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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535579/review-of-heterotopic-thyroid-autotransplantation
#1
Mahmoud Sakr, Ahmed Mahmoud
Total thyroidectomy is increasingly accepted for the management of bilateral benign thyroid disorders. Postoperatively, patients require lifelong levothyroxine replacement therapy to avoid postoperative hypothyroidism, which besides the burden of compliance, has been proven to be associated with several long-term side effects. Heterotopic thyroid autotransplantation was proposed several decades ago to avoid the need for life-long postoperative replacement therapy with maintaining the autoregulatory mechanism of thyroxin production inside the body according to its needs...
May 24, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526628/heparin-based-hydrogels-induce-human-renal-tubulogenesis-in-vitro
#2
Heather M Weber, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Valentina Magno, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner
Dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end stage renal disease. Accordingly, there is a large unmet clinical need for new causative therapeutic treatments. Obtaining robust models that mimic the complex nature of the human kidney is a critical step in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we establish a synthetic in vitro human renal tubulogenesis model based on a tunable glycosaminoglycan-hydrogel platform. In this system, renal tubulogenesis can be modulated by the adjustment of hydrogel mechanics and degradability, growth factor signaling, and the presence of insoluble adhesion cues, potentially providing new insights for regenerative therapy...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521905/harnessing-the-properties-of-dendritic-cells-in-the-pursuit-of-immunological-tolerance
#3
REVIEW
Christopher Horton, Kumaran Shanmugarajah, Paul J Fairchild
The acquisition of self-perpetuating, immunological tolerance specific for graft alloantigens has long been described as the "holy grail" of clinical transplantation. By removing the need for life-long immunosuppression following engraftment, the adverse consequences of immunosuppressive regimens, including chronic infections and malignancy, may be avoided. Furthermore, autoimmune diseases and allergy are, by definition, driven by aberrant immunological responses to ordinarily innocuous antigens. The re-establishment of permanent tolerance towards instigating antigens may, therefore, provide a cure to these common diseases...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513820/intra-abdominal-hypertension-and-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-in-acute-pancreatitis-hepato-pancreato-biliary-operations-and-liver-transplantation
#4
Alexsander K Bressan, Chad G Ball
Intra-abdominal hypertension, even preceding the onset of abdominal compartment syndrome, is still recognized as an adverse prognostic factor. Unfortunately, most of the current supporting evidence within the critical care environment remains observational in nature. In acute pancreatitis, an active role for intra-abdominal hypertension early in the disease process follows a strong intuitive basis, and it is corroborated by preliminary evidence from animal models. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the optimal fluid resuscitation strategy, as well as the importance of intra-abdominal hypertension as an early therapeutic target...
May 17, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497366/evaluation-of-persistence-and-distribution-of-intra-dermally-administered-pkh26-labelled-goat-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-model
#5
M D Pratheesh, Nitin E Gade, Amar Nath, Pawan K Dubey, T B Sivanarayanan, D N Madhu, T R Sreekumar, Amarpal, G Saikumar, G Taru Sharma
The current study was designed to study the persistence and distribution of caprine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBM-MSCs) when administered intra-dermally in experimentally induced cutaneous wounds in rabbits. MSC's from goat bone marrow were isolated and their differentiation potential towards adipogenic and osteogenic lineages were assayed in vitro. The isolated cells were phenotypically analysed using flow cytometry for the expression of MSC specific matrix receptors (CD73, CD105 and Stro-1) and absence of hematopoietic lineage markers...
May 11, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487297/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-towards-the-clinical-translation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#6
Daniel Espes, Joey Lau Börjesson, Per-Ola Carlsson
Insulin producing cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have for long been a promising, but elusive treatment far from clinical translation into type 1 diabetes therapy. However, the field is now on the verge of moving such insulin-producing cells into clinical trials. Although stem cell therapies provide great opportunities, there are also potential risks such as teratoma formation associated with the treatment. Many considerations are needed on how to proceed with clinical translation, including whether to use hESCs or iPSCs, and whether encapsulation of tissue will be needed...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470672/stimulation-of-vascularization-of-a-subcutaneous-scaffold-applicable-for-pancreatic-islet-transplantation-enhances-immediate-post-transplant-islet-graft-function-but-not-long-term-normoglycemia
#7
Alexandra M Smink, Li Shiri, Daniël H Swart, Don T Hertsig, Bart J de Haan, Jan A A M Kamps, Leendert Schwab, Aart A van Apeldoorn, Eelco de Koning, Marijke M Faas, Jonathan R T Lakey, Paul de Vos
The liver as transplantation site for pancreatic islets is associated with significant loss of islets, which can be prevented by grafting in a prevascularized, subcutaneous scaffold. Supporting vascularization of a scaffold to limit the period of ischemia is challenging and was developed here by applying liposomes for controlled release of angiogenic factors. The angiogenic capacity of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), and basic FGF (bFGF) were compared in a tube formation assay...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467694/durable-control-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-mice-achieved-by-intraperitoneal-transplantation-of-neo-islets-three-dimensional-aggregates-of-allogeneic-islet-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Christof Westenfelder, Anna Gooch, Zhuma Hu, Jon Ahlstrom, Ping Zhang
Novel interventions that reestablish endogenous insulin secretion and thereby halt progressive end-organ damage and prolong survival of patients with autoimmune Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are urgently needed. While this is currently accomplished with allogeneic pancreas or islet transplants, their utility is significantly limited by both the scarcity of organ donors and life-long need for often-toxic antirejection drugs. Coadministering islets with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that exert robust immune-modulating, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and angiogenic actions, improves intrahepatic islet survival and function...
May 3, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450146/alternatives-to-eye-bank-native-tissue-for-corneal-stromal-replacement
#9
REVIEW
Isabelle Brunette, Cynthia J Roberts, François Vidal, Mona Harissi-Dagher, Jean Lachaine, Heather Sheardown, Georges M Durr, Stéphanie Proulx, May Griffith
Corneal blindness is a major cause of blindness in the world and corneal transplantation is the only widely accepted treatment to restore sight in these eyes. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for eye banks to meet the increasing demand for transplantable tissue, which is in part due to population aging. Donor tissue shortage is therefore a growing concern globally and there is a need for alternatives to human donor corneas. Biosynthetic corneal substitutes offer several significant advantages over native corneas: Large-scale production offers a powerful potential solution to the severe shortage of human donor corneas worldwide; Good manufacturing practices ensure sterility and quality control; Acellular corneal substitutes circumvent immune rejection induced by allogeneic cells; Optical and biomechanical properties of the implants can be adapted to the clinical need; and finally these corneal substitutes could benefit from new advances in biomaterials science, such as surface coating, functionalization and nanoparticles...
April 24, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#10
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
June 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395322/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#11
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
January 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387172/review-of-surgical-techniques-of-experimental-renal-transplantation-in-rats
#12
Badri Shrestha, John Haylor
Microvascular surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats have evolved over the past 5 decades to achieve successful rat renal transplant; these modifications have included surgical techniques to address the anatomic variations in the renal blood vessels and those to reduce ischemic and operation durations. Here, we review the surgical techniques of renal transplant in rats and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques of vascular and ureteric anastomoses. For this review, we performed a systematic literature search using relevant medical subject heading terms and included appropriate publications in the review...
April 6, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372287/organ-reconstruction-dream-or-reality-for%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-future
#13
J-F Stoltz, L Zhang, J S Ye, N De Isla
The relevance of research on reconstructed organs is justified by the lack of organs available for transplant and the growing needs for the ageing population. The development of a reconstructed organ involves two parallel complementary steps: de-cellularization of the organ with the need to maintain the structural integrity of the extracellular matrix and vascular network and re-cellularization of the scaffold with stem cells or resident cells.Whole organ engineering for liver, heart, lung or kidneys, is particularly difficult because of the structural complexity of organs and heterogeneity of cells...
2017: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359676/transplantation-of-the-decellularized-tracheal-allograft-in-animal-model-rabbit
#14
Reza Ershadi, Mohamadbagher Rahim, Siavash Jahany, Siamak Rakei
BACKGROUND: It has been difficult to perform tracheal allotransplantation without immunosuppression. To determine whether decellularized trachea can be used in tracheal replacement, we evaluated the viability of decellularized tracheal allografts in a rabbit model of immunosuppressant-free transplantation. METHOD: Half allograft (Group 1, n = 7) was harvested from adult New Zealand white rabbits, subjected to a detergent-enzymatic method (containing sodium deoxycholate/DNase lavations) of decellularization for as many cycles as needed, and the other half was stored in phosphate-buffered saline at 4°C as a control (Group 2, n = 7)...
March 27, 2017: Asian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356044/an-updated-portrait-of-pathogenesis-molecular-markers-and-signaling-pathways-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Muthukumaran Jayachandran
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the vital cause of cancer -related death throughout the world. At present, the exact mechanism responsible for the formation of HCC and its maintenance remains suspicious. Hepatocarcinogenesis involves a multistep activity involving several genetic aberrations which result in malignant transformation of the liver cells. The prevalence and occurrence of this disease are kept on increasing and an increase in the liver transplantation cases are vital indications for it. In the past decades, significant progress has been achieved toward the better elucidation of molecular pathways of oncogenic processes...
March 29, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350667/acellular-hypothermic-extracorporeal-perfusion-extends-allowable-ischemia-time-in-a-porcine-whole-limb-replantation-model
#16
Maximilian Kueckelhaus, Alexander Dermietzel, Muayyad Alhefzi, Mario A Aycart, Sebastian Fischer, Nicco Krezdorn, Luccie Wo, Omar H Maarouf, Leonardo V Riella, Reza Abdi, Ericka M Bueno, Bohdan Pomahac
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in traumatic amputation is the need to keep ischemia time brief (4 to 6 hours) to avoid ischemic damage and enable successful replantation. The current inability to meet this challenge often leads to traumatic limb loss, which has a considerable detrimental impact on the quality of life of patients. METHODS: The authors' team built a portable extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device for the perfusion of amputated extremities with oxygenated acellular solution under controlled parameters...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339553/de-and-recellularization-of-the-pig-uterus-a-bioengineering-pilot-study%C3%A2
#17
Hannes Campo, Pedro M Baptista, Nuria López-Pérez, Amparo Faus, Irene Cervelló, Carlos Simón
Absolute uterine factor infertility, or the absence of a functional uterus, has a prevalence of 3%-5% in the general population. Despite the great strides being made in reproductive medicine, patients diagnosed with absolute uterine factor infertility remain untreatable. The only available solution has been gestational surrogacy, but recently the Brannström group presented a viable alternative by reporting the first successful live birth after uterus transplantation. Similar to other transplantations, this approach has inherent limitations such as the paucity of donor organs and the need for long-term immunosuppression...
December 27, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321224/specific-igg-antibodies-react-to-mimotopes-of-bk-polyomavirus-a-small-dna-tumor-virus-in-healthy-adult-sera
#18
Silvia Pietrobon, Ilaria Bononi, Elisa Mazzoni, Francesca Lotito, Marco Manfrini, Andrea Puozzo, Federica Destro, Giovanni Guerra, Pier Francesco Nocini, Fernanda Martini, Mauro G Tognon
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320774/3d-bioprint-me-a-socioethical-view-of-bioprinting-human-organs-and-tissues
#19
Niki Vermeulen, Gill Haddow, Tirion Seymour, Alan Faulkner-Jones, Wenmiao Shu
In this article, we review the extant social science and ethical literature on three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. 3D bioprinting has the potential to be a 'game-changer', printing human organs on demand, no longer necessitating the need for living or deceased human donation or animal transplantation. Although the technology is not yet at the level required to bioprint an entire organ, 3D bioprinting may have a variety of other mid-term and short-term benefits that also have positive ethical consequences, for example, creating alternatives to animal testing, filling a therapeutic need for minors and avoiding species boundary crossing...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319418/autologous-cartilage-chip-transplantation-improves-repair-tissue-composition-compared-with-marrow-stimulation
#20
Bjørn Borsøe Christensen, Morten Lykke Olesen, Martin Lind, Casper Bindzus Foldager
BACKGROUND: Repair of chondral injuries by use of cartilage chips has recently demonstrated clinical feasibility. PURPOSE: To investigate in vivo cartilage repair outcome of autologous cartilage chips compared with marrow stimulation in full-thickness cartilage defects in a minipig model. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: Six Göttingen minipigs received two 6-mm chondral defects in the medial and lateral trochlea of each knee...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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