keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Positive reinforcement training

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617217/emphasizing-the-positive-in-positive-reinforcement-using-non-binary-rewarding-for-training-monkeys-on-cognitive-tasks
#1
Benjamin Fischer, Detlef Wegener
Non-human primates constitute an indispensable model system for studying higher brain func-tions at the neurophysiological level. Studies involving these animals elucidated the neuronal mechanisms of various cognitive and executive functions, such as visual attention, working memory, and decision-making. Positive Reinforcement Training (PRT) constitutes the gold standard for training animals on the cognitive tasks employed in these studies. In the laboratory, PRT is usually based on applying a liquid reward as the reinforcer to strengthen the desired be-havior, and absence of the reward if the animal's response was wrong...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608118/a-global-health-training-model-for-teaching-pediatric-clinical-decision-making-skills-to-rwandan-physical-therapists-a-case-report
#2
Kathryn Clark, Cara N Whalen Smith, Lori Kohls, Ines Musabyemariya, Egide Kayonga Ntagungira, Monika Mann, Steve R Fisher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing interest among physical therapists from high-income countries to participate in education development projects in low-income countries. However, there are few examples in the literature of effective developmental models or projects. This case report describes a model for improving pediatric clinical decision making skills among Rwandan physical therapists using best practices in clinical decision making, evidence-based practice where possible, and use of the International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) model...
April 2, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578947/chronic-pain-impairs-cognitive-flexibility-and-engages-novel-learning-strategies-in-rats
#3
Stephen L Cowen, Caroline E Phelps, Edita Navratilova, David L McKinzie, Alec Okun, Omar Husain, Scott D Gleason, Jeffrey M Witkin, Frank Porreca
Cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt behavior to changing outcomes, is critical for survival. The prefrontal cortex is a key site of cognitive control and chronic pain is known to lead to significant morphological changes to this brain region. Nevertheless, the effects of chronic pain on cognitive flexibility and learning remain uncertain. We used an instrumental paradigm to assess adaptive learning in an experimental model of chronic pain induced by tight ligation of the spinal nerves L5/6 (SNL model)...
March 22, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577779/a-review-in-gait-rehabilitation-devices-and-applied-control-techniques
#4
Silvia L Chaparro-Cárdenas, Alejandro A Lozano-Guzmán, Julian Andres Ramirez-Bautista, Antonio Hernández-Zavala
PURPOSE: The aim of this review is to analyse the different existing technologies for gait rehabilitation, focusing mainly in robotic devices. Those robots help the patient to recover a lost function due to neurological gait disorders, accidents or after injury. Besides, they facilitate the identification of normal and abnormal features by registering muscle activity providing the doctor important data where he can observe the evolution of the patient. METHOD: A deep literature review was realized using selected keywords considering not only the most common medical and engineering databases, but also other available sources that provide information on commercial and scientific gait rehabilitation devices...
March 25, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535081/strengths-based-behavioral-intervention-for-parents-of-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-using-an-mhealth-app-type-1-doing-well-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Marisa E Hilliard, Sahar S Eshtehardi, Charles G Minard, Rana Saber, Debbe Thompson, Lefkothea P Karaviti, Yuliana Rojas, Barbara J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Supportive parent involvement for adolescents' type 1 diabetes (T1D) self-management promotes optimal diabetes outcomes. However, family conflict is common and can interfere with collaborative family teamwork. Few interventions have used explicitly strengths-based approaches to help reinforce desired management behaviors and promote positive family interactions around diabetes care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this protocol was to describe the development of a new, strengths-based behavioral intervention for parents of adolescents with T1D delivered via a mobile-friendly Web app called Type 1 Doing Well...
March 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504783/a-swap-methodology-applied-to-implicit-sequence-learning
#6
Charles Locurto, Alexandra Eckert, Julia Gould, Daniel McMaster, Matthew Morrow
Two experiments used a methodology in which elements in a serially presented sequence of 5 elements were randomly reinforced during training. To assess what was learned, elements were systematically swapped with each other during testing. The usual outcome measures in implicit sequence learning of this type are either a random test in which elements are disarrayed, or pairwise tests in which subjects choose between two elements. Each of these methods possesses shortcomings. The random test is a blunt measure, whereas pairwise tests disrupt the usual flow of elements in a serial sequence...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502276/mining-the-nucleus-accumbens-proteome-for-novel-targets-of-alcohol-self-administration-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Sara Faccidomo, Katarina S Swaim, Briana L Saunders, Taruni S Santanam, Seth M Taylor, Michelle Kim, Grant T Reid, Vallari R Eastman, Clyde W Hodge
RATIONALE: There is a clear need for discovery of effective medications to treat behavioral pathologies associated with alcohol addiction, such as chronic drinking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this preclinical study was to assess effects of chronic alcohol drinking on the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) proteome to identify and validate novel targets for medications development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to assess effects of chronic voluntary home-cage (24-h access) alcohol drinking on the NAcb proteome of C57BL/6J mice...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478572/-refusal-of-treatments-by-an-adult-cancer-patient
#8
Sarah Dauchy, Jean-Christophe Faivre, Véronique Block, Maude Metzger, Julia Salleron, Cécile Charles, Virginie Adam
INTRODUCTION: Refusal of treatment questions the treatment's adequacy as well as the quality of the care relationship. A rigorous analysis of these situations is necessary in order to respect the patient's fundamental right to decide for him/herself while preventing a potential loss of chance. This paper proposes practical guidelines for assessment and management of the refusal of treatment by adult cancer patients. METHODS: The French Association for Supportive Care in Cancer and the French Society for Psycho-Oncology formed a task force that applied a consensus methodology to draft guidelines...
March 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474285/incidence-of-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injuries-after-training-to-protect-the-perineum
#9
Jennifer Yeung, Anna Stecher, Catrina C Crisp, Donna Mazloomdoost, Benjamin Smith, Steven D Kleeman, Rachel N Pauls
OBJECTIVES: Obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASISs) are a devastating postpartum complication; reducing rates is paramount to improving quality of care. In Norway, implementation of a perineal protection program decreased the incidence of OASIS by 48%. We sought to assess impact on OASIS rates following a similar program. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study was performed in an academic hospital system. The periods of analysis were November 2014 through October 2015 for the preintervention arm and November 2015 through October 2016 for the postintervention arm...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471928/effects-of-motivational-interviewing-fidelity-on-substance-use-treatment-engagement-in-primary-care
#10
Karen Chan Osilla, Katherine E Watkins, Elizabeth J D'Amico, Colleen M McCullough, Allison J Ober
OBJECTIVE: Primary care (PC) may be an opportune setting to engage patients with opioid and alcohol use disorders (OAUDs) in treatment. We examined whether motivational interviewing (MI) fidelity was associated with engagement in primary care-based OAUD treatment in an integrated behavioral health setting. METHODS: We coded 42 first session therapy recordings and examined whether therapist MI global ratings and behavior counts were associated with patient engagement, defined as the patient receiving one shot of extended-release injectable naltrexone or any combination of at least two additional behavioral therapy, sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone prescriptions, or OAUD-related medical visits within 30days of their initial behavioral therapy visit...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471475/assessing-viral-transfer-during-doffing-of-ebola-level-personal-protective-equipment-in-a-biocontainment-unit
#11
Lisa M Casanova, Kimberly Erukunuakpor, Colleen S Kraft, Joel M Mumma, Francis T Durso, Ashley N Ferguson, Christina L Gipson, Victoria L Walsh, Craig Zimring, Jennifer DuBose, Jesse T Jacob
Background: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD), and PPE doffing is a critical point for preventing viral self-contamination. We assessed contamination of skin, gloves, and scrubs after doffing Ebola-level PPE contaminated with surrogate viruses: bacteriophages MS2 and Φ6. Methods: In a medical biocontainment unit, HCWs (n = 10) experienced in EVD care donned and doffed PPE following unit protocols that incorporate trained observer guidance and alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454085/effects-of-orientation-and-differential-reinforcement-ii-transitivity-and-transfer-across-five-member-sets
#12
Micah Amd, Marlon A de Oliveira, Denise A Passarelli, Livia C Balog, Julio C de Rose
A recent report by Amd and colleagues (2017) demonstrated that orienting towards successively presented stimulus-stimulus pairs yielded significantly more transitive relations then when those same pairs were differentially reinforced following training for three, 3-member stimulus sets. We build on that work in four important ways. First, transitivity yields produced by Pavlovian and instrumental procedures were compared following training for three 5-member sets (A1-B1-C1-D1-E1, A2-B2-C2-D2-E2, A3-B3-C3-D3-E3), where the 'A' stimuli were emotional faces and all remaining stimuli were nonsense words...
February 14, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443823/aerobic-training-improves-quality-of-life-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Eduardo Caldas Costa, Joceline Cássia Ferezini de Sá, Nigel Keith Stepto, Ingrid Bezerra Barbosa Costa, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Simone da Nóbrega Tomaz Moreira, Elvira Maria Mafaldo Soares, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, George Dantas Azevedo
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a supervised aerobic exercise training intervention on health-related quality of life (HRQL), cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiometabolic profile, and affective response in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Twenty-seven overweight/obese inactive women with PCOS (body mass index, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m; aged from 18 to 34 years) were allocated into an exercise group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 13)...
February 13, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396617/resistance-exercise-decreases-heroin-self-administration-and-alters-gene-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-heroin-exposed-rats
#14
Mark A Smith, Gaylen E Fronk, Jean M Abel, Ryan T Lacy, Sarah E Bills, Wendy J Lynch
RATIONALE: Preclinical studies consistently report that aerobic exercise decreases drug self-administration and other forms of drug-seeking behavior; however, relatively few studies have examined other types of physical activity. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resistance exercise (i.e., strength training) on heroin self-administration and mRNA expression of genes known to mediate opioid reinforcement and addictive behavior in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of heroin-exposed rats...
April 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395013/-outcomes-after-a-2-year-pharmaceutical-care-program-for-patients-taking-vitamin-k-antagonist-therapy-community-pharmacist-s-perception
#15
C Mongaret, C Lepage, L Aubert, A Lestrille, F Slimano
OBJECTIVES: Since 2013 French community pharmacist are involved in pharmaceutical care program (PCP) for patients treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA). While PCPs are now extending to other patient populations, we aimed to evaluate pharmacists' perception after 2-years implementation and leading of PCP. METHODS: A prospective investigational survey from 1st August to 31st December, 2015 from 400 community pharmacies in Champagne-Ardenne Region. Survey focuses on 3 points: first about implementation and leading of PCP; secondly about patient's population description; finally on the global perception by CP about new tasks...
January 24, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385270/cognitive-judgement-bias-is-associated-with-frequency-of-anticipatory-behavior-in-bottlenose-dolphins
#16
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369054/lack-of-paclitaxel-effects-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-male-and-female-rats-comparison-to-mechanical-sensitivity
#17
Luke P Legakis, John W Bigbee, S Stevens Negus
Paclitaxel is a cancer chemotherapy with adverse effects that include peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain, and depression of behavior and mood. In rodents, hypersensitive paw-withdrawal reflexes from mechanical stimuli serve as one common measure of paclitaxel-induced pain-related behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that paclitaxel would also depress rates of positively reinforced operant responding as a measure of pain-related behavioral depression. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were equipped with electrodes targeting the medial forebrain bundle, trained to lever press for electrical brain stimulation in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), and treated with four injections of varying paclitaxel doses (0...
January 23, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367150/improving-implementation-of-the-smoking-cessation-guidelines-with-pregnant-women-how-to-support-clinicians
#18
Jo M Longman, Catherine M Adams, Jennifer J Johnston, Megan E Passey
OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to explore the enablers and barriers to implementation of the Australian smoking cessation in pregnancy guidelines. These guidelines direct clinicians to follow the 5As of cessation: Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrange follow-up. DESIGN: semi-structured interviews based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) elicited clinicians' views and experiences of implementing the guidelines. SETTING: antenatal care in the NSW public health system...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362024/models-of-nutrition-focused-continuing-education-programs-for-nurses-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#19
Holly Mitchell, Catherine Lucas, Karen Charlton, Anne McMahon
Nurses are well-positioned to provide basic nutrition education and reinforce nutrition messages to patients in hospital and primary care settings. Despite this, nurses may not receive adequate training to provide this service, and there is limited opportunity for nurses to engage in nutrition-focused continuing education (CE). The aim of this review was to determine whether nurse nutrition education results in improved knowledge and practices; and explore which models of CE for nutrition may be most acceptable and effective in practice...
January 24, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341905/intensity-difference-limens-in-adult-cba-caj-mice-mus-musculus
#20
Anastasiya Kobrina, Katrina L Toal, Micheal L Dent
Mice have emerged as important models of auditory perception and acoustic communication. To study and model complex sound perception and communication, basic hearing abilities have to be established, yet intensity difference limens have not been measured in CBA/CAJ mice. Nine mice were trained using operant conditioning procedures with positive reinforcement to discriminate sound intensity across frequencies. Intensity difference limens were measured for 12, 16, 24, and 42 kHz tones at 10 and 30 dB sensation levels...
January 13, 2018: Behavioural Processes
keyword
keyword
98256
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"