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Biomedical testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741141/detonation-nanodiamonds-are-promising-nontoxic-delivery-system-for-urothelial-cells
#1
Daša Zupančič, Mateja Erdani Kreft, Maja Grdadolnik, Dimitar Mitev, Aleš Iglič, Peter Veranič
Detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that are among the most promising nanoparticles available for biomedical applications so far. This is due to their biocompatibility, which could be contributed to their inert core and conformable surface nature. However, DNDs cytotoxicity for urothelial cells and the routes of their internalization remains an open question in the aspect of nanodiamond surface. We therefore analyzed four types of DNDs for cytotoxicity and internalization with normal urothelial cells and two types of cancer urothelial cell lines in vitro...
July 24, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736787/carbon-quantum-dots-with-intrinsic-mitochondrial-targeting-ability-for-mitochondria-based-theranostics
#2
Xian-Wu Hua, Yan-Wen Bao, Zhan Chen, Fu-Gen Wu
We prepare for the first time a novel type of fluorescent carbon quantum dot (or carbon dot, CD) with intrinsic mitochondrial targeting ability by a one-step hydrothermal treatment of chitosan, ethylenediamine and mercaptosuccinic acid. The as-prepared CDs can realize mitochondrial imaging and mitochondria-targeted photodynamic cancer therapy without further modifications of other mitochondriotropic ligands (such as triphenylphosphine, TPP). Currently, many commercial mitochondrial probes suffer from the lack of modifiable groups, poor photostability, short tracking time, high cost and/or complicated staining procedures, which severely limit their applications in live-cell mitochondrial imaging...
July 24, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733677/inductively-powered-wireless-pacing-via-a-miniature-pacemaker-and-remote-stimulation-control-system
#3
Parinaz Abiri, Ahmad Abiri, René R Sevag Packard, Yichen Ding, Alireza Yousefi, Jianguo Ma, Malcolm Bersohn, Kim-Lien Nguyen, Dejan Markovic, Shervin Moloudi, Tzung K Hsiai
Pacemakers have existed for decades as a means to restore cardiac electrical rhythms. However, lead-related complications have remained a clinical challenge. While market-released leadless devices have addressed some of the issues, their pacer-integrated batteries cause new health risks and functional limitations. Inductive power transfer enables wireless powering of bioelectronic devices; however, Specific Absorption Rate and size limitations reduce power efficiency for biomedical applications. We designed a remote-controlled system in which power requirements were significantly reduced via intermittent power transfer to control stimulation intervals...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732898/facile-approach-to-the-fabrication-of-3d-cellulose-nanofibrils-cnfs-reinforced-poly-vinyl-alcohol-hydrogel-with-ideal-biocompatibility
#4
Xiao Chen, Chuntao Chen, Heng Zhang, Yang Huang, Jiazhi Yang, Dongping Sun
In this study, the reinforcing effects of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix were explored. And ethylene glycol was used to enhance the water content and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) absorbency. The morphological aspects of the hydrogel were studied by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of interactions, changes in crystallinity as well as thermal behaviour were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetry respectively...
October 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732712/structure-performance-relationships-of-temperature-responsive-plga-peg-plga-gels-for-sustained-release-of-bmp-2
#5
A Santoveña, C Monzón, C Alvarez-Lorenzo, C Del Rosario, A Delgado, C Evora, A Concheiro, M Llabrés, J B Fariña
PLGA-PEG-PLGA synthesis conditions have an impact on the physicochemical features of the copolymer and its usefulness as biomaterial. This study reports on an analysis of the composition and structural properties of PLGA-PEG-PLGA copolymers applying a variety of analytical techniques. Viscoelastic properties and particularly the temperature-responsive behavior of PLGA-PEG-PLGA showed a marked dependence on copolymer structural features. Physicochemical and biological properties, such as bioadhesion, biocompatibility and cell viability, of the raw copolymers and their gels were also evaluated...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732459/crispulator-a-discrete-simulation-tool-for-pooled-genetic-screens
#6
Tamas Nagy, Martin Kampmann
BACKGROUND: The rapid adoption of CRISPR technology has enabled biomedical researchers to conduct CRISPR-based genetic screens in a pooled format. The quality of results from such screens is heavily dependent on the selection of optimal screen design parameters, which also affects cost and scalability. However, the cost and effort of implementing pooled screens prohibits experimental testing of a large number of parameters. RESULTS: We present CRISPulator, a Monte Carlo method-based computational tool that simulates the impact of screen parameters on the robustness of screen results, thereby enabling users to build intuition and insights that will inform their experimental strategy...
July 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729689/metal-nanoclusters-with-synergistically-engineered-optical-and-buffering-activity-of-intracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-by-compositional-and-supramolecular-design
#7
B Santiago-Gonzalez, A Monguzzi, M Caputo, C Villa, M Prato, C Santambrogio, Y Torrente, F Meinardi, S Brovelli
Metal nanoclusters featuring tunable luminescence and high biocompatibility are receiving attention as fluorescent markers for cellular imaging. The recently discovered ability of gold clusters to scavenge cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the intracellular environment extends their applicability to biomedical theranostics and provides a novel platform for realizing multifunctional luminescent probes with engineered anti-cytotoxic activity for applications in bio-diagnostics and conceivably cellular therapy...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#8
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726681/a-novel-cylindrical-microwell-featuring-inverted-pyramidal-opening-for-efficient-cell-spheroid-formation-without-cell-loss
#9
Jae Min Cha, HyungDal Park, Eun Kyoung Shin, Ji Hee Sung, Ockchul Kim, Woohyun Jung, Oh Young Bang, Jinseok Kim
Spheroid cultures have been often used to simulate and understand in situ biological occurrences with potential to be further applied to therapeutic approaches, such as cell transplantation. However, traditional lab-scale techniques hardly reached the needed large scale production of cell spheroids, thus limiting their versatility in many biomedical fields. Microscale technologies have rapidly improved in the last decade, and contributed to the large scale production of cell spheroids with high controllability and reproducibility...
July 20, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725260/help-seeking-and-suicidality-among-people-with-epilepsy-in-a-rural-low-income-country-setting-cross-sectional-survey
#10
Ruth Tsigebrhan, Charlotte Hanlon, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu
BACKGROUNDS: Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder associated with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity. Suicidality is a recognised complication of epilepsy. As part of developing an integrated service for people with epilepsy (PWE) and priority psychiatric disorders within primary care, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural district in Ethiopia to investigate patterns of help-seeking, suicidality and the association with duration of untreated epilepsy (DUE) among PWE...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723948/integrative-functional-analyses-using-rainbow-trout-selected-for-tolerance-to-plant-diets-reveal-nutrigenomic-signatures-for-soy-utilization-without-the-concurrence-of-enteritis
#11
Jason Abernathy, Andreas Brezas, Kevin R Snekvik, Ronald W Hardy, Ken Overturf
Finding suitable alternative protein sources for diets of carnivorous fish species remains a major concern for sustainable aquaculture. Through genetic selection, we created a strain of rainbow trout that outperforms parental lines in utilizing an all-plant protein diet and does not develop enteritis in the distal intestine, as is typical with salmonids on long-term plant protein-based feeds. By incorporating this strain into functional analyses, we set out to determine which genes are critical to plant protein utilization in the absence of gut inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722704/targeted-proteomic-assays-for-quantitation-of-proteins-identified-by-proteogenomic-analysis-of-ovarian-cancer
#12
Ehwang Song, Yuqian Gao, Chaochao Wu, Tujin Shi, Song Nie, Thomas L Fillmore, Athena A Schepmoes, Marina A Gritsenko, Wei-Jun Qian, Richard D Smith, Karin D Rodland, Tao Liu
Mass spectrometry (MS) based targeted proteomic methods such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM) are emerging as a promising tool for verification of candidate proteins in biological and biomedical applications. The Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute has investigated the standardization and analytical validation of the SRM assays and demonstrated robust analytical performance on different instruments across different laboratories. An Assay Portal has also been established by CPTAC to provide the research community a resource consisting of large sets of targeted MS-based assays, and a depository to share assays publicly...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722434/design-considerations-for-silica-particle-doped-nitric-oxide-releasing-polyurethane-glucose-biosensor-membranes
#13
Robert J Soto, Jonathon B Schofield, Shaylyn E Walter, Maggie J Malone-Povolny, Mark H Schoenfisch
Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing polymers have proven useful for improving the biocompatibility of in vivo glucose biosensors. Unfortunately, leaching of the NO donor from the polymer matrix remains a critical design flaw of NO-releasing membranes. Herein, a toolbox of NO-releasing silica nanoparticles (SNPs) was utilized to systematically evaluate SNP leaching from a diverse selection of biomedical-grade polyurethane sensor membranes. Glucose sensor analytical performance and NO-release kinetics from the sensor membranes were also evaluated as a function of particle and polyurethane (PU) chemistries...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721807/developing-the-transdisciplinary-aging-research-agenda-new-developments-in-big-data
#14
Christian William Callaghan
In light of dramatic advances in big data analytics and the application of these advances in certain scientific fields, new potentialities exist for breakthroughs in aging research. Translating these new potentialities to research outcomes for aging populations, however, remains a challenge, as underlying technologies which have enabled exponential increases in 'big data' have not yet enabled a commensurate era of 'big knowledge,' or similarly exponential increases in biomedical breakthroughs. Debates also reveal differences in the literature, with some arguing big data analytics heralds a new era associated with the 'end of theory' or which makes the scientific method obsolete, where correlation supercedes causation, whereby science can advance without theory and hypotheses testing...
July 19, 2017: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721663/influence-of-direct-or-indirect-contact-for-the-cytotoxicity-and-blood-compatibility-of-spider-silk
#15
J W Kuhbier, V Coger, J Mueller, C Liebsch, F Schlottmann, V Bucan, P M Vogt, S Strauss
Spider silk became one of the most-researched biomaterials in the last years due to its unique mechanical strength and most favourable chemical composition for tissue engineering purposes. However, standardized analysis of cytocompatibility is missing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate hemolysis, cytotoxicity of native spider silk as well as influences on the cell culture medium. Changes of cell culture medium composition, osmolarity as well as glucose and lactate content were determined via ELISA measurement...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720438/on-the-utility-of-3d-hand-cursors-to-explore-medical-volume-datasets-with-a-touchless-interface
#16
Daniel Simões Lopes, Pedro Duarte de Figueiredo Parreira, Soraia Figueiredo Paulo, Vitor Nunes, Paulo Amaral Rego, Manuel Cassiano Neves, Pedro Silva Rodrigues, Joaquim Armando Jorge
Analyzing medical volume datasets requires interactive visualization so that users can extract anatomo-physiological information in real-time. Conventional volume rendering systems rely on 2D input devices, such as mice and keyboards, which are known to hamper 3D analysis as users often struggle to obtain the desired orientation that is only achieved after several attempts. In this paper, we address which 3D analysis tools are better performed with 3D hand cursors operating on a touchless interface comparatively to a 2D input devices running on a conventional WIMP interface...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716510/evaluation-of-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-models-of-toxicity-by-comparison-of-toxicogenomics-data-with-the-literature
#17
Katerina Taškova, Jean-Fred Fontaine, Ralf Mrowka, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Toxicity affecting humans is studied by observing the effects of chemical substances in animal organisms (in vivo) or in animal and human cultivated cell lines (in vitro). Toxicogenomics studies collect gene expression profiles and histopathology assessment data for hundreds of drugs and pollutants in standardized experimental designs using different model systems. These data are an invaluable source for analyzing genome-wide drug response in biological systems. However, a problem remains that is how to evaluate the suitability of heterogeneous in vitro and in vivo systems to model the many different aspects of human toxicity...
July 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#18
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713276/structure-activity-relationships-of-pentacyclic-triterpenoids-as-potent-and-selective-inhibitors-against-human-carboxylesterase-1
#19
Li-Wei Zou, Tong-Yi Dou, Ping Wang, Wei Lei, Zi-Miao Weng, Jie Hou, Dan-Dan Wang, Yi-Ming Fan, Wei-Dong Zhang, Guang-Bo Ge, Ling Yang
Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1), one of the most important serine hydrolases distributed in liver and adipocytes, plays key roles in endobiotic homeostasis and xenobiotic metabolism. This study aimed to find potent and selective inhibitors against hCE1 from phytochemicals and their derivatives. To this end, a series of natural triterpenoids were collected and their inhibitory effects against human carboxylesterases (hCEs) were assayed using D-Luciferin methyl ester (DME) and 6,8-dichloro-9,9-dimethyl-7-oxo-7,9-dihydroacridin-2-yl benzoate (DDAB) as specific optical substrate for hCE1, and hCE2, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706616/is-there-any-association-between-glutathione-s-transferases-m1-and-glutathione-s-transferases-t1-gene-polymorphisms-and-endometrial-cancer-risk-a-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Xiuxiu Yin, Jie Chen
Epidemiological evidence on the association between genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1) and T1 (GSTT1) genes and risk of endometrial cancer (EC) has been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, we seek to investigate the relationship between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and the risk of EC. We searched Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature database to identify eligible studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association were determined using a fixed- or random-effect model...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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