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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334373/prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-rhesus-macaques-by-a-cytomegalovirus-based-vaccine
#1
Scott G Hansen, Daniel E Zak, Guangwu Xu, Julia C Ford, Emily E Marshall, Daniel Malouli, Roxanne M Gilbride, Colette M Hughes, Abigail B Ventura, Emily Ainslie, Kurt T Randall, Andrea N Selseth, Parker Rundstrom, Lauren Herlache, Matthew S Lewis, Haesun Park, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Miranda Fischer, Christina Armstrong, Robert C Zweig, Joseph Valvo, Jackie M Braun, Smitha Shankar, Lenette Lu, Andrew W Sylwester, Alfred W Legasse, Martin Messerle, Michael A Jarvis, Lynn M Amon, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Dominick J Laddy, Michele Stone, Aurelio Bonavia, Thomas G Evans, Michael K Axthelm, Klaus Früh, Paul T Edlefsen, Louis J Picker
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332163/the-monkey-is-not-always-a-god-attitudinal-differences-toward-crop-raiding-macaques-and-why-it-matters-for-conflict-mitigation
#2
Shaurabh Anand, Vilakkathala Vijayan Binoy, Sindhu Radhakrishna
Attitudinal differences toward wildlife have important implications for conflict management and when the species in question have strong cultural and religious associations, conflict mitigation becomes a challenging endeavor. We investigated farmers' attitudes toward two different crop-raiding macaque species, the rhesus macaque in northern India, and the bonnet macaque in southern India. Apart from regional differences in attitudes, we also assessed temporal changes in attitude toward the rhesus macaque. We carried out household surveys using a semistructured questionnaire to collect data...
January 13, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330949/functional-morphology-of-mimetic-musculature-in-primates-how-social-variables-and-body-size-stack-up-to-phylogeny
#3
Anne M Burrows
Mammalian skeletal muscle is influenced by the functional demands placed upon it. Functional morphology of facial expression musculature, or mimetic musculature, is largely unknown. Recently, primate mimetic musculature has been shown to respond to demands associated with social factors. Body size has also been demonstrated to affect many aspects of primate functional morphology and evolutionary morphology. The present study was designed to further examine the role of social variables and body size in influencing the morphology of primate mimetic musculature using a broad phylogenetic range of primates, primates with varying body sizes, and those that exploit differing time of day activity cycles and social group sizes...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330383/development-of-a-pet-radioligand-for-potassium-channels-to-image-cns-demyelination
#4
Pedro Brugarolas, Jorge E Sánchez-Rodríguez, Hsiu-Ming Tsai, Falguni Basuli, Shih-Hsun Cheng, Xiang Zhang, Andrew V Caprariello, Jerome J Lacroix, Richard Freifelder, Dhanabalan Murali, Onofre DeJesus, Robert H Miller, Rolf E Swenson, Chin-Tu Chen, Peter Herscovitch, Daniel S Reich, Francisco Bezanilla, Brian Popko
Central nervous system (CNS) demyelination represents the pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to other neurological conditions. Quantitative and specific imaging of demyelination would thus provide critical clinical insight. Here, we investigated the possibility of targeting axonal potassium channels to image demyelination by positron emission tomography (PET). These channels, which normally reside beneath the myelin sheath, become exposed upon demyelination and are the target of the MS drug, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329171/nonhuman-primate-rhesus-macaque-models-of-severe-pressure-targeted-hemorrhagic-and-polytraumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#5
Forest R Sheppard, Antoni R Macko, Jacob J Glaser, Philip J Vernon, Alexander J Burdette, Ruth Madelaine Paredes, Craig A Koeller, Anthony E Pusateri, Douglas K Tadaki, Sylvain Cardin
BACKGROUND: We endeavored to develop clinically translatable nonhuman primate (NHP) models of severe polytraumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: NHPs were randomized into five severe pressure-targeted hemorrhagic shock (PTHS) ± additional injuries scenarios: 30-min PTHS (PTHS-30), 60-min PTHS (PTHS-60), PTHS-60 + soft tissue injury (PTHS-60+ST), PTHS-60+ST + femur fracture (PTHS-60+ST+FF), and decompensated PTHS+ST+FF (PTHS-D). Physiologic parameters were recorded and blood samples collected at five time points with animal observation through T = 24 h...
February 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325457/synthetic-adeno-associated-viral-vector-efficiently-targets-mouse-and-non-human-primate-retina-in-vivo
#6
Livia S Carvalho, Ru Xiao, Sarah Wassmer, Aliete Langsdorf, Eric Zinn, Simon Pacouret, Samiksha Shah, Jason I Comander, Leo Kim, Laurence Lim, Luk H Vandenberghe
Gene therapy is a promising approach in the treatment of inherited and common complex disorders of the retina. Preclinical and clinical studies have validated the use of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) as a safe and efficient delivery vehicle for gene transfer. RPE and rods, and to a lesser extent, cone photoreceptors can be efficiently targeted with AAV. Other retinal cell types however are more challenging targets. The aim of this study was to characterize the transduction profile and efficiency of in silico designed, synthetic Anc80 AAVs for retinal gene transfer...
January 12, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324856/correction-minimally-invasive-monitoring-of-cd4-t-cells-at-multiple-mucosal-tissues-after-intranasal-vaccination-in-rhesus-macaques
#7
Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Pramod N Nehete, Guojun Yang, Hong He, Bharti P Nehete, Kathryn A Shelton, Michael A Barry, K Jagannadha Sastry
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188807.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317500/macrocyclic-%C3%AE-defensins-suppress-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-shedding-by-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme
#8
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313237/simians-in-the-shape-school-a-comparative-study-of-executive-attention
#9
Kristin French, Michael J Beran, Kimberly Andrews Espy, David A Washburn
Executive functions (EF) have been studied extensively in children and adults. However, EF tasks for young children can be difficult to administer and interpret. Espy (1997, Developmental Neuropsychology, 13, 495-499) designed the Shape School task to measure inhibition and switching in preschool-aged children. Shape School presents cartoon-like characters that children must flexibly name by their color, their shape, or both, depending on cues that indicate the appropriate rule. Shape School has been found to be age sensitive as well as predictive of performance on other EF tasks...
January 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296902/regulation-of-the-maturation-of-human-monocytes-into-immunosuppressive-macrophages
#10
Defne Bayik, Debra Tross, Lydia A Haile, Daniela Verthelyi, Dennis M Klinman
Human monocytes differentiate into either proinflammatory or immunosuppressive macrophages in response to distinct stimuli. Results show that the Toll-like receptor 2/1 agonist PAM3 replicates the ability of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to induce the preferential generation of immunosuppressive macrophages in vitro, an activity confirmed by in vivo studies of rhesus macaques. By comparing the gene expression pattern of monocytes treated with M-CSF vs PAM3, the pathways regulating macrophage maturation were identified...
December 12, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290806/multimodal-theranostic-nanoformulations-permit-magnetic-resonance-bioimaging-of-antiretroviral-drug-particle-tissue-cell-biodistribution
#11
Bhavesh D Kevadiya, Christopher Woldstad, Brendan M Ottemann, Prasanta Dash, Balasrinivasa R Sajja, Benjamin Lamberty, Brenda Morsey, Ted Kocher, Rinku Dutta, Aditya N Bade, Yutong Liu, Shannon E Callen, Howard S Fox, Siddappa N Byrareddy, JoEllyn M McMillan, Tatiana K Bronich, Benson J Edagwa, Michael D Boska, Howard E Gendelman
RATIONALE: Long-acting slow effective release antiretroviral therapy (LASER ART) was developed to improve patient regimen adherence, prevent new infections, and facilitate drug delivery to human immunodeficiency virus cell and tissue reservoirs. In an effort to facilitate LASER ART development, "multimodal imaging theranostic nanoprobes" were created. These allow combined bioimaging, drug pharmacokinetics and tissue biodistribution tests in animal models. METHODS: Europium (Eu3+)- doped cobalt ferrite (CF) dolutegravir (DTG)- loaded (EuCF-DTG) nanoparticles were synthesized then fully characterized based on their size, shape and stability...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288344/fdc-tfh-interactions-within-cervical-lymph-nodes-of-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#12
Rajnish S Dave, Ravi K Sharma, Roshell R Muir, Elias Haddad, Sanjeev Gumber, Francois Villinger, Artinder P Nehra, Zafar K Khan, Brian Wigdahl, Aftab A Ansari, Siddappa N Byrareddy, Pooja Jain
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains via the lymphatic drainage pathway. This lymphatic pathway connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the cervical lymph node (CLN). As the CSF drains to CLN via the dural and nasal lymphatics, T cells and antigen presenting cells pass along the channels from the subarachnoid space through the cribriform plate. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may also egress from the CNS along this pathway. As a result, HIV egressing from the CNS may accumulate within the CLN. Towards this objective, we analyzed CLNs isolated from rhesus macaques that were chronically-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280055/sirtuin-1-chromatin-binding-dynamics-points-to-a-common-mechanism-regulating-inflammatory-targets-in-siv-infection-and-in-the-aging-brain
#13
Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Julia A Najera, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes
Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277691/genetic-polymorphisms-of-drug-metabolizing-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-in-cynomolgus-and-rhesus-monkeys-and-common-marmosets-in-preclinical-studies-for-humans
#14
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Uno, Shotaro Uehara, Hiroshi Yamazaki
Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Old World Monkeys) and common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, New World Monkeys) have been widely, and expectedly, used as non-human primate models in drug development studies. Major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes information is now available that supports these primate species as animal models, and it is established that multiple forms of cynomolgus monkey and common marmoset P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate recognition functionality to human P450 enzymes...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276322/rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-displaying-self-injurious-behavior-show-more-sleep-disruption-than-controls
#15
Lauren L Stanwicks, Amanda F Hamel, Melinda A Novak
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a pathology observed in both humans and animals. In humans, SIB has been linked to various mental health conditions that are also associated with significant sleep disruption. In rhesus macaques, SIB consists of self-directed biting which can range from mild skin abrasions to wounds requiring veterinary care. However, only one study suggests possible sleep disruption in macaques with SIB. We evaluated sleep disruption using a noninvasive system (infra-red camera and a video surveillance program) which created videos for every movement over the nighttime hours...
December 2017: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274878/immunochemical-analysis-of-the-expression-of-sv2c-in-mouse-macaque-and-human-brain
#16
Amy R Dunn, Carlie A Hoffman, Kristen A Stout, Minagi Ozawa, Rohan K Dhamsania, Gary W Miller
The synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) is an undercharacterized protein with enriched expression in phylogenetically old brain regions. Its precise role within the brain is unclear, though various lines of evidence suggest that SV2C is involved in the function of synaptic vesicles through the regulation of vesicular trafficking, calcium-induced exocytosis, or synaptotagmin function. SV2C has been linked to multiple neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and psychiatric conditions. SV2C is expressed in various cell types-primarily dopaminergic, GABAergic, and cholinergic cells...
December 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261800/species-specific-functions-of-epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-2-ebna2-reveal-dual-roles-for-initiation-and-maintenance-of-b-cell-immortalization
#17
Janine Mühe, Fred Wang
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and related lymphocryptoviruses (LCV) from non-human primates infect B cells, transform their growth to facilitate life-long viral persistence in the host, and contribute to B cell oncogenesis. Co-evolution of LCV with their primate hosts has led to species-specificity so that LCVs preferentially immortalize B cells from their natural host in vitro. We investigated whether the master regulator of transcription, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), is involved in LCV species-specificity. Using recombinant EBVs, we show that EBNA2 orthologues of LCV isolated from chimpanzees, baboons, cynomolgus or rhesus macaques (rhLCV) cannot replace EBV EBNA2 for the immortalization of human B cells...
December 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261677/increased-soluble-il-7-receptor-concentrations-associate-with-improved-il-7-therapy-outcomes-in-siv-infected-art-treated-rhesus-macaques
#18
Amanda K Steele, Lorna Carrasco-Medina, Donald L Sodora, Angela M Crawley
The use of interleukin-7 (IL-7) as an immunorestorative therapeutic has proven effective in HIV infection, cancer and bone marrow transplantation. Mediating its activity through membrane-bound IL-7 receptor α (mCD127), IL-7 therapy increases T-cell numbers and survival. A soluble form, sCD127, is found in plasma, and we have previously identified increased plasma sCD127 concentrations in HIV infection. Furthermore, patients with high sCD127 exhibited the best viral control, implicating a role for IL-7 or sCD127 directly in improved virologic/immunologic outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259605/role-of-monocyte-macrophages-during-hiv-siv-infection-in-adult-and-pediatric-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Kristen M Merino, Carolina Allers, Elizabeth S Didier, Marcelo J Kuroda
Monocytes/macrophages are a diverse group of cells that act as first responders in innate immunity and then as mediators for adaptive immunity to help clear infections. In performing these functions, however, the macrophage inflammatory responses can also contribute to pathogenesis. Various monocyte and tissue macrophage subsets have been associated with inflammatory disorders and tissue pathogeneses such as occur during HIV infection. Non-human primate research of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been invaluable in better understanding the pathogenesis of HIV infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259582/experimental-oral-herpes-simplex-virus-1-hsv-1-co-infection-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques
#20
Meropi Aravantinou, Olga Mizenina, Giulia Calenda, Jessica Kenney, Ines Frank, Jeffrey D Lifson, Moriah Szpara, Lichen Jing, David M Koelle, Natalia Teleshova, Brooke Grasperge, James Blanchard, Agegnehu Gettie, Elena Martinelli, Nina Derby
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP) models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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