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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634624/population-averaged-macaque-brain-atlas-with-high-resolution-ex-vivo-dti-integrated-into-in-vivo-space
#1
Lei Feng, Tina Jeon, Qiaowen Yu, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Virendra Mishra, Mihovil Pletikos, Nenad Sestan, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori, Steven Hsiao, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired...
June 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634307/prefrontal-neurons-encode-a-solution-to-the-credit-assignment-problem
#2
Wael F Asaad, Peter M Lauro, János A Perge, Emad N Eskandar
To adapt successfully to our environments, we must use the outcomes of our choices to guide future behavior. Critically, we must be able to correctly assign credit for any particular outcome to the causal features which preceded it. In some cases, the causal features may be immediately evident, whereas in others they may be separated in time or intermingled with irrelevant environmental stimuli, creating a potentially nontrivial credit assignment problem. We examined the neuronal representation of information relevant for credit assignment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) of two male rhesus macaques performing a task that elicited key aspects of this problem...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628616/therapeutic-administration-of-a-recombinant-human-monoclonal-antibody-reduces-the-severity-of-chikungunya-virus-disease-in-rhesus-macaques
#3
Rebecca Broeckel, Julie M Fox, Nicole Haese, Craig N Kreklywich, Soila Sukulpovi-Petty, Alfred Legasse, Patricia P Smith, Michael Denton, Carsten Corvey, Shiv Krishnan, Lois M A Colgin, Rebecca M Ducore, Anne D Lewis, Michael K Axthelm, Marie Mandron, Pierre Cortez, Jonathan Rothblatt, Ercole Rao, Ingo Focken, Kara Carter, Gopal Sapparapau, James E Crowe, Michael S Diamond, Daniel N Streblow
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that causes a febrile syndrome in humans associated with acute and chronic debilitating joint and muscle pain. Currently no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are available to prevent or treat CHIKV infections. We recently isolated a panel of potently neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), one (4N12) of which exhibited prophylactic and post-exposure therapeutic activity against CHIKV in immunocompromised mice. Here, we describe the development of an engineered CHIKV mAb, designated SVIR001, that has similar antigen binding and neutralization profiles to its parent, 4N12...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623658/echocardiographic-parameters-of-clinically-normal-geriatric-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#4
Yu Ueda, Catherine T Gunther-Harrington, Christina L Cruzen, Jeffrey A Roberts, Joshua A Stern
The goal of this study was to generate reference intervals for echocardiographic variables in a population of clinically normalgeriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To do this, we studied 51 animals (age, 18-29 y; weight, 5.24-17.04 kg). Thenormal values for cardiac indices, including geometry and systolic and diastolic function, were determined by 2D, M-mode,spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography under ketamine hydrochloride sedation. Statistical correlations betweenthe echocardiographic parameters and age, body weight, sex, and heart rate were investigated...
June 16, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619884/effect-of-an-obesogenic-diet-on-circadian-activity-and-serum-hormones-in-old-monkeys
#5
Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller, Cynthia Bethea
Like women, old female rhesus macaques undergo menopause and show many of the same age-associated changes, including perturbed activity/rest cycles and altered circulating levels of many hormones. Previous studies showed that administration of an estrogen agonist increased activity in female monkeys, that hormone therapy (HT) increased activity in postmenopausal women, and that obesity decreased activity in women. The present study sought to determine if postmenopausal activity and circulating hormone levels also respond to HT when monkeys are fed a high-fat, high-sugar Western-style diet (WSD)...
June 15, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619074/novel-oligodendroglial-alpha-synuclein-viral-vector-models-of-multiple-system-atrophy-studies-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#6
Ronald J Mandel, David J Marmion, Deniz Kirik, Yaping Chu, Clifford Heindel, Thomas McCown, Steven J Gray, Jeffrey H Kordower
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a horrible and unrelenting neurodegenerative disorder with an uncertain etiology and pathophysiology. MSA is a unique proteinopathy in which alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulates preferentially in oligodendroglia rather than neurons. Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) of α-syn are thought to elicit changes in oligodendrocyte function, such as reduced neurotrophic support and demyelination, leading to neurodegeneration. To date, only a murine model using one of three promoters exist to study this disease...
June 16, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617816/testing-the-arousal-hypothesis-of-neonatal-imitation-in-infant-rhesus-macaques
#7
Annika Paukner, Eric J Pedersen, Elizabeth A Simpson
Neonatal imitation is the matching of (often facial) gestures by newborn infants. Some studies suggest that performance of facial gestures is due to general arousal, which may produce false positives on neonatal imitation assessments. Here we examine whether arousal is linked to facial gesturing in newborn infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We tested 163 infants in a neonatal imitation paradigm in their first postnatal week and analyzed their lipsmacking gestures (a rapid opening and closing of the mouth), tongue protrusion gestures, and yawn responses (a measure of arousal)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616771/androgen-supplementation-improves-some-but-not-all-aspects-of-immune-senescence-in-aged-male-macaques
#8
Maham Rais, Randall M Wilson, Henryk F Urbanski, Ilhem Messaoudi
Aging leads to a progressive decline in immune function commonly referred to as immune senescence, which results in increased incidence and severity of infection. In addition, older males experience a significant disruption in their levels of circulating androgens, notably testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which has been linked to sarcopenia, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Since sex steroid levels modulate immune function, it is possible that the age-related decline in androgen levels can also affect immune senescence...
June 14, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615280/age-associated-gene-expression-changes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-male-rhesus-macaques
#9
Dominique Eghlidi, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) represents a major component of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis, and plays an important role in controlling the onset of puberty as well as age-associated reproductive senescence. Although significant gene expression changes have been observed in the ARC during sexual maturation it is unclear what changes occur during aging, especially in males. Therefore, in the present study we profiled the expression of reproduction-related genes in the ARC of young and old male rhesus macaques, as well as old males that had received 6 months of hormone supplementation (HS) in the form of daily testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone; we also compared morning versus night ARC gene expression in the old males...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614145/non-human-primate-rhesus-macaque-models-of-severe-pressure-targeted-hemorrhagic-and-poly-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#10
Forest R Sheppard, Antoni R Macko, Jacob J Glaser, Philip J Vernon, Alexander J Burdette, R Madelaine Paredes, Craig A Koeller, Anthony E Pusateri, Douglas K Tadaki, Sylvain Cardin
BACKGROUND: We endeavored to develop clinically translatable non-human primate (NHP) models of severe poly-traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: NHPs were randomized into five pressure-targeted severe hemorrhagic shock (PTHS) ± additional injuries scenarios: 30-min PTHS (PTHS-30), 60-min PTHS (PTHS-60), PTHS-60 + soft tissue injury (PTHS-60+ST), PTHS-60+ST + femur fracture (PTHS-60+ST+FF) and decompensated PTHS+ST+FF (PTHS-D). Physiologic parameters were recorded and blood samples collected at five time points with animal observation through T = 24hrs...
June 13, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610792/quantitative-and-qualitative-inkt-repertoire-associations-with-disease-susceptibility-and-outcome-in-macaque-tuberculosis-infection
#11
Andrew Chancellor, Andrew White, Anna S Tocheva, Joe R Fenn, Mike Dennis, Liku Tezera, Akul Singhania, Tim Elliott, Marc Tebruegge, Paul Elkington, Stephan Gadola, Sally Sharpe, Salah Mansour
Correlates of immune protection that reliably predict vaccine efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection are urgently needed. Invariant NKT cells (iNKTs) are CD1d-dependent innate T cells that augment host antimicrobial immunity through production of cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We determined peripheral blood iNKT numbers, their proliferative responses and iNKT subset proportions after in vitro antigen expansion by α-galactosylceramide (αGC) in a large cohort of mycobacteria-naïve non-human primates, and macaques from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine and Mtb challenge studies...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600625/an-intravaginal-ring-that-releases-three-antiviral-agents-and-a-contraceptive-blocks-shiv-rt-infection-reduces-hsv-2-shedding-and-suppresses-hormonal-cycling-in-rhesus-macaques
#12
Nina Derby, Meropi Aravantinou, Jessica Kenney, Shweta R Ugaonkar, Asa Wesenberg, Jolanta Wilk, Larisa Kizima, Aixa Rodriguez, Shimin Zhang, Olga Mizenina, Keith Levendosky, Michael L Cooney, Samantha Seidor, Agegnehu Gettie, Brooke Grasperge, James Blanchard, Michael Piatak, Jeffrey D Lifson, José Fernández-Romero, Thomas M Zydowsky, Melissa Robbiani
Women globally need access to multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexually transmitted infections that increase HIV acquisition/transmission risk, and unintended pregnancy. Seeking an MPT with activity against HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV), we developed a prototype intravaginal ring (IVR), the MZCL IVR, which released the antiviral agents MIV-150, zinc acetate, and carrageenan (MZC for short) and the contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG)...
June 9, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593989/pentavalent-hiv-1-vaccine-protects-against-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-challenge
#13
Todd Bradley, Justin Pollara, Sampa Santra, Nathan Vandergrift, Srivamshi Pittala, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Xiaoying Shen, Robert Parks, Derrick Goodman, Amanda Eaton, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Linh V Mach, Kevin O Saunders, Joshua A Weiner, Richard Scearce, Laura L Sutherland, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Steven G Reed, Shiu-Lok Hu, James F Theis, Abraham Pinter, David C Montefiori, Thomas B Kepler, Kristina K Peachman, Mangala Rao, Nelson L Michael, Todd J Suscovich, Galit Alter, Margaret E Ackerman, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, Georgia Tomaras, Guido Ferrari, Bette T Korber, Barton F Haynes
The RV144 Thai trial HIV-1 vaccine of recombinant poxvirus (ALVAC) and recombinant HIV-1 gp120 subtype B/subtype E (B/E) proteins demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy. Here we design an ALVAC/Pentavalent B/E/E/E/E vaccine to increase the diversity of gp120 motifs in the immunogen to elicit a broader antibody response and enhance protection. We find that immunization of rhesus macaques with the pentavalent vaccine results in protection of 55% of pentavalent-vaccine-immunized macaques from simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge...
June 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593835/pharmacokinetics-of-a-novel-transdermal-fentanyl-solution-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#14
Gregory W Salyards, Marie-Josee Lemoy, Heather K Knych, Ashley E Hill, Kari L Christe
Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are the most commonly used NHP biomedical model and experience both research andclinical procedures requiring analgesia. Opioids are a mainstay of analgesic therapy. A novel, transdermal fentanyl solution(TFS) has been developed as a long-acting, single-administration topical opioid and was reported to provide at least 4 d ofeffective plasma concentrations in beagles (Canis familiaris). To evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of TFS in healthy adultrhesus macaques, we used a 2-period, 2-treatment crossover study of a single topical administration of 1...
June 7, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592561/vaccine-priming-is-restricted-to-draining-lymph-nodes-and-controlled-by-adjuvant-mediated-antigen-uptake
#15
Frank Liang, Gustaf Lindgren, Kerrie J Sandgren, Elizabeth A Thompson, Joseph R Francica, Anja Seubert, Ennio De Gregorio, Susan Barnett, Derek T O'Hagan, Nancy J Sullivan, Richard A Koup, Robert A Seder, Karin Loré
The innate immune mechanisms by which adjuvants enhance the potency and protection of vaccine-induced adaptive immunity are largely unknown. We introduce a model to delineate the steps of how adjuvant-driven innate immune activation leads to priming of vaccine responses using rhesus macaques. Fluorescently labeled HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) was administered together with the conventional aluminum salt (alum) adjuvant. This was compared to Env given with alum with preabsorbed Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) ligand (alum-TLR7) or the emulsion MF59 because they show superiority over alum for qualitatively and quantitatively improved vaccine responses...
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592531/use-of-a-recombinant-gamma-2-herpesvirus-vaccine-vector-against-dengue-virus-in-rhesus-monkeys
#16
Georg F Bischof, Diogo M Magnani, Michael Ricciardi, Young C Shin, Aline Domingues, Varian K Bailey, Lucas Gonzalez-Nieto, Eva G Rakasz, David I Watkins, Ronald C Desrosiers
Research on vaccine approaches that can provide long-term protection against dengue virus infection is needed. Here we describe the construction, immunogenicity, and preliminary information on protective capacity of recombinant, replication-competent rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a persisting herpesvirus. One RRV construct expressed the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) while a second recombinant expressed a soluble variant of the E protein (E85) of dengue virus 2 (DENV2). Four rhesus macaques received a single vaccination with a mixture of both recombinant RRVs and were subsequently challenged 19 weeks later with 1 x 10(5) PFU of DENV2...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590331/multimodal-analysis-of-drug-transporter-expression-in-gastrointestinal-tissue
#17
Corbin G Thompson, John K Fallon, Michelle Mathews, Paige Charlins, Leila Mulder, Martina Kovarova, Lourdes Adamson, Nithya Srinivas, Amanda Schauer, Craig Sykes, Paul Luciw, J Victor Garcia, Ramesh Akkina, Philip C Smith, Angela D M Kashuba
OBJECTIVES: Drug transporters affect ART tissue disposition, but quantitative measures of drug transporter protein expression across pre-clinical species are not available. Our objective was to use proteomics to obtain absolute transporter concentrations and assess agreement with corresponding gene and immunometric protein data. DESIGN: In order to make interspecies comparisons, two humanized mouse (hu-HSC-Rag (n = 41); BLT (n = 13)) and one primate (rhesus macaque, (NHP, n = 12)) models were dosed to steady-state with combination ART...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585307/maternal-antibodies-against-tetanus-toxoid-do-not-inhibit-potency-of-antibody-responses-to-autologous-antigen-in-newborn-rhesus-monkeys
#18
Ronald S Veazey, Yingjie Lu, Huanbin Xu, Widade Ziani, Lara A Doyle-Meyers, Marion S Ratterree, Xiaolei Wang
BACKGROUND: Our previous study suggested newborns have competent immune systems with the potential to respond to foreign antigens and vaccines. In this study, we examined infant immune responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination in the presence of maternal antibody to TT. METHODS: We examined changes in plasma levels of tetanus toxoid-specific IgG1 (anti-TT IgG1) in a total of eight infant rhesus macaques from birth through 6 months of age using a commercial Monkey Anti-TT IgG1 ELISA kit...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584928/effects-of-the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-way163909-on-the-abuse-related-effects-and-mesolimbic-dopamine-neurochemistry-induced-by-abused-stimulants-in-rhesus-monkeys
#19
Laís F Berro, Maylen Perez Diaz, Eric Maltbie, Leonard L Howell
RATIONALE: Accumulating evidence shows that the serotonergic system plays a major role in psychostimulant abuse through its interactions with the dopaminergic system. Studies indicate that serotonin 5-HT2C receptors are one of the main classes of receptors involved in mediating the influence of serotonin in drug abuse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the selective serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY163909 on the behavioral neuropharmacology of cocaine and methamphetamine in adult rhesus macaques...
June 5, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583546/surgical-techniques-of-allogeneic-liver-transplantation-in-a-nonhuman-primate-model
#20
H Kim, H Kim, J-I Lee, S W Ahn, S K Hong, K C Yoon, H-S Kim, J-Y Choi, D Oh, N-J Yi, J Yang, K-W Lee, K-S Suh
Herein, we report our experience of performing allogeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (LT) in nonhuman primates. We designed an allogeneic ABO-compatible orthotopic LT model in monkeys in a manner similar to that used in humans. We applied almost the same surgical procedures used for human conventional deceased donor LT. A total of 6 monkeys underwent allogeneic LT. One cynomolgus monkey aged 45 months (3.4 kg) and 5 rhesus macaque monkeys aged 50.2 ± 14.8 months (5.40 ± 0.33 kg) were used as recipients...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
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