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Sylvie Tordjman, George M Anderson, Annaëlle Charrier, Cécile Oriol, Solenn Kermarrec, Roberto Canitano, Michel Botbol, Nathalie Coulon, Corinne Antoine, Sylvie Brailly-Tabard, David Cohen, Hazar Haidar, Séverine Trabado, Michèle Carlier, Guillaume Bronsard, Laurent Mottron
OBJECTIVE: Autism and certain associated behaviors including self-injurious behaviors (SIB) and atypical pain reactivity have been hypothesized to result from excessive opioid activity. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between SIB, pain reactivity, and β-endorphin levels in autism. METHODS: Study participants were recruited between 2007 and 2012 from day care centers and included 74 children and adolescents diagnosed with autism (according to DSM-IV-TR, ICD-10, and CFTMEA) and intellectual disability...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kiyokazu Ozaki, Masakazu Hirabayashi, Koji Nomura, Isao Narama
Lilies are considered nephrotoxic only to domestic cats, which belong to the family Felidae of the suborder Feliformia. However, a 7-month-old female meerkat, belonging to the family Herpestidae of the suborder Feliformia, presented with oliguria, seizure, tachypnea, self-biting, and nystagmus after it ingested lilies. The meerkat died approximately 40 hr after lily ingestion. Gross and histopathologic lesions consistent with acute renal failure were conspicuous in the animal. The renal lesions were acute tubular necrosis, corresponding to the typical pathological changes of lily toxicosis in cats...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Bushra Akram, Mehak Batool, Zeeshan Rafi, Abrar Akram
Objectives: To find the prevalence as well as to identify the predictors as protective and risk factors of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: In this analytical cross sectional survey 83 children with ASD age range from 8 to 18 years were selected through convenient sampling technique from five special schools of Lahore city. The Urdu form of a standardized tool was used to assess NSSI. Results: Statistical analysis indicated overall point prevalence of NSSI was 33%...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
José Fidel Baizabal-Carvallo, Joseph Jankovic
Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs) may present with a broad spectrum of phenomenology including stereotypic movements. We aimed to characterize the phenomenology of functional stereotypies and compare these features with those observed in 65 patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). From a cohort of 184 patients with FMDs, we identified 19 (10.3%) with functional stereotypies (FS). There were 15 women and 4 men, with a mean age at onset of 38.6 ± 17.4 years. Among the patients with FS, there were 9 (47%) with orolingual dyskinesia/stereotypy, 9 (47%) with limb stereotypies, 6 (32%) with trunk stereotypies, and 2 (11%) with respiratory dyskinesia as part of orofacial-laryngeal-trunk stereotypy...
July 2017: Journal of Neurology
Priscilla Santana Pinto Gonçalves, Daniela Alejandra Cusicanqui Mendez, Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos, José Humberto Damante, Daniela Rios, Thiago Cruvinel
Factitious ulcers are characterized by self-inflicted lesions with multifactorial origin. These lesions are frequently found in head, neck, and hands. This report shows a 6-year-old boy diagnosed with factitious oral ulcers that occurred after the self-biting of buccal vestibule and nail-scratching of gingival tissue. Clinically, a significant swelling was observed, hard on palpation, located at the right lower third of the face, next to the posterior area of the mandible. In the intraoral examination, ulcers at different healing stages were noted on the swelling area...
2017: Case Reports in Dentistry
Fan Xing Meng, Jing Ming Hou, Tian Sheng Sun
BACKGROUND: Central pain (CP) is a common clinical problem in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent studies found the pathogenesis of CP was related to the remodeling of the brain. We investigate the roles of iron overload and subsequent oxidative stress in the remodeling of the brain after SCI. METHODS: We established a rat model of central pain after SCI. Rats were divided randomly into four groups: SCI, sham operation, SCI plus deferoxamine (DFX) intervention, and SCI plus nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor treatment...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Livia Gisbert de la Cuadra, Rosa J Torres, Luis M Beltrán, Arantxa Sánchez, Juan G Puig
We report two Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) patients who developed new forms of self-injurious behavior following total dental extraction. Patients 1 and 2 were submitted to total teeth extraction at the age of 13 and 8 years, respectively, due to continuous self-biting, not prevented by mouth guards. Severity of dystonia was markedly reduced and quality of life improved. After 12 and 17 months, respectively, patient 1 started rubbing one foot against other and scratching toenails with his hands, and patient 2 stuck his legs and feet against hard objects...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
X Yuan, D P Devine
Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a debilitating characteristic that is highly prevalent in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Pathological anxiety is also common, and there are reports of comorbid anxiety and self-injury in some children. We have investigated potential interactions between anxiety and self-injury, using a rat model of pemoline-induced self-biting. In one experiment, rats were pre-screened for trait anxiety by measuring expression of anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze and open field emergence test...
September 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Tanya Khasnavis, Rosa J Torres, Barbara Sommerfeld, Juan Garcia Puig, Richard Chipkin, H A Jinnah
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a genetic disorder that has characteristic metabolic, neurologic, and behavioral features. There are multiple behavioral problems including impulsivity, aggressiveness, and severe recurrent self-injurious behavior (SIB). This last behavior varies considerably across subjects and may encompass self-biting, self-hitting, scratching, head banging, and other injurious actions. Current treatments for SIB involve behavioral extinction, sedatives, physical restraints, and removal of teeth...
July 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Tanya Khasnavis, Gail Reiner, Barbara Sommerfeld, William L Nyhan, Richard Chipkin, H A Jinnah
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the overproduction of uric acid and distinct behavioral, cognitive, and motor abnormalities. The most challenging clinical problem is self-injurious behavior (SIB), which includes self-biting, self-hitting, self-abrasion, and other features. Currently, these behaviors are managed by behavioral extinction, sedatives, physical restraints, and removal of teeth. More effective treatments are needed. Pre-clinical studies have led to the hypothesis that D1-dopamine receptor antagonists may provide useful treatments for SIB in LND...
April 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Manuela Jaindl, Gerhard Oberleitner, Georg Endler, Christiane Thallinger, Florian M Kovar
BACKGROUND: Bite wounds are among the commonest types of trauma to which man is the subject. They account for 5 % of the total traumatic wounds evaluated in the emergency department (ED) and approximately 1 % of all the ED visits. Early estimation of infection risk, adequate antibiotic therapy and if indicated surgical treatment are the cornerstones of successful cure of bite wounds. METHODS: A total of 5248 consecutive trauma patients were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively over a period of 15 years in this study at a level I trauma centre, Department of Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria...
May 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Z Y Liu, E J Ren, H X Ba, Q Wu, H W Zhu, X M Xing, F H Yang
This study was performed to investigate the correlation between stereotyped behavior of the blue fox and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DRD1 gene. We choose the DRD1 gene as a major gene for investigating the correlation of gene polymorphism and self-biting disease by means of direct sequencing. Part of the DRD1 gene exon of the blue fox was cloned; the length of the whole sequence was 864 bp. Four SNPs were detected and analyzed by the chi-square analysis; the results showed that the gene polymorphism of T206C in the DRD1 gene had a significant correlation with self-biting (P < 0...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Lucy Barnard-Brak, Johannes Rojahn, David M Richman, Steven R Chesnut, Tianlan Wei
We examined the relation between stereotyped behavior and self-injurious behavior (SIB) for 1871 individuals with intellectual disabilities who had a score of >0 on the Behavior Problem Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001). We report three main findings: First, structural equation modeling techniques (SEM) revealed that the BPI-01stereotyped behavior subscale scores predicted BPI-01 SIB subscale scores. Second, when stereotyped behavior was modeled as a predictor of SIB, mixture-modeling techniques revealed two groups of individuals: one in which stereotyped behavior was a strong, statistically significant predictor of SIB (69% of the sample), and another one in which stereotyped behavior was not a predictor of SIB (31%)...
November 11, 2014: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Emily M Goodman, Rosa J Torres, Juan G Puig, H A Jinnah
Patients with Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) often engage in self-injurious biting. This problem requires difficult management choices, sometimes including removal of the teeth. Although many health care professionals are reluctant to remove teeth in a child because of the permanent negative cosmetic consequences of the edentulous state, disfigurement of the face and tongue from self-biting can be worse. We analyzed the records of 5 LND patients who used mouth guards to spare the teeth. Success was variable, and dental extraction ultimately was required in 4 cases...
September 2014: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
Noha F Minshawi, Sarah Hurwitz, Jill C Fodstad, Sara Biebl, Danielle H Morriss, Christopher J McDougle
A key area of concern in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are self-injurious behaviors (SIBs). These are behaviors that an individual engages in that may cause physical harm, such as head banging, or self-biting. SIBs are more common in children with ASD than those who are typically developing or have other neurodevelopmental disabilities. Therefore, it is important that clinicians who work with children with ASD have a solid understanding of SIB. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the epidemiology of SIB in children with ASD, factors that predict the presence of SIB in this population, and the empirically supported behavioral treatments available...
2014: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Corrine K Lutz, Priscilla C Williams, R Mark Sharp
Abnormal behavior, ranging from motor stereotypies to self-injurious behavior, has been documented in captive nonhuman primates, with risk factors including nursery rearing, single housing, and veterinary procedures. Much of this research has focused on macaque monkeys; less is known about the extent of and risk factors for abnormal behavior in baboons. Because abnormal behavior can be indicative of poor welfare, either past or present, the purpose of this study was to survey the presence of abnormal behavior in captive baboons and to identify potential risk factors for these behaviors with an aim of prevention...
April 2014: American Journal of Primatology
N Yavnai, D Aizenbud
ALS is considered a neurodegenerative disorder caused by progressive death of specific neuronal populations within the gray matter of the central nervous system. The cause of cell death is unknown and patients with ALS will live 3 to 5 years from disease onset. A common cause of death is neuromuscular respiratory failure or cardiac arrhythmias due to insufficient oxygen. The patients develop multiple symptoms and the focus of management is to maintain their quality of life. Orofacial manifestations in ALS are secondary to motor deficits, resulting in dysphagia, muscle spasticity, rigidity and tremor of the orofacial musculature, which can induce soft tissue trauma and sialorrhea...
July 2013: Journal of the Israel Dental Association
Daniel H Gottlieb, John P Capitanio, Brenda McCowan
Captive rhesus macaques sometimes exhibit undesirable abnormal behaviors, such as motor stereotypic behavior (MSB) and self-abuse. Many risk factors for these behaviors have been identified but the list is far from comprehensive, and large individual differences in rate of behavior expression remain. The goal of the current study was to determine which experiences predict expression of MSB and self-biting, and if individual differences in personality can account for additional variation in MSB expression. A risk factor analysis was performed utilizing data from over 4,000 rhesus monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center...
October 2013: American Journal of Primatology
Serafino Buono, Fabio Scannella, Maria Bernadette Palmigiano, Maurizio Elia, Mike Kerr, Santo Di Nuovo
We aimed to identify the presence of self-injurious behavior in a sample of 158 people with intellectual disability and epilepsy as compared with a control sample consisting of 195 people with intellectual disability without epilepsy. The Italian Scale for the Assessment of self-injurious behaviors was used to describe self-injurious behavior in both groups. The groups were matched for ID degree: mild/moderate (20 and 20 respectively), severe/profound (45 in both samples) and unknown (4 in both samples). Seventy-four percent of the first sample were diagnosed with symptomatic partial epilepsy...
April 2012: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ina Rommeck, John P Capitanio, Sarah C Strand, Brenda McCowan
Studies on early development have demonstrated the profound effects of early social experience on the behavioral development and physiology of young rhesus macaques. Given these relationships, we hypothesized that rhesus macaques exposed to different nursery-rearing conditions may develop unique biobehavioral profiles. If this is true, the assessment of temperament may allow us to pinpoint successful rearing environments, thus improving the overall health of nonhuman primates that are raised in captive environments...
July 2011: American Journal of Primatology
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