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Positive reinforcement training

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744647/antioxidant-and-antiamnestic-effects-of-potassium-comenate-and-comenic-acid-under-conditions-of-normobaric-hypoxia-with-hypercapnia
#1
L V Shurygina, E I Zlishcheva, A N Kravtsova, A A Kravtsov
Potassium comenate and comenic acid exhibit manifest and virtually identical antioxidant activity under conditions of hypoxia with hypercapnia. The effects of these drugs on conditioned reflex training with positive reinforcement differ significantly. Potassium comenate promotes retention of the learning capacity and memory in hypoxic rats at the level of intact control, that is, exhibits a pronounced protective antiamnestic effect, while comenic acid only facilitates training of the conditioned reflex with positive reinforcement...
July 26, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711513/the-effectiveness-of-cognitive-function-stress-management-training-in-glycemic-control-in-children-and-in-mental-health-of-mother-caring-for-child-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Mozhdeh Saghaei, Pouya Omidi, Elham Hashemi Dehkordi, Parvin Safavi
AIM: The study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a training course of cognitive-behavioral stress management in glycaemia regulation in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as in mental health status of their mothers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. A group of mothers (n=25; as experimental one besides their children) passed a course, eight 2-h sessions, on the cognitive-behavioral and stress management, and the control group received the usual care...
July 3, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704139/influencing-safety-in-australian-agriculture-and-fisheries
#3
Kristin E McBain-Rigg, Richard C Franklin, Jemma C King, Tony Lower
BACKGROUND: Improving the health and safety of those working in Australian agriculture and fishery industries is a recognized priority area for preventative activities. With Australian agricultural industries being among the nation's most dangerous workplaces, there is a need for action. While there are currently known solutions, their implementation is limited. Influential agents, that is, people who can influence others, are important for helping to engender action to enact solutions into practice...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-cbd-on-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-self-administration-in-male-and-female-long-evans-rats
#4
Alison G P Wakeford, Bradley B Wetzell, Rebecca L Pomfrey, Matthew M Clasen, William W Taylor, Briana J Hempel, Anthony L Riley
Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents...
August 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680108/behavioral-inefficiency-on-a-risky-decision-making-task-in-adulthood-after-adolescent-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#5
Kelsey M Miller, Mary-Louise Risher, Shawn K Acheson, Matthew Darlow, Hannah G Sexton, Nicole Schramm-Sapyta, H S Swartzwelder
Adolescence is a period of development in neural circuits that are critical for adult functioning. There is a relationship between alcohol exposure and risky decision-making, though the enduring effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on risky decision-making in adulthood have not been fully explored. Studies using positive reinforcement have shown that adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure results in higher levels of risky decision-making in adulthood, but the effects of AIE on punishment-mediated decision-making have not been explored...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670249/the-effect-of-the-training-program-on-the-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-asthma-based-on-the-precede-model-in-ahvaz-iran
#6
Mina Motaghi Nejad, Ghodratollah Shakeri Nejad, Heshmatollah Tavakol, Maria Cheraghi
AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the training program based on the Precede model and its main components on improving the quality of life in patients with asthma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was a randomized quasi-experimental study done on 120 patients with asthma who were referred to the Imam Khomeini hospital in Ahvaz who were selected using the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The data collection tool consisted of two questionnaires...
June 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663109/the-reinforcing-value-and-liking-of-resistance-training-and-aerobic-exercise-as-predictors-of-adult-s-physical-activity
#7
Kyle D Flack, LuAnn Johnson, James N Roemmich
OBJECTIVE: Reinforcing value (motivating value) is a stronger predictor than hedonic value (liking) for engaging in drug use, gambling, and eating. The associations of reinforcing value and liking with physical activity of adults have not yet been studied and may depend on the modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic/cardiovascular exercise, resistance training) under consideration. The purpose of this study was to test associations of the reinforcing value and liking of aerobic exercise training (AT) and resistance exercise training (RT) modes of exercise with usual participation in aerobic and resistance exercise in adults...
June 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656616/embedding-assessment-in-a-simulation-skills-training-program-for-medical-and-midwifery-students-a-pre-and-post-intervention-evaluation
#8
Arunaz Kumar, Debra Nestel, Christine East, Margaret Hay, Irene Lichtwark, Gayle McLelland, Deidre Bentley, Helen Hall, Shavi Fernando, Sebastian Hobson, Luke Larmour, Philip Dekoninck, Euan M Wallace
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based programs are increasingly being used to teach obstetrics and gynaecology examinations, but it is difficult to establish student learning acquired through them. Assessment may test student learning but its role in learning itself is rarely recognised. We undertook this study to assess medical and midwifery student learning through a simulation program using a pre-test and post-test design and also to evaluate use of assessment as a method of learning. METHODS: The interprofessional simulation education program consisted of a brief pre-reading document, a lecture, a video demonstration and a hands-on workshop...
June 28, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629302/-pimping-in-pharmacy-education-a-survey-and-comparison-of-student-and-faculty-views
#9
Eric A Williams, Andrew R Miesner, Emily A Beckett, Sarah E Grady
BACKGROUND: "Pimping" is an informal teaching technique that is widely used in medical education. Pimping is characterized by questioning the learner with the intent of reinforcing clinical hierarchy. To date, there are no studies of the use of pimping in pharmacy education. OBJECTIVES: To describe the use of pimping as a teaching method in pharmacy education and to compare student and faculty perceptions of this technique. METHODS: Faculty and fourth-year PharmD (P4) students from 2 colleges of pharmacy were invited to participate in a survey about experiences and perceptions of pimping...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616957/-what-are-the-main-factors-assisting-general-practitioners-in-the-development-of-educational-strategies
#10
Anthony Chapron, Laure Fiquet, Emmanuel Allory, Graziella Brinchault, Sandrine Hugé, Jeanine Pommier
General practitioners (GP) are in a special position to conduct educational strategies for their patients with chronic disease. Despite the GP’s desire to be involved in patient education, this approach remains underdeveloped.Objective: To determine the factors required support the development of educational strategies in general practice from the GPs’ perspective.Methods: Qualitative study based on a “modified nominal group technique” carried out among 21 GPs (not specifically trained in patient education) participating as investigators in an interventional study testing a structured educational strategy...
March 6, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608008/effects-of-social-reorganization-on-dopamine-d2-d3-receptor-availability-and-cocaine-self-administration-in-male-cynomolgus-monkeys
#11
P W Czoty, R W Gould, H D Gage, M A Nader
RATIONALE: Studies have demonstrated that brain dopamine D2/D3 receptors (D2/D3R) and the reinforcing effects of cocaine can be influenced by a monkey's position in the social dominance hierarchy. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we manipulated the social ranks of monkeys by reorganizing social groups and assessed effects on D2/D3R availability and cocaine self-administration. METHODS: Male cynomolgus monkeys (N = 12) had been trained to self-administer cocaine under a concurrent cocaine-food reinforcement schedule...
June 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587894/burrowing-as-a-novel-voluntary-strength-training-method-for-mice-a-comparison-of-various-voluntary-strength-or-resistance-exercise-methods
#12
P Roemers, P N Mazzola, P P De Deyn, W J Bossers, M J G van Heuvelen, E A van der Zee
BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566126/survey-on-knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-blood-donation-among-continuing-medical-education-cme-students-in-sichuan-province-china
#13
Lei Gao, Qiang Wang
The study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among continuing medical education students in Sichuan.This study was carried out on 841 continuing medical education students using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software.Among the 800 students, 424 were donors and 417 were non-donors The score of knowledge (mean11.71±2.22 VS 8.46±3.27) and attitude (mean 9.19±2.42 VS 7.08±2.02) in donors were statistically significant higher than the non-donors...
May 10, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552258/the-movin-project-mobilisation-of-ventilated-intensive-care-patients-at-nepean-a-quality-improvement-project-based-on-the-principles-of-knowledge-translation-to-promote-nurse-led-mobilisation-of-critically-ill-ventilated-patients
#14
Anwar Hassan, Arvind Rajamani, Fiona Fitzsimons
OBJECTIVE: Prospective quality improvement project to evaluate the impact of a training programme to promote nurse-led mobilisation of intubated critically ill patients. METHODS: This project involved an educational programme to upskill nurses and overcome the barriers/challenges to nurse-led mobilisation. Initial strategies focused on educating and upskilling nurses to attain competency in active mobilisation. Subsequent strategies focused on positive reinforcement to achieve a culture shift...
May 25, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#15
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506455/trauma-morning-report-is-the-ideal-environment-to-teach-and-evaluate-resident-communication-and-sign-outs-in-the-80-hour-work-week
#16
Mary E Ottinger, Sean F Monaghan, Shea C Gregg, Andrew H Stephen, Michael D Connolly, David T Harrington, Charles A Adams, William G Cioffi, Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: The 80h work week has raised concerns that complications may increase due to multiple sign-outs or poor communication. Trauma Surgery manages complex trauma and acute care surgical patients with rapidly changing physiology, clinical demands and a large volume of data that must be communicated to render safe, effective patient care. Trauma Morning Report format may offer the ideal situation to study and teach sign-outs and resident communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgery Residents were assessed on a 1-5 scale for their ability to communicate to their fellow residents...
May 1, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#17
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary T Irwin, Autumn J Bullard, David E Thompson, J Nicole Bentley, William C Stacey, Parag G Patil, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in the primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#18
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487223/obesogenic-diet-intake-during-pregnancy-programs-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-and-addiction-like-behavior-to-a-palatable-food-in-offspring
#19
Alberto Camacho, Larisa Montalvo-Martinez, Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas
Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole 4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475581/stress-affects-instrumental-learning-based-on-positive-or-negative-reinforcement-in-interaction-with-personality-in-domestic-horses
#20
Mathilde Valenchon, Frédéric Lévy, Chantal Moussu, Léa Lansade
The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements...
2017: PloS One
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