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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776435/fecal-aliquot-straw-technique-fast-allows-for-easy-and-reproducible-subsampling-assessing-interpersonal-variation-in-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-accumulation
#1
Kymberleigh A Romano, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Robert L Kerby, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Pamela Herd, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes...
May 18, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771163/review-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-as-a-treatment-option-in-ibd
#2
Kavitha Sivananthan, Andreas Munk Petersen
CONTEXT: Review of the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii as a treatment option for the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. OBJECTIVE: IBD is caused by an inappropriate immune response to gut microbiota. Treatment options could therefore be prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics and/or fecal transplant. In this review, we have looked at the evidence for the yeast S. boulardii as a treatment option. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library with the MeSH words 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND IBD', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Inflammatory Bowel Disease', 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND ulcerative colitis' and 'Saccharomyces boulardii AND Crohn's disease' gave total a total of 80 articles...
May 17, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770568/injection-of-synthetic-mesenchymal-stem-cell-mitigates-osteoporosis-in-rats-after-ovariectomy
#3
Miaoda Shen, Ronghuan Wu, Rilong Jin, Jun Pan, Fang Guo, Zhuoyang Li, Xiangjin Lin, Sanzhong Xu
Osteoporosis is a severe skeletal disorder. Patients have a low bone mineral density and bone structural deterioration. Mounting lines of evidence suggest that inappropriate apoptosis of osteoblasts/osteocytes leads to maladaptive bone remodelling in osteoporosis. It has been suggested that transplantation of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells, may alter the trajectory of bone remoulding and mitigate osteoporosis in animal models. However, stem cells needed to be carefully stored and characterized before usage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766824/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies-on-preclinical-evidence
#4
Fatima Saleh, Leila Itani, Simona Calugi, Riccardo Dalle Grave, Marwan El Ghoch
BACKGROUND: Obesity is an increasing global health problem, but its treatment is not yet optimal, especially in the long term. For this reason, preclinical studies have been conducted relating to a new therapeutic strategy for obesity based on adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs). The aim of our systematic review is to summarize these findings deriving from the animal model in order to establish whether there is sufficient evidence to justify going forward to clinical studies...
May 15, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764497/activated-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-to-reverse-the-factor-xa-inhibitor-apixaban-effect-before-emergency-surgery-a-case-series
#5
Nina Haagenrud Schultz, Runar Lundblad, Pål Andre Holme
BACKGROUND: The lack of an antidote against factor Xa inhibitors in case of major bleeding or need for urgent surgery is a concern to clinicians. Guidelines on managing major bleeding in patients under anticoagulation with a factor Xa inhibitor suggest several hemostatic agents to reverse the effect, but there is no consensus regarding the choice of drug or appropriate dose. The ability of prothrombin complex concentrate, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and recombinant factor VIIa to reverse the effect of factor Xa inhibitors has been evaluated in animal studies, in vitro studies, and healthy volunteers, but not yet in randomized clinical studies...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730224/rapid-diagnosis-of-parasitic-diseases-current-scenario-and-future-needs
#6
REVIEW
Stefan Momčilović, Cinzia Cantacessi, Valentina Arsić-Arsenijević, Domenico Otranto, Suzana Tasić-Otašević
BACKGROUND: Parasitic diseases are one of the world's most devastating and prevalent infections which cause millions of morbidities and mortalities annually. In the past, many of these infections have been linked predominantly to tropical or subtropical areas. Nowadays, however, climatic and vector ecology changes, a significant increase in international travel, armed conflicts and migration of humans and animals have influenced the transmission of some parasitic diseases from "book pages" to reality in developed countries...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707628/poor-patient-and-graft-outcome-after-induction-treatment-by-antithymocyte-globulin-in-recipients-of-a-kidney-graft-after-nonrenal-organ-transplantation
#7
Hoa Le Mai, Michèle Treilhaud, Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Hai Yu, Hélène Perreault, Evelyn Ang, Katy Trébern-Launay, Julie Laurent, Stéphanie Malard-Castagnet, Anne Cesbron, Thi Van Ha Nguyen, Sophie Brouard, Lionel Rostaing, Pauline Houssel-Debry, Christophe Legendre, Sophie Girerd, Michèle Kessler, Emmanuel Morelon, Antoine Sicard, Valérie Garrigue, Georges Karam, Xi Chen, Magali Giral, Vered Padler-Karavani, Jean Paul Soulillou
Background: End-stage renal failure occurs in a substantial number of patients having received a nonrenal transplantation (NRT), for whom a kidney transplantation is needed. The medical strategy regarding the use of immunosuppression (IS) for a kidney graft in patients after an NRT is not well established. The prekidney grafts long-term IS advocates for a mild induction, such as using anti-IL-2R antibodies, whereas addition of new incompatibilities and anti-HLA preimmunization may suggest using stronger IS such as induction by polyclonal antithymocyte globulins (ATG)...
April 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707495/a-reassessment-of-tracheal-substitutes-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Brooks Udelsman, Douglas J Mathisen, Harald C Ott
Background: Tracheal substitutes remain an active area of research. For rare patients with large or complex defects that cannot be repaired primarily, replacement of the airway may represent the only treatment option. The present systematic review aims to assess the clinical successes and setbacks of current methods of airway replacement. Methods: Systematic review using Medline and PubMed from 01 January 2000 to 01 October 2017 focusing on clinical translation of circumferential or near circumferential (>270°) tracheal substitutes...
March 2018: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700975/use-of-homeobox-gene-expression-patterns-to-determine-anatomical-regions-of-origin-for-body-surface-tissues-derived-from-adult-mice
#9
Toru Okubo, Ryuhei Hayashi, Shun Shibata, Yuji Kudo, Yoichi Honma, Kohji Nishida
Anatomical regions of the skin have distinct functions and anatomical characteristics, including thicker or thinner epidermis, more or fewer hair follicles, and lighter or darker skin. For a better therapeutic outcome of skin transplantation, site-specific characteristics of grafted tissues need to be taken into account in terms of their functionality and beauty. However, there is no method for evaluating positional information of epidermal cells. Homeobox genes are expressed along the anterior-posterior axis and direct the body plan in the animal development process...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691119/ex-situ-liver-perfusion-organ-preservation-into-the-future
#10
REVIEW
Mariusz Bral, Boris Gala-Lopez, David L Bigam, Darren H Freed, A M James Shapiro
In recent years, remarkable progress has occurred in the development of technologies to support ex situ liver perfusion. Building upon extensive preclinical studies in large animal models, pilot and randomized clinical trials have been initiated, and preliminary outcomes suggest more optimal protection of both standard and extended criteria liver grafts. There currently exists an incredible opportunity and need to further refine this technology, determine appropriate viability measures to predict usable liver grafts, and to explore potent protective additive strategies to further optimize the quality of extended criteria organs...
April 5, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688994/generation-of-immunodeficient-rats-with-rag1-and-il2rg-gene-deletions-and-human-tissue-grafting-models
#11
Séverine Ménoret, Laure-Hélène Ouisse, Laurent Tesson, Frédéric Delbos, Delphine Garnier, Séverine Remy, Claire Usal, Jean-Paul Concordet, Carine Giovannangeli, Vanessa Chenouard, Lucas Brusselle, Emmanuel Merieau, Véronique Nerrière-Daguin, Franck Duteille, Frédérique Bellier-Waast, Alexandre Fraichard, Tuan H Nguyen, Ignacio Anegon
BACKGROUND: Immunodeficient mice are invaluable tools to analyze the long-term effects of potentially immunogenic molecules in the absence of adaptive immune responses. Nevertheless, there are models and experimental situations that would beneficiate of larger immunodeficient recipients. Rats are ideally suited to perform experiments in which larger size is needed and are still a small animal model suitable for rodent facilities. Additionally, rats reproduce certain human diseases better than mice, such as ankylosing spondylitis and Duchenne disease and these disease models would greatly benefit of immunodeficient rats to test different immunogenic treatments...
April 23, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675353/magnetic-particle-imaging-of-islet-transplantation-in-the-liver-and-under-the-kidney-capsule-in-mouse-models
#12
Ping Wang, Patrick W Goodwill, Prachi Pandit, Jeff Gaudet, Alana Ross, Junfeng Wang, Elaine Yu, Daniel W Hensley, Timothy C Doyle, Christopher H Contag, Steven Conolly, Anna Moore
Background: Islet transplantation (Tx) represents the most promising therapy to restore normoglycemia in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients to date. As significant islet loss has been observed after the procedure, there is an urgent need for developing strategies for monitoring transplanted islet grafts. In this report we describe for the first time the application of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) for monitoring transplanted islets in the liver and under the kidney capsule in experimental animals...
March 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658462/-research-advances-in-immune-tolerance-of-allogeneic-cell-transplantation-in-preterm-infants
#13
Can Lyu, Yi Qu, De-Zhi Mu
Preterm infants are a special group, and related severe neurological, respiratory, and digestive disorders have high disability/fatality rates. Allogeneic cell transplantation may be an effective method for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. At present, animal studies have been conducted for allogeneic cell transplantation in the treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The main difficulty of this technique is graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR), and successful induction of immune tolerance needs to be achieved in order to solve this problem...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627364/animal-models-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#14
REVIEW
Emilien Loeuillard, Samantha R Fischbach, Gregory J Gores, Sumera Rizvi
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive biliary tract malignancy with a poor overall prognosis. There is a critical need to develop effective targeted therapies for the treatment of this lethal disease. In an effort to address this challenge, preclinical in vivo studies have become paramount in understanding CCA carcinogenesis, progression, and therapy. Various CCA animal models exist including carcinogen-based models in which animals develop CCA after exposure to a carcinogen, genetically engineered mouse models in which genetic changes are induced in mice leading to CCA, murine syngeneic orthotopic models, as well as xenograft tumors derived from xenotransplantation of CCA cells, organoids, and patient-derived tissue...
April 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625461/allogeneic-ipsc-derived-rpe-cell-graft-failure-following-transplantation-into-the-subretinal-space-in-nonhuman-primates
#15
Trevor J McGill, Jonathan Stoddard, Lauren M Renner, Ilhem Messaoudi, Kapil Bharti, Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Andreas Lauer, David J Wilson, Martha Neuringer
Purpose: To characterize the intraocular immune response following transplantation of iPS-derived allogeneic RPE cells into the subretinal space of non-immune-suppressed rhesus macaques. Methods: GFP-labeled allogeneic iPS-derived RPE cells were transplanted into the subretinal space of one eye (n = 6), and into the contralateral eye 1 day to 4 weeks later, using a two-stage transretinal and transscleral approach. Retinas were examined pre- and post-surgery by color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621960/experimental-uterus-transplant-in-various-models-review-of-surgical-techniques
#16
Jalal Arvin, Maryam Ashrafi, Saeedeh Lotfi, Arash Dadvand Meshgin Shahr, Elvira Schomann, Kristina Scheerer, Elke Schulmeyer
Uterus transplantation may become the surgical therapeutic modality of choice for uterine factor infertility. However, this procedure still faces technical, therapeutic, and immunologic challenges that limit its success and clinical application. Experimental studies are therefore still needed to address various challenges in the field of uterus transplantation. Among various laboratory animals, small animals are ideal models for the purpose of experimental uterus transplant. However, clinical success in small animal models is not generalizable to clinical application and treatment for uterine factor infertility in humans...
April 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615705/gdnf-expressing-macrophages-mitigate-loss-of-dopamine-neurons-and-improve-parkinsonian-symptoms-in-mitopark-mice
#17
Cang Chen, Xiuhua Li, Guo Ge, Jingwei Liu, K C Biju, Suzette D Laing, Yusheng Qian, Cori Ballard, Zhixu He, Eliezer Masliah, Robert A Clark, Jason C O'Connor, Senlin Li
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is the most potent neuroprotective agent tested in cellular and animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, CNS delivery of GDNF is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using total body irradiation as transplant preconditioning, we previously reported that hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation (HSCT)-based macrophage-mediated gene therapy could deliver GDNF to the brain to prevent degeneration of nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons in an acute murine neurotoxicity model...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579842/teenagers-and-their-future-role-in-transplantation-an-analysis-of-their-attitudes-toward-solid-organ-xenotransplantation
#18
B Febrero, A Ríos, A López-Navas, L Martínez-Alarcón, J Almela, G Ramis, P Ramírez, P Parrilla
INTRODUCTION: It is important to determine the level of social acceptance of xenotransplantation, especially in places where there are preclinical xenotransplantation projects. In this sense, it is important to know the attitude of teenagers, given that their attitude could have an influence on this kind of donation in the future. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to analyze the attitudes of teenagers toward xenotransplantation and to determine the variables affecting their attitudes...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555660/the-potential-and-challenges-of-alternative-sources-of-%C3%AE-cells-for-the-cure-of-type-1-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, Valeria Sordi
The experience in the field of islet transplantation shows that it is possible to replace β cells in a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but this cell therapy is limited by the scarcity of organ donors and by the danger associated to the immunosuppressive drugs. Stem cell therapy is becoming a concrete opportunity to treat various diseases. In particular, for a disease like T1D, caused by the loss of a single specific cell type that does not need to be transplanted back in its originating site to perform its function, a stem cell-based cell replacement therapy seems to be the ideal cure...
March 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546703/culture-and-expansion-of-rodent-and-porcine-schwann-cells-for-preclinical-animal-studies
#20
Adriana E Brooks, Gagani Athauda, Mary Bartlett Bunge, Aisha Khan
Cell-based therapies have become a major focus in preclinical research that leads to clinical application of a therapeutic product. Since 1990, scientists at the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis have generated extensive data demonstrating that Schwann cell (SC) transplantation supports spinal cord repair in animals with spinal cord injury. After preclinical efforts in SC transplantation strategies, efficient methods for procuring large, essentially pure populations of SCs from the adult peripheral nerve were developed for rodent and pig studies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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