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Positive reinforcement training

Thomas H Hartranft, Kurt Yandle, Tim Graham, Charles Holden, Lowell W Chambers
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a newly implemented electronic web-based review system created at our institution for evaluating resident performance relative to established milestones. DESIGN: Retrospective review of data collected from a survey of general surgery faculty and residents. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital system and independent academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12 general surgery faculty and 17 general surgery residents participated in this study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Marita Campos-Melady, Jane Ellen Smith, Robert J Meyers, Susan H Godley, Mark D Godley
Central to the debate over the implementation of empirically supported treatments is whether therapist skill has a measurable, positive relationship with client outcome. The fidelity and skill with which therapists deliver treatments have been studied under the constructs of adherence and competence. Evidence for a relationship between adherence and competence and client outcomes has been mixed, possibly due to small sample sizes, potentially inadequate measures for rating therapists' skill, and limited statistical methods...
October 13, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
E Patitucci, A J D Nelson, Dominic M Dwyer, R C Honey
Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Jan J W van der Burg, Jody Sohier, Peter H Jongerius
In this case series (n = 10) with a non-concurrent multiple baseline design, a self-management program was shown to be effective during inpatient training in eight participants with oral-motor problems and normal intelligence or mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught to perform a self-management routine and to remain dry for increasing time intervals. In addition, the program provided differential (self-) reinforcement of swallowing, controlling and wiping behavior, explicit formulation of motivational factors, instruction and feedback for parents and teachers, and continued practice after discharge...
October 7, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
M Le Chevalier de Préville, J-L Alessandri, N Traversier, F Cuillier, S Robin, D Ramful
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maternal-fetal management and follow-up of infants at risk for congenital syphilis. STUDY DESIGN: Monocentric retrospective cohort study at the Félix Guyon Hospital, Saint-Denis, La Réunion between January 2008 and December 2014. Management of 38 pregnancies (35 women, 39 fetuses) with a positive syphilis serology was evaluated according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 68% (n=26) of pregnancies were screened before 16 weeks of gestation, and 26% (n=10) had appropriate treatment...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Amras van Opdorp, Eni S Becker, Mike Rinck
To address shortcomings of purely reaction-time based attentional bias modification (ABM) paradigms, we developed an ABM task that is controlled by eye-tracking. This task allows to assess and train both disengagement from negative pictures and maintained attention to positive pictures. As a proof-of-principle study with an unselected student sample, this positive training (PT; N = 44) was compared to a negative training (NT; N = 42), which reinforced the opposite attentional pattern. Importantly, training trials were completed only if participants performed the correct gaze patterns...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Claudia Campos, Yanerys Leon, Andressa Sleiman, Beatriz Urcuyo
One potential limitation of functional communication training (FCT) is that after the functional communication response (FCR) is taught, the response may be emitted at high rates or inappropriate times. Thus, schedule thinning is often necessary. Previous research has demonstrated that multiple schedules can facilitate schedule thinning by establishing discriminative control of the communication response while maintaining low rates of problem behavior. To date, most applied research evaluating the clinical utility of multiple schedules has done so in the context of behavior maintained by positive reinforcement (e...
September 27, 2016: Behavior Modification
Abdelbaki Laidoune, Med El Hadi Rahal Gharbi
BACKGROUND: The influence of sociocultural factors on human reliability within an open sociotechnical systems is highlighted. The design of such systems is enhanced by experience feedback. METHODS: The study was focused on a survey related to the observation of working cases, and by processing of incident/accident statistics and semistructured interviews in the qualitative part. In order to consolidate the study approach, we considered a schedule for the purpose of standard statistical measurements...
September 2016: Safety and Health At Work
Maria T Stevenson, Patrick M Ghezzi, Kymmo G Valenton
Nearly half of children with autism have eloped from their caregivers. In assessing elopement, the initial functional analytic results of this case study found positive reinforcement in the form of attention and access to tangibles were the maintaining variables. Functional communication training (FCT) in combination with delay fading was utilized to increase communication and decrease elopement. Results indicated that communication was consistent, elopement remained low, and the child learned to wait.
June 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
Maritza Navarrete, Melissa Hott, Jorge Caroca, Luis Leyton, Nadialett Venegas, Kissy Ismail, Farides Saavedra, Carola Otth
BACKGROUND: Currently in Chile, due to the frequent clinical suspicion of Hantavirus disease and the high public health impact that this causes, it is necessary to strengthen the criteria for clinical and epidemiological suspicion in the health team. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the information contained in the reports of suspected Hantavirus infection versus the confirmatory diagnosis with the reference technique, IgM capture ELISA anti-hantavirus. Material andMethods: Correlation between the information provided in notifications versus the result of confirmation was analyzed by calculating diagnostic accuracy...
June 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Justin A Harris, Angela E Patterson, Benjamin J Andrew, Dorothy W S Kwok, Ignacio Loy
Five experiments investigated how learning about the added feature in a feature-positive discrimination or feature-negative discrimination is related to the change in reinforcement rate that the feature signals. Rats were trained in a magazine-approach paradigm with 2 concurrent discriminations between A versus AX and B versus BY. In 2 experiments (1 and 3), X and Y signaled an increase of 0.3 in the probability of reinforcement, from 0.1 to 0.4 (A vs. AX), or from 0.6 to 0.9 (B vs. BY). After extended training, each session included probe test trials in which X and Y were presented alone (Experiment 1) or in compound with another excitatory conditional stimulus (CS), C (Experiment 3)...
October 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
Gunnar Sørensen, S Barak Caine, Morgane Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been shown to decrease ethanol (EtOH) drinking in rodent assays. The GLP-1 system also powerfully modulates food and fluid intake, gastrointestinal functions, and metabolism. To begin to understand the neurobiological mechanisms by which GLP-1 receptor ligands may be able to control EtOH intake, it is important to ascertain whether they can modulate the direct reinforcing effects of EtOH, without the confound of effects on ingestive behaviors generally...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
H McBain, S Begum, S Rahman, K Mulligan
AIMS: To identify the barriers to and enablers of effective insulin self-titration in people with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A qualitative semi-structured interview approach was used. Questions were structured according to the Theoretical Domains Framework, which outlines 14 domains that can act as barriers to and enablers of changing behaviour. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were coded according to the 14 domains, belief statements were created within each domain, and a frequency count of the most reported barriers and enablers was then carried out...
August 9, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
David Peres, Milton Severo, Maria Amélia Ferreira
Medical education should include infection control precautions (ICPs). Portuguese medical students showed reasonable knowledge in ICPs; however, contact isolation and glove and mask use should be reinforced. Only 25% referred to the curriculum as the most important information source. There was a positive association between academic year (P = .032), previous training in ICPs (P = .016), and knowledge. Main strategies proposed to acquire competences in ICPs were bedside teaching (26.9%) and curriculum and bedside teaching (20...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Robert Bauer, Meike Fels, Vladislav Royter, Valerio Raco, Alireza Gharabaghi
OBJECTIVE: Considering self-rated mental effort during neurofeedback may improve training of brain self-regulation. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy, right-handed subjects performed kinesthetic motor imagery of opening their left hand, while threshold-based classification of beta-band desynchronization resulted in proprioceptive robotic feedback. The experiment consisted of two blocks in a cross-over design. The participants rated their perceived mental effort nine times per block...
September 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Andrew Scheibe, Simon Howell, Alexandra Müller, Munyaradzi Katumba, Bram Langen, Lillian Artz, Monique Marks
INTRODUCTION: Sex workers, people who use drugs, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women and transgender people in South Africa frequently experience high levels of stigma, abuse and discrimination. Evidence suggests that such abuse is sometimes committed by police officers, meaning that those charged with protection are perpetrators. This reinforces cycles of violence, increases the risk of HIV infection, undermines HIV prevention and treatment interventions and violates the constitutional prescriptions that the police are mandated to protect...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Katherine C Kellogg, Lindsay A Gainer, Adrienne S Allen, Tatum OʼSullivan, Sara J Singer
BACKGROUND: Recent policy reforms encourage quality improvement (QI) innovations in primary care, but practitioners lack clear guidance regarding spread inside organizations. PURPOSE: We designed this study to identify how large organizations can facilitate intraorganizational spread of QI innovations. METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: We conducted ethnographic observation and interviews in a large, multispecialty, community-based medical group that implemented three QI innovations across 10 primary care sites using a new method for intraorganizational process development and spread...
July 15, 2016: Health Care Management Review
Sung Ae Kwon, Stacey Kolomer
As ethical issues arise concerning the continuation of futile medical treatment for dying patients in Korean society, advance directive planning initiatives have been put into place to guide practice. This article describes the awareness and attitudes of social workers in Korea regarding advance care planning and related factors. A total of 246 gerontological/geriatric social workers completed a mailed or in-person survey regarding awareness and attitudes toward advance care planning. Seventy-three percent (n = 180) of the participants reported no knowledge of advance directives...
August 2016: Social Work in Health Care
Rachel M Enga, Asti Jackson, M Imad Damaj, Patrick M Beardsley
Abuse of prescription opioids, such as oxycodone, has markedly increased in recent decades. While oxycodone's antinociceptive effects have been detailed in several preclinical reports, surprisingly few preclinical reports have elaborated its abuse-related effects. This is particularly surprising given that oxycodone has been in clinical use since 1917. In a novel oral operant self-administration procedure, C57BL/6J mice were trained to self-administer water before introducing increasing concentrations of oxycodone (0...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
R R Bhardwaj, J E Oeltmann, C Ravichandra, V K Chadda, M Das, A M V Kumar
To find 'missing' tuberculosis (TB) cases, in November 2014 we trained private practitioners (PPs) and Ayurvedic practitioners (APs; Indian system of medicine) in Bilaspur district, India, to identify patients with presumptive TB and refer them to sputum microscopy centres. To reinforce this training, we sent weekly text message reminders during January-March 2015. All 50 APs and 23 of 29 PPs participated. The number of patients with presumptive TB referred by the PPs and APs increased from 38 (January-March 2014) to 104 (January-March 2015), and the number of smear-positive TB patients diagnosed increased from 5 to 16, a 220% increase...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
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