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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#1
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325489/creating-effective-biocontainment-facilities-and-maintenance-protocols-for-raising-specific-pathogen-free-severe-combined-immunodeficient-scid-pigs
#2
Ellis J Powell, Sara Charley, Adeline N Boettcher, Lisa Varley, Justin Brown, Martine Schroyen, Malavika K Adur, Susan Dekkers, Dean Isaacson, Mary Sauer, Joan Cunnick, N Matthew Ellinwood, Jason W Ross, Jack Cm Dekkers, Christopher K Tuggle
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is defined by the lack of an adaptive immune system. Mutations causing SCID are found naturally in humans, mice, horses, dogs, and recently in pigs, with the serendipitous discovery of the Iowa State University SCID pigs. As research models, SCID animals are naturally tolerant of xenotransplantation and offer valuable insight into research areas such as regenerative medicine, cancer therapy, as well as immune cell signaling mechanisms. Large-animal biomedical models, particularly pigs, are increasingly essential to advance the efficacy and safety of novel regenerative therapies on human disease...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304115/effects-of-a-self-assembling-peptide-as-a-scaffold-on-bone-formation-in-a-defect
#3
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
Spinal fusion and bone defect after injuries, removal of bone tumors, and infections need to be repaired by implantation. In an aging society, recovery from these procedures is often difficult. In this study, we found that injection of SPG-178 leads to expression of several bone marker genes and mineralization in vitro, and revealed a significantly higher degree of newly formed bone matrix with use of SPG-178 in vivo. MC3T3-E1 cells were used to evaluate osteoblast differentiation promoted by SPG-178. To analyze gene expression, total RNA was isolated from MC3T3-E1 cells cultured for 7 and 14 days with control medium or SPG-178 medium...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299759/translating-scientific-discovery-the-need-for-preclinical-models-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Abdul M Oseini, Banumathi K Cole, Danny Issa, Ryan E Feaver, Arun J Sanyal
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world, affecting about 1/3 of the US general population and remaining as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of the disease is the excessive accumulation of fat within the liver cells (hepatocytes), which eventually paves the way to cellular stress, injury and apoptosis. NAFLD is strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome and is fast emerging as a leading cause of liver transplant in the USA...
January 3, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242033/the-evidence-and-rationale-for-the-perioperative-use-of-loop-diuretics-during-kidney-transplantation-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Shaifali Sandal, Pannya Bansal, Marcelo Cantarovich
PURPOSE: Loop diuretics (LD) attenuate ischemic injury in nephrons. They are thought to decrease delayed graft function (DGF) during kidney transplantation (KT). This review aimed to summarize the current evidence for the perioperative use of LD during KT. METHODS: We performed an analysis of all articles that were published since the inception of Medline and Embase: 26 studies were selected for inclusion. Scope was LD use during the perioperative phase of KT only...
November 23, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228447/ethical-and-medico-legal-remarks-on-uterus-transplantation-may-it-solve-uterine-factor-infertility
#6
S Zaami, E Marinelli, N M di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
Uterus transplantation was firstly tested with animal trials sixty-five years ago. Despite several successful attempts in human subjects, the different procedures still lay at the experimental stage, in need of further studies and investigations before they can be considered as standard clinical practices. Uterus transplant cannot be regarded as a life-saving procedure, but rather a method to restore woman ability to procreate, when lost, thus improving her quality of life. Uterus transplant is a complex surgical procedure and presents significant health threats...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226242/intracerebroventricular-delivery-of-hematopoietic-progenitors-results-in-rapid-and-robust-engraftment-of-microglia-like-cells
#7
Alessia Capotondo, Rita Milazzo, Jose M Garcia-Manteiga, Eleonora Cavalca, Annita Montepeloso, Brian S Garrison, Marco Peviani, Derrick J Rossi, Alessandra Biffi
Recent evidence indicates that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can serve as vehicles for therapeutic molecular delivery to the brain by contributing to the turnover of resident myeloid cell populations. However, such engraftment needs to be fast and efficient to exert its therapeutic potential for diseases affecting the central nervous system. Moreover, the nature of the cells reconstituted after transplantation and whether they could comprise bona fide microglia remain to be assessed. We demonstrate that transplantation of HSPCs in the cerebral lateral ventricles provides rapid engraftment of morphologically, antigenically, and transcriptionally dependable microglia-like cells...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192237/stem-cells-and-genome-editing-approaches-to-tissue-regeneration-and-regenerative-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Nozomu Takata, Mototsugu Eiraku
Understanding the basis of regeneration of each tissue and organ, and incorporating this knowledge into clinical treatments for degenerative tissues and organs in patients, are major goals for researchers in regenerative biology. Here we provide an overview of current work, from high-regeneration animal models, to stem cell-based culture models, transplantation technologies, large-animal chimeric models, and programmable nuclease-based genome-editing technologies. Three-dimensional culture generating organoids, which represents intact tissue/organ identity including cell fate and morphology are getting more general approaches in the fields by taking advantage of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149983/a-novel-model-of-mouse-to-rat-kidney-xenotransplantation
#9
N Özçay, H Özdemir
Transplantation animal models require 2 animals for each experiment, 1 as a donor and 1 as a recipient. At the present time, developing microsurgical instruments and refining surgical techniques should allow us to reduce the number of animal used for transplantation research. In this study, we aimed to harvest 2 kidneys from 1 donor to be able to minimize the number of animals needed for transplantation studies. For this purpose, we developed a kidney xenotransplantation model from mouse to rat, in which only 1 animal was used as the donor for 2 kidney recipients...
November 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141010/multiple-effects-of-toxins-isolated-from-crotalus-durissus-terrificus-on-the-hepatitis-c-virus-life-cycle
#10
Jacqueline Farinha Shimizu, Carina Machado Pereira, Cintia Bittar, Mariana Nogueira Batista, Guilherme Rodrigues Fernandes Campos, Suely da Silva, Adélia Cristina Oliveira Cintra, Carsten Zothner, Mark Harris, Suely Vilela Sampaio, Victor Hugo Aquino, Paula Rahal, Ana Carolina Gomes Jardim
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver disease and transplantation worldwide. Current therapy is expensive, presents additional side effects and viral resistance has been described. Therefore, studies for developing more efficient antivirals against HCV are needed. Compounds isolated from animal venoms have shown antiviral activity against some viruses such as Dengue virus, Yellow fever virus and Measles virus. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the complex crotoxin (CX) and its subunits crotapotin (CP) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2-CB) isolated from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus on HCV life cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138636/stem-cell-tracking-technologies-for-neurological-regenerative-medicine-purposes
#11
REVIEW
Yongtao Zheng, Jiongwei Huang, Tongming Zhu, Ronggang Li, Zhifu Wang, Fukai Ma, Jianhong Zhu
The growing field of stem cell therapy is moving toward clinical trials in a variety of applications, particularly for neurological diseases. However, this translation of cell therapies into humans has prompted a need to create innovative and breakthrough methods for stem cell tracing, to explore the migration routes and its reciprocity with microenvironment targets in the body, to monitor and track the outcome after stem cell transplantation therapy, and to track the distribution and cell viability of transplanted cells noninvasively and longitudinally...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130076/crispr-correction-of-a-homozygous-low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-mutation-in-familial-hypercholesterolemia-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#12
Linda Omer, Elizabeth A Hudson, Shirong Zheng, James B Hoying, Yuan Shan, Nolan L Boyd
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a hereditary disease primarily due to mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that lead to elevated cholesterol and premature development of cardiovascular disease. Homozygous FH patients (HoFH) with two dysfunctional LDLR alleles are not as successfully treated with standard hypercholesterol therapies, and more aggressive therapeutic approaches to control cholesterol levels must be considered. Liver transplant can resolve HoFH, and hepatocyte transplantation has shown promising results in animals and humans...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109530/a-clinical-scale-bioartificial-liver-developed-for-gmp-improved-clinical-parameters-of-liver-function-in-porcine-liver-failure
#13
Clare Selden, James Bundy, Eloy Erro, Eva Puschmann, Malcolm Miller, Delawir Kahn, Humphrey Hodgson, Barry Fuller, Jordi Gonzalez-Molina, Aurelie Le Lay, Stephanie Gibbons, Sherri Chalmers, Sunil Modi, Amy Thomas, Peter Kilbride, Agnes Isaacs, Richard Ginsburg, Helen Ilsley, David Thomson, Galya Chinnery, Ncedile Mankahla, Lizel Loo, C Wendy Spearman
Liver failure, whether arising directly from acute liver failure or from decompensated chronic liver disease is an increasing problem worldwide and results in many deaths. In the UK only 10% of individuals requiring a liver transplant receive one. Thus the need for alternative treatments is paramount. A BioArtificial Liver machine could temporarily replace the functions of the liver, buying time for the patient's liver to repair and regenerate. We have designed, implemented and tested a clinical-scale BioArtificial Liver machine containing a biomass derived from a hepatoblastoma cell-line cultured as three dimensional organoids, using a fluidised bed bioreactor, together with single-use bioprocessing equipment, with complete control of nutrient provision with feedback BioXpert recipe processes, and yielding good phenotypic liver functions...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105567/in-vivo-survival-of-human-endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-cells-transplanted-under-the-kidney-capsule-of-immunocompromised-mice
#14
Shanti Gurung, James A Deane, Saeedeh Darzi, Jerome A Werkmeister, Caroline E Gargett
Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) are a well-characterised adult stem cell type with potential for use in regenerative medicine or cell-therapy. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated that eMSCs promoted wound healing by reducing the inflammatory response through a paracrine action in a subcutaneous rat model of wound repair. However, an efficient protocol for culturing eMSCs in the undifferentiated state and a reliable method of labelling them for cell tracking were lacking. Here, we investigated the use of a lentiviral vector containing the mCherry fluorescent reporter gene to transduce and label eMSCs following in vitro culturing in A83-01-containing medium, and different methods of tracing the labelled cells following transplantation under the kidney capsule of immunocompromised NSG mice...
November 4, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033833/cell-based-therapies-for-tissue-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca Lim, Sharon D Ricardo, William Sievert
The development of tissue fibrosis in the context of a wound-healing response to injury is common to many chronic diseases. Unregulated or persistent fibrogenesis may lead to structural and functional changes in organs that increase the risk of significant morbidity and mortality. We will explore the natural history, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of fibrotic disease affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver as dysfunction of these organs is responsible for a substantial proportion of global mortality. For many patients with end-stage disease, organ transplantation is the only effective therapy to prolong life...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030945/adenine-induced-chronic-kidney-disease-in-rats
#16
REVIEW
Vishal Diwan, Lindsay Brown, Glenda C Gobe
Many animal models have been developed to study the causes and treatments of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans, an insidious disease resulting from kidney injury and characterized by persistent functional decline for more than 3 months, with or without evidence of structural deficit. The eventual outcome of CKD may be end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), where patients need dialysis or transplantation to survive. Cardiovascular disease is accelerated in patients with CKD and contributes to increased mortality, with the relationship between CKD and cardiovascular disease being bi-directional...
January 2018: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017955/triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-2-expression-tracks-with-m2-like-macrophage-activity-and-disease-severity-in%C3%A2-copd
#17
Derek E Byers, Kangyun Wu, Geoffrey Dang-Vu, Xiaohua Jin, Eugene Agapov, Xiaofeng Zhang, John T Battaile, Kenneth Schechtman, Roger Yusen, Richard A Pierce, Michael J Holtzman
BACKGROUND: Cell and animal models show a key role for Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM)-2 in chronic airway disease after viral infection, but comparable evidence in humans still needs to be established. METHODS: Lung tissue samples were obtained from lung transplant recipients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD (n = 16), nontransplantable donor lung tissues (n = 10), and resected lung tissues from patients at risk or with GOLD stage I through IV (n = 72) and were assessed for TREM-2 and TREM-1 messenger RNA (mRNA), protein expression, and other markers of a type 2 immune response...
October 7, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987031/using-minimalist-self-assembling-peptides-as-hierarchical-scaffolds-to-stabilize-growth-factors-and-promote-stem-cell-integration-in-the-injured-brain
#18
A L Rodriguez, K F Bruggeman, Y Wang, T Y Wang, R J Williams, C L Parish, D R Nisbet
Neurotrophic growth factors are effective in slowing progressive degeneration and/or promoting neural repair through the support of residual host and/or transplanted neurons. However, limitations including short half-life and enzyme susceptibility of growth factors highlight the need for alternative strategies to prolong localised delivery at a site of injury. Here, we establish the utility of minimalist N-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) self-assembling peptides (SAPs) as growth factor delivery vehicle, targeted at supporting neural transplants in an animal model of Parkinson's disease...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985317/manipulation-of-gut-microbiota-reveals-shifting-community-structure-shaped-by-host-developmental-windows-in-amphibian-larvae
#19
Robin W Warne, Lucas Kirschman, Lydia Zeglin
Exploration of the importance of developmental windows for microbial colonization in diverse animal taxa, and tests of how these shape both animal microbiomes as well as host phenotypes promise to shed needed light on host-microbe interactions. The aims of this study were to explore how gut microbiota diversity of larval amphibians varies among species and across ontogeny, and to test if manipulation of gut colonization can reveal how microbiomes develop. We found that gut microbiomes differ among species and change across larval ontogeny, with distinctive differences between larvae, metamorphic animals, and juvenile frogs...
July 26, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984641/prospects-for-adoptive-t-cell-therapy-for-invasive-fungal-disease
#20
Gloria Castellano-Gonzalez, Leighton E Clancy, David Gottlieb
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. As more potent broad-spectrum antifungal agents are used in prophylaxis, drug resistance and less common fungal species have increased in frequency. Here we review current treatments available for IFD and examine the potential for adoptive T-cell treatment to enhance current therapeutic choices in IFD. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence supporting the role of T cells as well as phagocytes in antifungal immunity...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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