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Positive reinforcement training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454085/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-ii-transitivity-and-transfer-across-five-member-sets
#1
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443823/aerobic-training-improves-quality-of-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#2
Eduardo Caldas Costa, Joceline Cássia Ferezini de Sá, Nigel Keith Stepto, Ingrid Bezerra Barbosa Costa, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira, Elvira Maria Mafaldo Soares, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, George Dantas Azevedo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Twenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m; aged from 18 to 34 years) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13)...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396617/resistance-exercise-decreases-heroin-self-administration-and-alters-gene-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-heroin-exposed-rats
#3
Mark A Smith, Gaylen E Fronk, Jean M Abel, Ryan T Lacy, Sarah E Bills, Wendy J Lynch
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies consistently report that aerobic exercise decreases drug self-administration and other forms of drug-seeking behavior; however, relatively few studies have examined other types of physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) on heroin self-administration and mRNA expression of genes known to mediate opioid reinforcement and addictive behavior in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of heroin-exposed rats...
February 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395013/-outcomes-after-a-2-year-pharmaceutical-care-program-for-patients-taking-vitamin-k-antagonist-therapy-community-pharmacist-s-perception
#4
C Mongaret, C Lepage, L Aubert, A Lestrille, F Slimano
OBJECTIVES: Since 2013 French community pharmacist are involved in pharmaceutical care program (PCP) for patients treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA). While PCPs are now extending to other patient populations, we aimed to evaluate pharmacists' perception after 2-years implementation and leading of PCP. METHODS: A prospective investigational survey from 1st August to 31st December, 2015 from 400 community pharmacies in Champagne-Ardenne Region. Survey focuses on 3 points: first about implementation and leading of PCP; secondly about patient's population description; finally on the global perception by CP about new tasks...
January 24, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385270/cognitive-judgement-bias-is-associated-with-frequency-of-anticipatory-behavior-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#5
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369054/lack-of-paclitaxel-effects-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-male-and-female-rats-comparison-to-mechanical-sensitivity
#6
Luke P Legakis, John W Bigbee, S Stevens Negus
Paclitaxel is a cancer chemotherapy with adverse effects that include peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and depression of behavior and mood. In rodents, hypersensitive paw-withdrawal reflexes from mechanical stimuli serve as one common measure of paclitaxel-induced pain-related behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel would also depress rates of positively reinforced operant responding as a measure of pain-related behavioral depression. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle, trained to lever press for electrical brain stimulation in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), and treated with four injections of varying paclitaxel doses (0...
January 23, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367150/improving-implementation-of-the-smoking-cessation-guidelines-with-pregnant-women-how-to-support-clinicians
#7
Jo M Longman, Catherine M Adams, Jennifer J Johnston, Megan E Passey
OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to implementation of the Australian smoking cessation in pregnancy guidelines. These guidelines direct clinicians to follow the 5As of cessation: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange follow-up. DESIGN: semi-structured interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) elicited clinicians' views and experiences of implementing the guidelines. SETTING: antenatal care in the NSW public health system...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362024/models-of-nutrition-focused-continuing-education-programs-for-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#8
Holly Mitchell, Catherine Lucas, Karen Charlton, Anne McMahon
Nurses are well-positioned to provide basic nutrition education and reinforce nutrition messages to patients in hospital and primary care settings. Despite this, nurses may not receive adequate training to provide this service, and there is limited opportunity for nurses to engage in nutrition-focused continuing education (CE). The aim of this review was to determine whether nurse nutrition education results in improved knowledge and practices; and explore which models of CE for nutrition may be most acceptable and effective in practice...
January 24, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341905/intensity-difference-limens-in-adult-cba-caj-mice-mus-musculus
#9
Anastasiya Kobrina, Katrina L Toal, Micheal L Dent
Mice have emerged as important models of auditory perception and acoustic communication. To study and model complex sound perception and communication, basic hearing abilities have to be established, yet intensity difference limens have not been measured in CBA/CAJ mice. Nine mice were trained using operant conditioning procedures with positive reinforcement to discriminate sound intensity across frequencies. Intensity difference limens were measured for 12, 16, 24, and 42 kHz tones at 10 and 30 dB sensation levels...
January 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336335/-evaluation-of-competencies-in-urology-esscolap%C3%A2-basic-as-aproximation-to-urologists-skills-improvement
#10
Javier Sánchez-Fernández, Jaime Bachiller-Burgos, Alvaro Serrano-Pascual, José Manuel Cózar-Olmo, Idoia Díaz-Güemes, Miguel Angel Sánchez-Hurtado, Belén Moreno-Naranjo, Silvia Enciso-Sanz, Laura Correa-Martín, Blanca Fernández-Tomé, María Mar Pérez-López, José Luis Alvarez-Ossorio, Francisco Miguel Sánchez-Margallo
Urology needs models of competencies assessment, although there is a wide range of tools not yet integrated into the official training programs. CONTEXT: At present, there is no universal framework for measuring surgeons' level of competence. Urology training programs should provide and consider knowledge, pyschomotor/cognitive skills, and simulator, cadaver or animal models-based training. Validity is a complex concept that refers to the capacity of the evaluation tool, so it is necessary to demonstrate several types of validation to assure the capacity of a method, reinforced with different reliability tests and calculation of internal consistency between evaluators...
January 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304250/how-people-centred-health-systems-can-reach-the-grassroots-experiences-implementing-community-level-quality-improvement-in-rural-tanzania-and-uganda
#11
Tara Tancred, Rogers Mandu, Claudia Hanson, Monica Okuga, Fatuma Manzi, Stefan Peterson, Joanna Schellenberg, Peter Waiswa, Tanya Marchant
Background: Quality improvement (QI) methods engage stakeholders in identifying problems, creating strategies called change ideas to address those problems, testing those change ideas and scaling them up where successful. These methods have rarely been used at the community level in low-income country settings. Here we share experiences from rural Tanzania and Uganda, where QI was applied as part of the Expanded Quality Management Using Information Power (EQUIP) intervention with the aim of improving maternal and newborn health...
January 1, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304039/establishing-ebola-virus-disease-evd-diagnostics-using-genexpert-technology-at-a-mobile-laboratory-in-liberia-impact-on-outbreak-response-case-management-and-laboratory-systems-strengthening
#12
Philomena Raftery, Orla Condell, Christine Wasunna, Jonathan Kpaka, Ruth Zwizwai, Mahmood Nuha, Mosoka Fallah, Maxwell Freeman, Victoria Harris, Mark Miller, April Baller, Moses Massaquoi, Victoria Katawera, John Saindon, Philip Bemah, Esther Hamblion, Evelyn Castle, Desmond Williams, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert Nyenswah
The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283587/vocal-conditioning-in-kea-parrots-nestor-notabilis
#13
Amelia Wein, Raoul Schwing, Martine Hausberger, Rogelio Rodriguez, Ludwig Huber
In laboratory studies of vocal behavior in animals, subjects are normally isolated in a sound-insulated chamber for recording, but such socially isolated conditions may reduce the chances that they will vocalize. Indeed, past studies using such methods have faced the challenge that subjects remained silent. Knowledge of conditions under which subjects are more likely to vocalize could thus improve experimental design. This study investigated (a) whether kea (Nestor notabilis) could be trained to increase vocal production using operant conditioning and (b) the conditions under which such training was feasible...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250738/effects-of-muscarinic-m1-and-m4-acetylcholine-receptor-stimulation-on-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking-in-male-mice-independent-of-extinction-learning
#14
Kevin Stoll, Rachel Hart, Craig W Lindsley, Morgane Thomsen
RATIONALE: Stimulating muscarinic M1/M4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. OBJECTIVES: We tested whether stimulating M1 and/or M4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement...
December 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233420/student-pharmacist-perceived-benefit-of-a-sequential-training-model-for-health-testing
#15
Tiffaney Threatt, Eileen Ward, Kayce Shealy, Amy Hynes, P Elizabeth Robinette
PURPOSE: This article describes the health testing training process used at Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy and evaluates perceptions of the sequential training model among students in their first, second, and third professional years. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: After observing student deficiencies in the knowledge and skills necessary for performing health tests, despite receiving didactic training within the core curriculum, faculty members searched for supplemental training programs used by other schools of pharmacy...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220747/effects-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-modulation-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-seeking-and-consumption-in-the-rat
#16
Kyle A Windisch, Cristine L Czachowski
Previous studies suggest that group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are involved in regulating ethanol-seeking and consumption. The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) and selective mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator biphenyl‑indanone A (BINA) were used to investigate the relative contribution of mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors on ethanol- and sucrose-seeking and consumption. A microinjection study was then performed to examine the role of nucleus accumbens (NAc) core mGluR2/3 on ethanol-seeking. For the systemic experiments, separate groups of male Wistar rats [LY37 (0-2...
September 23, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219098/analyzing-implementation-dynamics-using-theory-driven-evaluation-principles-lessons-learnt-from-a-south-african-centralized-chronic-dispensing-model
#17
Bvudzai Priscilla Magadzire, Bruno Marchal, Tania Mathys, Richard O Laing, Kim Ward
BACKGROUND: Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214133/systematic-review-of-functional-analysis-and-treatment-of-elopement-2000-2015
#18
Megan A Boyle, Reesha M Adamson
Elopement is a dangerous behavior that is emitted by a large proportion of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Functional analysis and function-based treatments are critical in identifying maintaining reinforcers and decreasing elopement. The purpose of this review was to identify recent trends in the functional analysis and treatment of elopement, as well as determine the efficacy (standardized mean differences) of recent treatments. Over half of subjects' elopement was maintained by social positive reinforcement, while only 25% of subjects' elopement was maintained by social negative reinforcement...
December 2017: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208792/impact-of-educational-intervention-for-hand-hygiene-on-dental-students-knowledge-attitude-and-bacterial-contamination-level-on-hands
#19
Hanadi Lingawi, Yahia Maher, Ibtesam Afifi
AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the educational intervention for hand hygiene (HH) on knowledge, attitude, and mean colony-forming bacterial counts and type of bacteria on hands of undergraduate dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 86 dental students from different clinical grades were included in the study. They were divided into two groups, group I (55 students) received onetime educational session for HH at the start of the academic year and group II (31 students) received an extra reenforce-ment session 6 months later...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200543/a-protocol-for-training-group-housed-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-to-cooperate-with-husbandry-and-research-procedures-using-positive-reinforcement
#20
Caralyn Kemp, Harriet Thatcher, David Farningham, Claire Witham, Ann MacLarnon, Amanda Holmes, Stuart Semple, Emily J Bethell
There has been increased recognition of the 3Rs in laboratory animal management over the last decade, including improvements in animal handling and housing. For example, positive reinforcement is now more widely used to encourage primates to cooperate with husbandry procedures, and improved enclosure design allows housing in social groups with opportunity to escape and avoid other primates and humans. Both practices have become gold standards in captive primate care resulting in improved health and behavioural outcomes...
December 2017: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
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