keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Positive reinforcement training

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506455/trauma-morning-report-is-the-ideal-environment-to-teach-and-evaluate-resident-communication-and-sign-outs-in-the-80-hour-work-week
#1
Mary E Ottinger, Sean F Monaghan, Shea C Gregg, Andrew H Stephen, Michael D Connolly, David T Harrington, Charles A Adams, William G Cioffi, Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: The 80h work week has raised concerns that complications may increase due to multiple sign-outs or poor communication. Trauma Surgery manages complex trauma and acute care surgical patients with rapidly changing physiology, clinical demands and a large volume of data that must be communicated to render safe, effective patient care. Trauma Morning Report format may offer the ideal situation to study and teach sign-outs and resident communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surgery Residents were assessed on a 1-5 scale for their ability to communicate to their fellow residents...
May 1, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#2
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary Irwin, Autumn Bullard, David Thompson, Nicole Bentley, William Stacey, Parag Patil, Cynthia Chestek
OBJECTIVE:  Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#3
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487223/obesogenic-diet-intake-during-pregnancy-programs-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-and-addiction-like-behavior-to-a-palatable-food-in-offspring
#4
Alberto Camacho, Larisa Montalvo-Martinez, Robbi E Cardenas-Perez, Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Lourdes Garza-Ocañas
Contextual food conditioned behaviors require plasticity of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the reward system, involving changes in the expression of including a-amino-3-hydroxy-5- methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate 2,3 (mGlur 2,3). However, the role of changes in glutamatergic synaptic markers on energy-dense palatable food preference during development has not been described. Here, we determine the effect of nutritional programing during gestation on fat food choices using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test and an operant training response and its effect on glutamatergic markers in the nucleus accumbens (Nac) shell and prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475581/stress-affects-instrumental-learning-based-on-positive-or-negative-reinforcement-in-interaction-with-personality-in-domestic-horses
#5
Mathilde Valenchon, Frédéric Lévy, Chantal Moussu, Léa Lansade
The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475063/training-an-actor-critic-reinforcement-learning-controller-for-arm-movement-using-human-generated-rewards
#6
Kathleen Jagodnik, Philip Thomas, Antonie van den Bogert, Michael Branicky, Robert Kirsch
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) employs neuroprostheses to apply electrical current to the nerves and muscles of individuals paralyzed by spinal cord injury (SCI) to restore voluntary movement. Neuroprosthesis controllers calculate stimulation patterns to produce desired actions. To date, no existing controller is able to efficiently adapt its control strategy to the wide range of possible physiological arm characteristics, reaching movements, and user preferences that vary over time. Reinforcement learning (RL) is a control strategy that can incorporate human reward signals as inputs to allow human users to shape controller behavior...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472677/an-automated-system-for-positive-reinforcement-training-of-group-housed-macaque-monkeys-at-breeding-and-research-facilities
#7
Jennifer Tulip, Jonas B Zimmermann, David Farningham, Andrew Jackson
BACKGROUND: Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. NEW METHOD: We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460596/using-objective-structured-teaching-encounters-ostes-to-prepare-chief-residents-to-be-emotionally-intelligent-leaders
#8
Sara Ann Cerrone, Patti Adelman, Salaahuddin Akbar, Andrew C Yacht, Alice Fornari
BACKGROUND: Chief Residents must lead, manage and mentor a diverse and often large group of residents, however there is a lack of formal leadership training throughout graduate medical education. OBJECTIVE: Development of a 3-part Chief Resident (CR) Program focused on leading, managing and mentoring. DESIGN: Each participant completes an Emotional Intelligence (EI) Inventory prior to the day-long event. Participants receive their EI scores at the beginning of the program, which features interactive sessions on leadership, management, and feedback skills...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421695/evaluation-of-an-interview-skills-training-package-for-adolescents-with-speech-language-and-communication-needs
#9
Rachel Mathrick, Tina Meagher, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We evaluated a structured intervention programme aimed at preparing adolescents with developmental language disorders for job interviews. Our primary outcome measures included change in ratings of verbal and non-verbal social communication behaviours evident during mock interviews. METHODS & PROCEDURES: In study 1, 12 participants, aged 17-19 years, from a specialist sixth-form college completed the intervention and two mock interviews, one pre- and one post-intervention...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421175/factors-influencing-usability-of-a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-excessive-alcohol-consumption-think-aloud-and-interview-studies
#10
David Crane, Claire Garnett, Jamie Brown, Robert West, Susan Michie
BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered by smartphone apps have the potential to help drinkers reduce their consumption of alcohol. To optimize engagement and reduce the high rates of attrition associated with the use of digital interventions, it is necessary to ensure that an app's design and functionality is appropriate for its intended purposes and target population. AIMS: To understand the usability of an app to help people reduce their alcohol consumption. METHOD: The app, Drink Less, contains a core module focusing on goal setting, supplemented by five additional modules: self-monitoring and feedback, identity change, cognitive bias re-training, action planning, and social comparison...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406342/modelling-the-effect-of-perceived-interdependence-among-mental-healthcare-professionals-on-their-work-role-performance
#11
Marie-Pierre Markon, François Chiocchio, Marie-Josée Fleury
The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390541/improving-continuing-professional-development-opportunities-for-radiographers-a-single-centre-evaluation
#12
Barry J Stevens, Demetri Wade
PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify current barriers to CPD and generate ideas for strategies to overcome these issues. Further aims were to gather an overview of respondents' understanding and opinions of CPD. METHODS: An online survey was used to acquire information from departmental band 5 and band 6 radiographers. Descriptive statistical analysis and thematic analysis were performed to understand demographics and individuals' behaviours and experiences. FINDINGS: Radiographers (n = 33) were sent an invitation via email providing a response rate of 75...
May 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384301/effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-on-social-anxiety-a-meta-analysis
#13
Haining Liu, Xianwen Li, Buxin Han, Xiaoqian Liu
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM), a set of techniques for modifying bias in information processing-is considered a novel intervention for social anxiety disorder (SAD), which has drawn considerable interest from researchers. However, the effects of CBM on SAD are not consistent. Some studies have demonstrated significant positive effects compared to control groups, while others have found no such effects. AIMS: We conducted a meta-analysis aimed at quantitatively assessing the effects of CBM on SAD at post-test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382606/exercise-strategies-to-counteract-brain-aging-effects
#14
Dominika Szalewska, Marek Radkowski, Urszula Demkow, Pawel J Winklewski
Stimulating structural and functional adaptation that improves cognitive performance in specific tasks is the major objective of therapeutic exercise training. In this review we briefly summarize central physiological mechanisms activated by exercise. We further discuss the influence of different kinds of exercise on cognitive improvement. In particular, the effects on cognitive function of aerobic endurance, resistance and respiratory exercise, and combinations thereof are presented. The accumulating evidence reinforces the position that regular aerobic, and possibly also resistance training, offers a powerful tool to cope with biologic aging of central nervous system functions...
April 6, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365836/abuse-related-effects-of-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-in-an-assay-of-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#15
Kathryn L Schwienteck, Guanguan Li, Michael M Poe, James M Cook, Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
RATIONALE: GABAA positive allosteric modulators (GABAA PAMs), such as diazepam and zolpidem, are used clinically for anxiety and insomnia, but abuse liability is a concern. Novel GABAA PAMS may have lower abuse liability while retaining clinical utility. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared abuse-related effects of the non-selective GABAA PAM diazepam, the α1-selective GABAA PAM zolpidem, and three novel GABAA PAMs (JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, and HZ-166) using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats...
April 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301189/differential-effects-of-neural-inactivation-of-the-dorsolateral-striatum-on-response-and-latent-extinction
#16
Jarid Goodman, Amanda Gabriele, Mark G Packard
The present study examined the role of the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) in extinction behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were initially trained on the straight alley maze, in which they were reinforced to traverse a straight runway and retrieve food reward at the opposite end of the maze. After initial acquisition, animals were given extinction training using 1 of 2 distinct protocols: response extinction or latent extinction. For response extinction, the animal was released from the same starting position and had the opportunity to perform the originally reinforced approach response to the goal end of the maze, which no longer contained food...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298887/automated-operant-conditioning-in-the-mouse-home-cage
#17
Nikolas A Francis, Patrick O Kanold
Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics have made mice an advantageous animal model for studying the neurophysiology of sensation, cognition, and locomotion. A key benefit of mice is that they provide a large population of test subjects for behavioral screening. Reflex-based assays of hearing in mice, such as the widely used acoustic startle response, are less accurate than operant conditioning in measuring auditory processing. To date, however, there are few cost-effective options for scalable operant conditioning systems...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298209/implementation-of-evidence-informed-practice-through-central-network-actors-a-case-study-of-three-public-health-units-in-canada
#18
Reza Yousefi Nooraie, Alexandra Marin, Robert Hanneman, Lynne Lohfeld, Maureen Dobbins
BACKGROUND: Workforce development is an important aspect of evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) interventions. The social position of individuals in formal and informal social networks, and the relevance of formal roles in relation to EIDM are important factors identifying key EIDM players in public health organizations. We assessed the role of central actors in information sharing networks in promoting the adoption of EIDM by the staff of three public health units in Canada, over a two-year period during which an organization-wide intervention was implemented...
March 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294133/the-gabab-positive-allosteric-modulator-adx71441-attenuates-alcohol-self-administration-and-relapse-to-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#19
Eric Augier, Russell S Dulman, Ruslan Damadzic, Andrew Pilling, J Paul Hamilton, Markus Heilig
GABAergic signaling is involved in modulating the reinforcing properties of alcohol, and GABAB receptors have been proposed as a potential target for clinical treatment of alcoholism. The orthosteric GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to suppress operant self-administration of alcohol in animals and alcohol use in alcohol dependent patients, but its utility is limited by a narrow therapeutic index. We tested the effects of ADX71441, a novel GABAB receptor positive allosteric modulator on alcohol-related behaviors in rats...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287586/introducing-clicker-training-as-a-cognitive-enrichment-for-laboratory-mice
#20
Charlotte Leidinger, Felix Herrmann, Christa Thöne-Reineke, Nadine Baumgart, Jan Baumgart
Establishing new refinement strategies in laboratory animal science is a central goal in fulfilling the requirements of Directive 2010/63/EU. Previous research determined a profound impact of gentle handling protocols on the well-being of laboratory mice. By introducing clicker training to the keeping of mice, not only do we promote the amicable treatment of mice, but we also enable them to experience cognitive enrichment. Clicker training is a form of positive reinforcement training using a conditioned secondary reinforcer, the "click" sound of a clicker, which serves as a time bridge between the strengthened behavior and an upcoming reward...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
keyword
keyword
98256
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"