-squirrels-sciurus-vulgaris-and-impacts-on-visitor-experience
#9
Eleanor E Woolway, Anne E Goodenough
Visitors to zoological collections can have substantial effects on captive animals that vary according to species, enclosure design, visitor proximity, and husbandry methods. One particularly intense form of visitor interaction occurs in immersive exhibits such as walk-through enclosures. Such enclosures are increasingly common but effects on animal behavior are currently understudied. Here, the behavior of captive European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) is studied in relation to visitor numbers in a walk-through enclosure...
February 21, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218962/survey-of-neonatal-resuscitation-practices-showed-post-training-improvements-but-need-to-reinforce-preterm-management-monitoring-and-adrenaline-use
#10
Montserrat Izquierdo, Martín Iriondo, César Ruiz, Gonzalo Zeballos, Miguel Sánchez, Eva Gonzalez, Máximo Vento, Marta Thió
AIM: Neonatal resuscitation surveys have showed practice variations between countries, centres and levels of care. We evaluated delivery room practices after a nationwide neonatal resuscitation training programme focused on non-tertiary centres. METHODS: A 2012 survey sent to all Spanish hospitals handling deliveries covered staff availability and training, equipment and practices in the delivery room and during transfers to neonatal intensive care units. The results from 98 centres that had completed a previous survey in 2007 were analysed by levels of care...
February 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186616/introduction-of-robot-assisted-radical-hysterectomy-for-early-stage-cervical-cancer-impact-on-complications-costs-and-oncologic-outcome
#11
Emelie Wallin, Angelique Flöter Rådestad, Henrik Falconer
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to assess the impact of robot-assisted radical hysterectomy (RRH) on surgical and oncologic outcome and costs compared to open radical hysterectomy (ORH) at a tertiary referral center in Sweden. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis all patients treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage uterine cervical cancer during 2006 -2015 were included (n=304). The patients were divided into two groups, ORH (n=155) and RRH (n=149)...
February 10, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169029/the-contribution-of-volunteer-based-monitoring-data-to-the-assessment-of-harmful-phytoplankton-blooms-in-brazilian-urban-streams
#12
Davi Gasparini Fernandes Cunha, Simone Pereira Casali, Patrícia Bortoletto de Falco, Ian Thornhill, Steven Arthur Loiselle
Urban streams are vulnerable to a range of impacts, leading to the impairment of ecosystem services. However, studies on phytoplankton growth in tropical lotic systems are still limited. Citizen science approaches use trained volunteers to collect environmental data. We combined data on urban streams collected by volunteers with data obtained by professional scientists to identify potential drivers of phytoplankton community and determine thresholds for Cyanobacteria development. We combined datasets (n=117) on water quality and environmental observations in 64 Brazilian urban streams with paired data on phytoplankton...
April 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128041/barriers-and-enablers-to-academic-health-leadership
#13
Aleem Bharwani, Theresa Kline, Margaret Patterson, Peter Craighead
Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance...
February 6, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108345/reinstatement-after-human-feature-positive-discrimination-learning
#14
REVIEW
Mathijs Franssen, Nathalie Claes, Bram Vervliet, Tom Beckers, Dirk Hermans, Frank Baeyens
In two experiments, using an online conditioned suppression task, we investigated the possibility of reinstatement of extinguished feature-target compound presentations after sequential feature-positive discrimination training in humans. Furthermore, given a hierarchical account of Pavlovian modulation (e.g., Bonardi, 1998; Bonardi and Jennings, 2009), we predicted A-US reinstatement to be stronger than US-only reinstatement. In Experiment 1, participants learned a sequential feature-positive discrimination (X→A(+)|A(-)), which was subsequently extinguished (X→A(-))...
January 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#15
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
March 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088553/the-influence-of-landmark-stability-on-control-by-occasion-setters
#16
REVIEW
Lauren M Cleland, Chad M Ruprecht, Ronnie V Lee, Kenneth J Leising
In an operant serial feature-positive procedure, an occasion setter (OSX) signals that a response will be reinforced in the presence of a second stimulus (e.g., a discriminative stimulus, A). During a transfer test, the OS is paired with a different discriminative stimulus. Experiment 1a tested transfer effects in a touchscreen-based spatial occasion setting task with pigeons. During training, four OSs (OSW, OSX, OSY, and OSZ) were paired on separate trials with landmark A (LMA) or B (LMB) and the opportunity for a reinforced response at one location to the immediate left (R1) or right (R2) of the LM (OSW→LMA:R1, OSX→LMA:R2, OSY→LMB:R1, OSZ→LMB:R2)...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075419/surveillance-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-results-from-a-six-year-retrospective-study-in-nine-hospitals-of-a-north-italian-local-health-authority
#17
Greta Roncarati, Laura Dallolio, Erica Leoni, Manuela Panico, Angela Zanni, Patrizia Farruggia
Clostridium difficile is an emerging cause of healthcare associated infections. In nine hospitals of an Italian Local Health Authority the episodes of C. difficile infection (CDI) were identified using the data registered by the centralized Laboratory Information System, from 2010 to 2015. CDI incidence (positive patients for A and/or B toxins per patients-days) was analysed per year, hospital, and ward. A number of cases approximately equivalent to the mean of identified cases per year were studied retrospectively to highlight the risk factors associated to CDI and their severity...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071806/gps-perspectives-on-prescribing-for-older-people-in-primary-care-a-qualitative-study
#18
David O Riordan, Stephen Byrne, Aoife Fleming, Patricia M Kearney, Rose Galvin, Carol Sinnott
AIMS: The aim of this study was firstly to reveal the determinants of GP prescribing behaviour for older adults in primary care and secondly to elicit GPs' views on the potential role for broad intervention strategies involving pharmacists and/or information technology systems in general practice. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of GPs. Three multidisciplinary researchers independently coded the interview data using a framework approach...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069295/short-term-memory-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-against-bacterial-pathogens-involves-creb-transcription-factor
#19
Udayakumar Prithika, Ramaraj Vikneswari, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
One of the key issues pertaining to the control of memory is to respond to a consistently changing environment or microbial niche present in it. Human cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor which plays a crucial role in memory has a homolog in C. elegans, crh-1. crh-1 appears to influence memory processes to certain extent by habituation of the host to a particular environment. The discrimination between the pathogen and a non-pathogen is essential for C. elegans in a microbial niche which determines its survival...
December 30, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062427/novel-sleep-management-method-in-a-toddler-displaying-fear-and-trauma-the-boss-of-my-sleep-book
#20
Sarah Blunden
Sleep problems in toddlers occur in ∼40% of children and increase the likelihood of postnatal depression. Most sleep training in toddlers requires contact with a trained professional, and requires a parent to ignore their child's cries, causing distress to many children and parents, increasing attrition and leaving families untreated and at risk. This case study reports success in significantly ameliorating sleep reluctance and bedtime fears in a sleep disturbed toddler with a history of trauma. It uses a novel use of bedtime behaviour management with some positive reinforcement techniques, called the Boss of My Sleep book: a non-cry, online (thus readily and cheaply available without a trained professional) sleep intervention...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
keyword
keyword
98256
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"