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Rhesus macaque

Fei Ling, Dan-Dan He, Wei Wang, Ya-Bin Jin, Hui-Ling Zhang
Background-Sterile alpha motif and histidine aspartate domain containing deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase 1 (SAMHD1) is one of the novel restriction factors that potently supresses HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells at an early stage in the viral replication cycle. SAMHD1 activity is blocked by the action of viral accessory protein x (Vpx), which targets and recruits SAMHD1 for proteasomal degradation, in the SIVsm/HIV-2 lineage. Objective-The impact of SAMHD1 polymorphisms on viral replication in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (CR) and cynomolgus macaques of Vietnamese origin (CM) have not been reported until now...
October 18, 2016: Current HIV Research
Kristine Coleman, Nicola D Robertson, Gregory A Dissen, Martha D Neuringer, L Drew Martin, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Christopher Kroenke, Damien Fair, Ansgar M Brambrink
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence correlates anesthetic exposure during early development with neuronal and glial injury and death, as well as behavioral and cognitive impairments, in young animals. Several, although not all, retrospective human studies of neurocognitive and behavioral disorders after childhood exposure to anesthesia suggest a similar association. Few studies have specifically investigated the effects of infant anesthesia exposure on subsequent neurobehavioral development...
October 5, 2016: Anesthesiology
Emily A Blumberg, Jay A Fishman
In 1952, Dick et al published a series of studies of a new virus isolated from sentinel rhesus macaque monkeys in the Zika Forest near Entebbe, Uganda (1). The first human isolation of Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred 2 years later in Nigeria. Cases of human infection were uncommonly identified until a major outbreak in Yap Island, Micronesia in 2007. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
David B Hanbury, Ann M Peiffer, Greg Dugan, Rachel N Andrews, J Mark Cline
In this study, the effects of a potentially lethal radiation exposure on the brain for long-term cognitive sequelae were investigated, using Rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) adopted from other facilities after analysis of acute radiation response via the Centers for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (CMCR) network. Fifty-nine animals were given the opportunity to participate in cognitive cage-side testing. The animals that received single-dose gamma irradiation were significantly less likely to engage in cognitive testing than the controls, suggesting that irradiated animals may have differences in cognitive ability...
October 14, 2016: Radiation Research
Christian Wächter, Lee E Eiden, Nedye Naumann, Candan Depboylu, Eberhard Weihe
BACKGROUND: The majority of investigations on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) neglect the cerebellum in spite of emerging evidence for its role in higher cognitive functions and dysfunctions in common neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We systematically investigated the molecular and cellular responses of the cerebellum as contributors to lentiviral infection-induced neurodegeneration, in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model for HIV infection and HAND...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
K G Sorwell, L Renner, A R Weiss, M Neuringer, S G Kohama, H F Urbanski
Estradiol supplementation has been shown to enhance cognitive performance in old ovariectomized rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To determine if similar benefits could be achieved in perimenopausal animals using alternative hormonal supplements we administered dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to old ovary-intact female rhesus macaques for ~2.5 months. Using computerized touchscreen memory tasks, including delayed response (DR) and delayed matching-to-sample (DMS), we observed improved performance with time in all of the animals but failed to detect a significant effect of DHEA...
October 13, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Xintao Hu, Antonio Valentin, Frances Dayton, Viraj Kulkarni, Candido Alicea, Margherita Rosati, Bhabadeb Chowdhury, Rajeev Gautam, Kate E Broderick, Niranjan Y Sardesai, Malcolm A Martin, James I Mullins, George N Pavlakis, Barbara K Felber
HIV sequence diversity and the propensity of eliciting immunodominant responses targeting variable regions of the HIV proteome are hurdles in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. An HIV-derived conserved element (CE) p24(gag) plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccine is able to redirect immunodominant responses to otherwise subdominant and often more vulnerable viral targets. By homology to the HIV immunogen, seven CE were identified in SIV p27(Gag) Analysis of 31 rhesus macaques vaccinated with full-length SIV gag pDNA showed inefficient induction (58% response rate) of cellular responses targeting these CE...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Marcus Ohlsson, Jaime H Nieto, Kari L Christe, J Pablo Villablanca, Leif A Havton
The anatomy of the vertebral column in mammals may differ between species and between subjects of the same species, especially with regards to the composition of the thoracolumbar spine. We investigated, using several non-invasive imaging techniques, the thoracolumbar spine of a total of 44 adult rhesus macaques of both genders. Radiographic examination of the vertebral column showed a predominant spine phenotype with 12 rib-bearing thoracic vertebrae and 7 lumbar vertebrae without ribs in 82% of subjects, whereas a subset of subjects demonstrated 13 rib-bearing thoracic vertebrae and 6 lumbar vertebrae without ribs...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Ashley S Hammond, Victoria P Johnson, James P Higham
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test for differences in hip joint range of motion (ROM) between captive and free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), particularly for hip joint abduction, which previous studies of captive macaques have found to be lower than predicted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hip ROM was assessed following standard joint measurement methodology in anesthetized adult free-ranging rhesus macaques (n = 39) from Cayo Santiago, and compared with published ROM data from captive rhesus macaques (n = 16) (Hammond, , American Journal of Physical Anthropology)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Juliet C Peña, Wen-Zhe Ho
Among the animal models of tuberculosis (TB), the non-human primates, particularly rhesus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca mulatta), share the greatest anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Macaques are highly susceptible to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and manifest the complete spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations of TB as seen in humans. Therefore, the macaque models have been used extensively for investigating the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infection and for preclinical testing of drugs and vaccines against TB...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Stefano S K Kaburu, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Pier F Ferrari
The identification of early markers that predict the development of specific social trajectories is critical to understand the developmental and neurobiological underpinnings of healthy social development. We investigated, in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), whether newborns' capacity to imitate facial gestures is a valid predictive marker for the emergence of social competencies later in development, at one year of age. Here we first assessed whether infant macaques (N = 126) imitate lipsmacking gestures (a macaque affiliative expression) performed by a human experimenter in their first week of life...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mohammed Asmal, Sophie Lane, Meijuan Tian, Gabrielle Nickel, Colin Venner, Brennan Dirk, Jimmy Dikeakos, Corinne Luedemann, Linh Mach, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Adam Buzby, Srinivas Rao, Norman Letvin, Yong Gao, Eric J Arts
For studies on vaccines and therapies for HIV disease, SIV-HIV chimeric viruses harboring the HIV-1 env gene (SHIVenv) remain the best virus in non-human primate models. However, there are still very few SHIVenv viruses that can cause AIDS in non-CD8-depleted animals. In the present study, a recently created CCR5-using SHIVenv_B3 virus with env gene derived from acute/early HIV-1 infections (AHI) successfully established pathogenic infection in macaques. Through a series of investigations on the evolution, mutational profile, and phenotype of the virus and the resultant humoral immune response in infected rhesus macaques, we found that the E32K mutation in the Env C1 domain was associated with macaque pathogenesis, and that the electrostatic interactions in Env may favor E32K at the gp120 N terminus and "lock" the binding to heptad repeat 1 of gp41 in the trimer and produce a SHIVenv with increased fitness and pathogenesis during macaque infections...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Vincent D Costa, Olga Dal Monte, Daniel R Lucas, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task...
September 28, 2016: Neuron
Zofia M Sikorska-Piwowska, Antoni L Dawidowicz
The authors examined a large random sample of skulls from two species of macaques: rhesus monkeys and cynomolgus monkeys. The skulls were measured, divided into age and sex groups and thoroughly analysed using statistical methods. The analysis shows that skulls of young rhesuses are considerably more domed, i.e. have better-developed neurocrania, than their adult counterparts. Male and female skulls, on the other hand, were found to be very similar, which means that sexual dimorphism of the rhesus macaque was suppressed...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Jinbiao Liu, Qianhao Xiao, Runhong Zhou, Yong Wang, Qiaoyang Xian, Tongcui Ma, Ke Zhuang, Li Zhou, Deyin Guo, Xu Wang, Wen-Zhe Ho, Jieliang Li
Altered T-cell homeostasis, such as expansion of CD8(+) T cells to the secondary lymphatic compartments, has been suggested as a mechanism of HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-pathogenesis. However, the role of immune activation of CD8(+) T cells in the CD4/CD8 turnover and viral replication in these tissues is not completely understood. In this study, we compared the expression of immune activation markers (CD69 and HLA-DR) on CD8(+) T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes (LNs) of SIV-infected/uninfected Chinese rhesus macaques...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Steven G Kohama, Lauren Renner, Noelle Landauer, Alison R Weiss, Henryk F Urbanski, Byung Park, Mary Lou Voytko, Martha Neuringer
: Studies of the effect of hormone therapy on cognitive function in menopausal women have been equivocal, in part due to differences in the type and timing of hormone treatment. Here we cognitively tested aged female rhesus macaques on (1) the delayed response task of spatial working memory, (2) a visuospatial attention task that measured spatially and temporally cued reaction times, and (3) a simple reaction time task as a control for motor speed. After task acquisition, animals were ovariectomized (OVX)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Shengbin Li, Joy M Folkvord, Eva G Rakasz, Hadia M Abdelaal, Reece K Wagstaff, Katalin J Kovacs, Hyeon O Kim, Ryoko Sawahata, Samantha MaWhinney, David Masopust, Elizabeth Connick, Pamela J Skinner
: HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells are typically largely excluded from lymphoid B cell follicles where HIV- and SIV-producing cells are most highly concentrated, indicating that B cell follicles are somewhat of an immune privileged site. To gain insights into virus-specific follicular CD8(+) T cells, we determined the location and phenotype of follicular SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells in situ, the local relationship of these cells to Foxp3(+) cells, and effects of CD8 depletion on levels of follicular SIV-producing cells in chronically SIV infected rhesus macaques...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Gokul Swaminathan, Elizabeth A Thoryk, Kara S Cox, Jeffrey S Smith, Jayanthi J Wolf, Marian E Gindy, Danilo R Casimiro, Andrew J Bett
Dengue virus has emerged as an important arboviral infection worldwide. As a complex pathogen, with four distinct serotypes, the development of a successful Dengue virus vaccine has proven to be challenging. Here, we describe a novel Dengue vaccine candidate that contains truncated, recombinant, Dengue virus envelope protein from all four Dengue virus serotypes (DEN-80E) formulated with ionizable cationic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Immunization studies in mice, Guinea pigs, and in Rhesus macaques, revealed that LNPs induced high titers of Dengue virus neutralizing antibodies, with or without co-administration or encapsulation of a Toll-Like Receptor 9 agonist...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Suzette M Evans, Richard W Foltin, Martin J Hicks, Jonathan B Rosenberg, Bishnu P De, Kim D Janda, Stephen M Kaminsky, Ronald G Crystal
Immunopharmacotherapy offers an approach for treating cocaine abuse by specifically targeting the cocaine molecule and preventing its access to the CNS. dAd5GNE is a novel cocaine vaccine that attenuates the stimulant and the reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. The goal of this study was to extend and validate dAd5GNE vaccine efficacy in non-human primates. Six experimentally naïve adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer 0.1mg/kg/injection intravenous (i.v.) cocaine or receive candy; then 4 monkeys were administered the vaccine and 2 monkeys were administered vehicle intramuscularly, with additional vaccine boosts throughout the study...
September 30, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Christa E Osuna, So-Yon Lim, Claire Deleage, Bryan D Griffin, Derek Stein, Lukas T Schroeder, Robert Omage, Katharine Best, Ma Luo, Peter T Hraber, Hanne Andersen-Elyard, Erwing Fabian Cardozo Ojeda, Scott Huang, Dana L Vanlandingham, Stephen Higgs, Alan S Perelson, Jacob D Estes, David Safronetz, Mark G Lewis, James B Whitney
Infection with Zika virus has been associated with serious neurological complications and fetal abnormalities. However, the dynamics of viral infection, replication and shedding are poorly understood. Here we show that both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly susceptible to infection by lineages of Zika virus that are closely related to, or are currently circulating in, the Americas. After subcutaneous viral inoculation, viral RNA was detected in blood plasma as early as 1 d after infection. Viral RNA was also detected in saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and semen, but transiently in vaginal secretions...
October 3, 2016: Nature Medicine
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