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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778513/the-immune-response-of-rhesus-macaques-to-novel-vaccines-comprising-hepatitis-b-virus-s-pres1-and-core-antigens
#1
Xia Chuai, Bangxiang Xie, Hong Chen, Xinyi Tan, Wen Wang, Baoying Huang, Yao Deng, Wenhui Li, Wenjie Tan
Therapeutic vaccines represent a unique approach to hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatment and have the potential to induce long-term control of infection. This study explored the immune responses of rhesus macaques to novel vaccines comprising the S, PreS1, and Core antigens of the HBV that showed promise as prophylactic and therapeutic approaches in a mouse model. The tested vaccines included two DNA vaccines (pVRC-SS1, pVRC-CS1), an HBV particle subunit (HBSS1) vaccine and the recombinant vaccinia virus- (RVJ-) based vaccines (RVJSS1 and RVJCS1) in which SS1 containing S (1-223 aa) and PreS1 (21-47 aa), CS1 containing Core (1-144 aa) and PreS1 (1-42 aa)...
May 16, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777547/tacrolimus-induced-asymptomatic-thrombotic-microangiopathy-diagnosed-by-laboratory-tests-in-pig-to-rhesus-corneal-xenotransplantation-a-case-report
#2
Jong-Min Kim, Jaeyoung Kim, Se-Hyun Choi, Jun-Seop Shin, Byoung-Hoon Min, Won Young Jeong, Ga-Eul Lee, Min-Sun Kim, Seeun Kwon, Mee Kum Kim, Chung-Gyu Park
Tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a rare complication. TA-TMA is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and organ damage due to thrombus. We report asymptomatic TA-TMA diagnosed by laboratory tests in pig-to-rhesus corneal xenotransplantation. Corneal transplantation had been conducted from a wild-type SNU miniature pig to a rhesus macaque. The veterinary records were retrospectively reviewed in this case. The immunosuppressive regimen consisted of rituximab, basiliximab, and IVIg as inductive therapies, and steroids with tacrolimus (0...
May 18, 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776458/hydrocephalus-after-intrathecal-administration-of-dextran-to-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#3
Jason P Dufour, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kathrine P Falkenstein, Robert V Blair, Elizabeth S Didier, Nadia Slisarenko, Kenneth C Williams, Marcelo J Kuroda
Dextrans have been used extensively as medical therapies and labeling agents in biomedical research to investigate theblood-brain barrier and CSF flow and absorption. Adverse effects from dextrans include anaphylactic reaction and dilation ofthe cerebral ventricles due to administration into the subarachnoid space. This retrospective study describes 51 rhesus macaques(Macaca mulatta) that received dextran intrathecally. The purpose of intrathecal administration was to enable detection oflong-lived, dextran-labeled macrophages and to study monocyte-macrophage turnover in the CNS of SIV- or SHIV- infectedand uninfected animals by using immunofluorescence...
May 18, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772652/gp120-v5-is-targeted-by-the-first-wave-of-sequential-neutralizing-antibodies-in-shiv-sf162p3n-infected-rhesus-macaques
#4
Manxue Jia, Hong Lu, Xiang-Peng Kong, Cecilia Cheng-Mayer, Xueling Wu
Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection provides a relevant animal model to study HIV-1 neutralization breadth. With previously identified SHIVSF162P3N infected rhesus macaques that did or did not develop neutralization breadth, we characterized the transmitted/founder viruses and initial autologous/homologous neutralizing antibodies in these animals. The plasma viral load and blood CD4 count did not distinguish macaques with and without breadth, and only one tested homologous envelope clone revealed a trend for macaques with breadth to favor an early homologous response...
May 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764539/effect-of-chronic-social-stress-on-prenatal-transfer-of-antitetanus-immunity-in-captive-breeding-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#5
Rachelle L Stammen, Joyce K Cohen, Tracy L Meeker, Maria M Crane, Rama R Amara, Sakeenah L Hicks, Jerrold S Meyer, Kelly F Ethun
Because tetanus can cause significant morbidity and mortality in NHP, colonywide vaccination with tetanus toxoid is recommendedfor outdoor breeding colonies of rhesus macaques, with primary immunizations commonly given to infants at 6 mo of age followed by booster vaccines every 10 y. Maternal antibodies are thought to offer protective immunity to infants younger than 6 mo. However, historical colony data from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center show a higher incidence of tetanus among infants (≤ 6 mo old) born to subordinate dams...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762161/anti-hiv-igm-protects-against-mucosal-shiv-transmission
#6
Siqi Gong, Khamis Tomusange, Viraj Kulkarni, Opeyemi S Adeniji, Samir K Lakhashe, Dinesh Hariraju, Amanda Strickland, Elizabeth Plake, Patrice A Frost, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Liping Wang, Eileen M Lafer, Ruth M Ruprecht
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, most new HIV infections occur through mucosal exposure. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody class generated in response to infectious agents; IgM is present in the systemic circulation and in mucosal fluids as secretory IgM. We sought to investigate for the first time the role of IgM in preventing AIDS virus acquisition in vivo. DESIGN: Recombinant polymeric monoclonal IgM was generated from the neutralizing monoclonal IgG1 antibody 33C6-IgG1, tested in vitro, and given by passive intrarectal (i...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760177/epigenetic-promoter-dna-methylation-of-mir-124-promotes-hiv-1-tat-mediated-microglial-activation-via-mecp2-stat3-axis
#7
Palsamy Periyasamy, Annadurai Thangaraj, Ming-Lei Guo, Guoku Hu, Shannon Callen, Shilpa Buch
The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B that were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756649/measuring-peripheral-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-nonhuman-primates
#8
REVIEW
Toni E Ziegler
Studying the neural and hormonal changes that modulate behavior is critical to understanding social relationships. Of particular interest is measuring oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) peripherally, and preferably, non-invasively, in nonhuman primates. Due to these peptides' neural origin and their stimulation of brain areas that influence social behavior, there has been debate whether peripheral measures in blood, urine, and saliva reflect central levels in the brain. This review elucidates the challenges of OT measurement and the solutions that provide valuable data on OT's role in social behavior...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750804/temporal-compartmental-changes-in-viral-rna-and-neuronal-injury-in-a-primate-model-of-neuroaids
#9
R Gilberto González, Robert Fell, Julian He, Jennifer Campbell, Tricia H Burdo, Patrick Autissier, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Faramarz Taheri, Termara Parker, Jeffrey D Lifson, Elkan F Halpern, Mark Vangel, Eliezer Masliah, Susan V Westmoreland, Kenneth C Williams, Eva-Maria Ratai
Despite the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to be a significant problem. Furthermore, the precise pathogenesis of this neurodegeneration is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and neuronal injury in the rhesus macaque using in vivo and postmortem sampling techniques. The effect of SIV infection in 23 adult rhesus macaques was investigated using an accelerated NeuroAIDS model...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743361/a-novel-strategy-to-adapt-shiv-e1-carrying-env-from-an-rv144-volunteer-to-rhesus-macaques-coreceptor-switch-and-final-recovery-of-a-pathogenic-virus-with-exclusive-r5-tropism
#10
Hanna B Scinto, Sandeep Gupta, Swati Thorat, Muhammad M Mukhtar, Anthony Griffiths, Jennifer Delgado, Elizabeth Plake, Hemant K Vyas, Amanda Strickland, Siddappa N Byrareddy, David C Montefiori, Celia LaBranche, Ranajit Pal, Jim Treece, Sharon Orndorff, Maria Grazia Ferrari, Deborah Weiss, Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Robert McLinden, Nelson Michael, Jerome H Kim, Merlin Robb, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Ruth M Ruprecht
The Phase III RV144 HIV vaccine trial conducted in Thailand remains the only study to show efficacy in decreasing HIV acquisition risk. In Thailand, circulating recombinant forms of HIV clades A/E (CRF01_AE) predominate; in such viruses, env originates from clade E (HIV-E). We constructed a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) chimera carrying env isolated from an RV144 placebo recipient in the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone. The latter contains long terminal repeats (LTRs) with duplicated NF-κB sites, thus resembling HIV LTRs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743357/the-antiviral-activity-of-the-cellular-glycoprotein-lgals3bp-90k-is-species-specific
#11
Veronika Lodermeyer, George Ssebyatika, Vânia Passos, Aparna Ponnurangam, Angelina Malassa, Ellen Ewald, Christina M Stürzel, Frank Kirchhoff, Margalida Rotger, Christine S Falk, Amalio Telenti, Thomas Krey, Christine Goffinet
Cellular antiviral proteins interfere with distinct steps of replication cycles of viruses. The galectin 3 binding protein (LGALS3BP, also known as 90K) was previously shown to lower the infectivity of nascent HIV-1 virions when expressed in virus-producing cells. This antiviral effect was accompanied by impaired gp160Env processing and reduced viral incorporation of mature Env glycoproteins. Here, we examined the ability of 90K orthologs from primate species to reduce particle infectivity of distinct lentiviruses...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743294/gene-expression-profiling-of-the-scn-in-young-and-old-rhesus-macaques
#12
Dominique Eghlidi, Selva Leticia Luna, Donald Brown, Vasilios Garyfallou, Steven Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the location of a master circadian pacemaker. It receives photic signals from the environment via the retinal hypothalamic tract, which play a key role in synchronizing the body's endogenously-generated circadian rhythms with the 24-hour rhythm of the environment. Therefore, it is plausible that age-related changes within the SCN contribute to the etiology of perturbed activity-rest cycles that become prevalent in humans during aging. To test this hypothesis, we used Gene Arrays and qRT-PCR to profile age-related gene expression changes within the SCN of male rhesus macaques - a pragmatic translational animal model of human aging, which similarly displays an age-related attenuation of daytime activity levels...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742435/recently-identified-mutations-in-the-ebola-virus-makona-genome-do-not-alter-pathogenicity-in-animal-models
#13
Andrea Marzi, Spencer Chadinah, Elaine Haddock, Friederike Feldmann, Nicolette Arndt, Cynthia Martellaro, Dana P Scott, Patrick W Hanley, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Samba Sow, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann
Ebola virus (EBOV), isolate Makona, the causative agent of the West African EBOV epidemic, has been the subject of numerous investigations to determine the genetic diversity and its potential implication for virus biology, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Despite various mutations that have emerged over time through multiple human-to-human transmission chains, their biological relevance remains questionable. Recently, mutations in the glycoprotein GP and polymerase L, which emerged and stabilized early during the outbreak, have been associated with improved viral fitness in cell culture...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738279/cortical-thinning-and-structural-bone-changes-in-non-human-primates-after-single-fraction-whole-chest-irradiation
#14
Michael Farris, Emory R McTyre, Catherine Okoukoni, Greg Dugan, Brendan J Johnson, A William Blackstock, Michael T Munley, J Daniel Bourland, J Mark Cline, Jeffrey S Willey
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is associated with an increased risk of vertebral compression fracture. While bone is typically considered radiation resistant, fractures frequently occur within the first year of SBRT. The goal of this work was to determine if rapid deterioration of bone occurs in vertebrae after irradiation. Sixteen male rhesus macaque non-human primates (NHPs) were analyzed after whole-chest irradiation to a midplane dose of 10 Gy. Ages at the time of exposure varied from 45-134 months...
May 8, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734222/progressive-lentivirus-infection-induces-natural-killer-cell-receptor-expressing-b-cells-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Cordelia Manickam, Chiadika Nwanze, Daniel R Ram, Spandan V Shah, Scott Smith, Rhianna Jones, Brady Hueber, Kyle Kroll, Valerie Varner, Paul Goepfert, Stephanie Jost, R Keith Reeves
OBJECTIVE: Recently, a seemingly novel innate immune cell subset bearing features of natural killer and B cells was identified in mice. So-called NKB cells appear as first responders to infections, but whether this cell population is truly novel or is in fact a subpopulation of B cells and exists in higher primates remains unclear. The objective of this study was to identify NKB cells in primates and study the impact of HIV/SIV infections. DESIGN AND METHODS: NKB cells were quantified in both naïve and lentivirus infected rhesus macaques and humans by excluding lineage markers (CD3, CD127), and positive Boolean gating for CD20, NKG2A/C and/or NKp46...
May 3, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729357/effects-of-systemic-cholinergic-antagonism-on-reinforcer-devaluation-in-macaques
#16
Hannah F Waguespack, Ludise Málková, Patrick A Forcelli, Janita Turchi
The capacity to adjust actions based on new information is a vital cognitive function. An animal's ability to adapt behavioral responses according to changes in reward value can be measured using a reinforcer devaluation task, wherein the desirability of a given object is reduced by decreasing the value of the associated food reinforcement. Elements of the neural circuits serving this ability have been studied in both rodents and nonhuman primates. Specifically, the basolateral amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and mediodorsal thalamus have each been shown to play a critical role in the process of value updating, required for adaptive goal selection...
May 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728510/rapid-turnover-and-high-production-rate-of-myeloid-cells-in-adult-rhesus-macaques-with-compensations-during-aging
#17
Ziyuan He, Carolina Allers, Chie Sugimoto, Nursarat Ahmed, Hideki Fujioka, Woong-Ki Kim, Elizabeth S Didier, Marcelo J Kuroda
Neutrophils, basophils, and monocytes are continuously produced in bone marrow via myelopoiesis, circulate in blood, and are eventually removed from circulation to maintain homeostasis. To quantitate the kinetics of myeloid cell movement during homeostasis, we applied 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse labeling in healthy rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) followed by hematology and flow cytometry analyses. Results were applied to a mathematical model, and the blood circulating half-life and daily production, respectively, of each cell type from macaques aged 5-10 y old were calculated for neutrophils (1...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725028/top-down-beta-oscillatory-signaling-conveys-behavioral-context-in-early-visual-cortex
#18
Craig G Richter, Richard Coppola, Steven L Bressler
Top-down modulation of sensory processing is a critical neural mechanism subserving numerous important cognitive roles, one of which may be to inform lower-order sensory systems of the current 'task at hand' by conveying behavioral context to these systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that top-down cortical influences are carried by directed interareal synchronization of oscillatory neuronal populations, with recent results pointing to beta-frequency oscillations as particularly important for top-down processing...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724057/attenuated-phenotype-and-immunogenic-characteristics-of-a-mutated-herpes-simplex-virus-1-strain-in-the-rhesus-macaque
#19
Shengtao Fan, Xingli Xu, Yun Liao, Yongrong Wang, Jianbin Wang, Min Feng, Lichun Wang, Ying Zhang, Zhanlong He, Fengmei Yang, Nigel W Fraser, Qihan Li
Herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) presents a conundrum to public health worldwide because of its specific pathogenicity and clinical features. Some experimental vaccines, such as the recombinant viral glycoproteins, exhibit the viral immunogenicity of a host-specific immune response, but none of these has achieved a valid epidemiological protective efficacy in the human population. In the present study, we constructed an attenuated HSV-1 strain M3 through the partial deletion of UL7, UL41 , and the latency-associated transcript ( LAT ) using the CRISPR/Cas9 system...
May 2, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723973/comparative-pathogenesis-of-asian-and-african-lineage-zika-virus-in-indian-rhesus-macaque-s-and-development-of-a-non-human-primate-model-suitable-for-the-evaluation-of-new-drugs-and-vaccines
#20
Jonathan O Rayner, Raj Kalkeri, Scott Goebel, Zhaohui Cai, Brian Green, Shuling Lin, Beth Snyder, Kimberly Hagelin, Kevin B Walters, Fusataka Koide
The establishment of a well characterized non-human primate model of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is critical for the development of medical interventions. In this study, challenging Indian rhesus macaques (IRMs) with ZIKV strains of the Asian lineage resulted in dose-dependent peak viral loads between days 2 and 5 post infection and a robust immune response which protected the animals from homologous and heterologous re-challenge. In contrast, viremia in IRMs challenged with an African lineage strain was below the assay’s lower limit of quantitation, and the immune response was insufficient to protect from re-challenge...
May 1, 2018: Viruses
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