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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108294/the-dimensional-reduction-method-for-identification-of-parameters-that-trade-off-due-to-similar-model-roles
#1
Shaun M Davidson, Paul D Docherty, Rua Murray
Parameter identification is an important and widely used process across the field of biomedical engineering. However, it is susceptible to a number of potential difficulties, such as parameter trade-off, causing premature convergence at non-optimal parameter values. The proposed Dimensional Reduction Method (DRM) addresses this issue by iteratively reducing the dimension of hyperplanes where trade off occurs, and running subsequent identification processes within these hyperplanes. The DRM was validated using clinical data to optimize 4 parameters of the widely used Bergman Minimal Model of glucose and insulin kinetics, as well as in-silico data to optimize 5 parameters of the Pulmonary Recruitment (PR) Model...
January 17, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104841/human-tissues-in-a-dish-the-research-and-ethical-implications-of-organoid-technology
#2
REVIEW
Annelien L Bredenoord, Hans Clevers, Juergen A Knoblich
The ability to generate human tissues in vitro from stem cells has raised enormous expectations among the biomedical research community, patients, and the general public. These organoids enable studies of normal development and disease and allow the testing of compounds directly on human tissue. Organoids hold the promise to influence the entire innovation cycle in biomedical research. They affect fields that have been subjects of intense ethical debate, ranging from animal experiments and the use of embryonic or fetal human tissues to precision medicine, organoid transplantation, and gene therapy...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104188/maternal-multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-and-other-biomedical-and-socioenvironmental-influences-on-children-s-cognition-at-age-9-12-years-in-indonesia-follow-up-of-the-summit-randomised-trial
#3
Elizabeth L Prado, Susy K Sebayang, Mandri Apriatni, Siti R Adawiyah, Nina Hidayati, Ayuniarti Islamiyah, Sudirman Siddiq, Benyamin Harefa, Jarrad Lum, Katherine J Alcock, Michael T Ullman, Husni Muadz, Anuraj H Shankar
BACKGROUND: Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. METHODS: We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103270/cold-atmospheric-plasma-created-at-the-tip-of-an-elongated-flexible-capillary-using-low-electric-current-can-slow-the-progression-of-melanoma
#4
Y Binenbaum, G Ben-David, Z Gil, Ya Z Slutsker, M A Ryzhkov, J Felsteiner, Ya E Krasik, J T Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Cold Atmospheric Plasma Jet (CAPJ), with ion temperature close to room temperature, has tremendous potential in biomedical engineering, and can potentially offer a therapeutic option that allows cancer cell elimination without damaging healthy tissue. We developed a hand-held flexible device for the delivery of CAPJ to the treatment site, with a modified high-frequency pulse generator operating at a RMS voltage of <1.2 kV and gas flow in the range 0.3-3 l/min. The aims of our study were to characterize the CAPJ emitted from the device, and to evaluate its efficacy in elimination of cancer cells in-vitro and in-vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099488/-i-cannot-be-worried-living-with-chagas-disease-in-tropical-bolivia
#5
Colin J Forsyth
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease (CD) profoundly affects the social and emotional dimensions of patients' lives, and disproportionately impacts poor, marginalized populations in Latin America. Biomedical treatment for CD fails to reach up to 99% of the people affected, and in any case seldom addresses the emotional health or socioeconomic conditions of patients. This study examines patient strategies for coping with CD in the department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. METHODOLOGY: In this ethnographic study, semistructured interviews took place from March-June 2013 with 63 patients who had previously tested positive for CD...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096444/single-molecule-fret-rosetta-reveals-rna-structural-rearrangements-during-human-telomerase-catalysis
#6
Joseph W Parks, Kalli Kappel, Rhiju Das, Michael D Stone
Maintenance of telomeres by telomerase permits continuous proliferation of rapidly dividing cells, including the majority of human cancers. Despite its direct biomedical significance, the architecture of the human telomerase complex remains unknown. Generating homogeneous telomerase samples has presented a significant barrier to developing improved structural models. Here we pair single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements with Rosetta modeling to map the conformations of the essential telomerase RNA core domain within the active ribonucleoprotein...
February 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094261/beyond-the-margins-real-time-detection-of-cancer-using-targeted-fluorophores
#7
REVIEW
Ray R Zhang, Alexandra B Schroeder, Joseph J Grudzinski, Eben L Rosenthal, Jason M Warram, Anatoly N Pinchuk, Kevin W Eliceiri, John S Kuo, Jamey P Weichert
Over the past two decades, synergistic innovations in imaging technology have resulted in a revolution in which a range of biomedical applications are now benefiting from fluorescence imaging. Specifically, advances in fluorophore chemistry and imaging hardware, and the identification of targetable biomarkers have now positioned intraoperative fluorescence as a highly specific real-time detection modality for surgeons in oncology. In particular, the deeper tissue penetration and limited autofluorescence of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging improves the translational potential of this modality over visible-light fluorescence imaging...
January 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090431/a-role-for-3d-printing-in-kidney-on-a-chip-platforms
#8
Ryan D Sochol, Navin R Gupta, Joseph V Bonventre
The advancement of "kidney-on-a-chip" platforms - submillimeter-scale fluidic systems designed to recapitulate renal functions in vitro - directly impacts a wide range of biomedical fields, including drug screening, cell and tissue engineering, toxicity testing, and disease modelling. To fabricate kidney-on-a-chip technologies, researchers have primarily adapted traditional micromachining techniques that are rooted in the integrated circuit industry; hence the term, "chip." A significant challenge, however, is that such methods are inherently monolithic, which limits one's ability to accurately recreate the geometric and architectural complexity of the kidney in vivo...
March 2016: Current Transplantation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086889/hybrid-brain-computer-interface-for-biomedical-cyber-physical-system-application-using-wireless-embedded-eeg-systems
#9
Rifai Chai, Ganesh R Naik, Sai Ho Ling, Hung T Nguyen
BACKGROUND: One of the key challenges of the biomedical cyber-physical system is to combine cognitive neuroscience with the integration of physical systems to assist people with disabilities. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been explored as a non-invasive method of providing assistive technology by using brain electrical signals. METHODS: This paper presents a unique prototype of a hybrid brain computer interface (BCI) which senses a combination classification of mental task, steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and eyes closed detection using only two EEG channels...
January 7, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086774/androgenic-effects-of-aqueous-and-methanolic-extracts-of-ficus-asperifolia-in-male-wistar-rats
#10
Pierre Watcho, Hermine Meli Watio, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Patrick Deeh Defo, Pepin Alango Nkeng-Efouet, Telesphore Benoit Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi
BACKGROUND: Androgen deficiency is a clinical syndrome resulting from the inability of the testes to produce physiological levels of testosterone due to a disturbance occurring at one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the androgenic properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Ficus asperifolia on normal and castrated immature rats. METHODS: Normal rats were treated either per os with aqueous or methanolic extract of Ficus asperifolia (100 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg b...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081462/in%C3%A2-vitro-evaluation-of-biodegradable-lignin-based-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery-and-enhanced-antiproliferation-effect-in-cancer-cells
#11
Patrícia Figueiredo, Kalle Lintinen, Alexandros Kiriazis, Ville Hynninen, Zehua Liu, Tomás Bauleth-Ramos, Antti Rahikkala, Alexandra Correia, Tomáš Kohout, Bruno Sarmento, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jouni Hirvonen, Olli Ikkala, Mauri A Kostiainen, Hélder A Santos
Currently, nanosystems have been developed and applied as promising vehicles for different biomedical applications. We have developed three lignin nanoparticles (LNPs): pure lignin nanoparticles (pLNPs), iron(III)-complexed lignin nanoparticles (Fe-LNPs), and Fe3O4-infused lignin nanoparticles (Fe3O4-LNPs) with round shape, narrow size distribution, reduced polydispersity and good stability at pH 7.4. The LNPs showed low cytotoxicity in all the tested cell lines and hemolytic rates below 12% after 12 h of incubation...
March 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080947/hiv-testing-intervention-development-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-developed-world
#12
Paul Flowers, Claudia Estcourt, Pam Sonnenberg, Fiona Burns
HIV testing is a 'gateway' technology, enabling access to treatment and HIV prevention. Biomedical approaches to prevention, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention, require accurate and regular HIV test results. HIV testing also represents a powerful 'teachable moment' for behavioural prevention. An increasing range of HIV tests and the emergence of self-managed diagnostic technologies (e.g. self-testing) means there is now considerable diversification of when, where and how results are available to those who test...
January 13, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079902/phenx-measures-for-phenotyping-rare-genetic-conditions
#13
Michael Phillips, Tracey Grant, Philip Giampietro, Joann Bodurtha, Rodolfo Valdez, Deborah R Maiese, Tabitha Hendershot, Sharon F Terry, Carol M Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: The PhenX Toolkit, an online resource of well-established measures of phenotypes and exposures, now has 16 new measures recommended for assessing rare genetic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: These measures and their protocols were selected by a working group of domain experts with input from the scientific community. RESULTS: The measures, which cover life stages from birth through adulthood, include clinical scales, characterization of rare genetic conditions, bioassays, and questionnaires...
January 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077906/how-to-improve-visibility-of-scientific-biomedical-sources
#14
REVIEW
Asim Kurjak
With the rapid development of information and communications technologies, industrial nations are transforming into societies in which knowledge is the most contested and valuable good. The increased speed at which we have to acquire new knowledge, insights, and abilities is forcing us to divide up learning into novel, shorter phases. The traditional choreography of learning with its long, rigid defined school, job, and university educational periods is already obsolete today. Self-organized, lifelong learning is becoming a must...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077563/the-bioc-biogrid-corpus-full-text-articles-annotated-for-curation-of-protein-protein-and-genetic-interactions
#15
Rezarta Islamaj Doğan, Sun Kim, Andrew Chatr-Aryamontri, Christie S Chang, Rose Oughtred, Jennifer Rust, W John Wilbur, Donald C Comeau, Kara Dolinski, Mike Tyers
A great deal of information on the molecular genetics and biochemistry of model organisms has been reported in the scientific literature. However, this data is typically described in free text form and is not readily amenable to computational analyses. To this end, the BioGRID database systematically curates the biomedical literature for genetic and protein interaction data. This data is provided in a standardized computationally tractable format and includes structured annotation of experimental evidence. BioGRID curation necessarily involves substantial human effort by expert curators who must read each publication to extract the relevant information...
2017: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076883/in-vivo-feasibility-test-using-transparent-carbon-nanotube-coated-polydimethylsiloxane-sheet-at-brain-tissue-and-sciatic-nerve
#16
Caifeng Wang, Sangjin Oh, Hyun Ah Lee, Jieun Kang, Ki-Jae Jeong, Seon Woo Kang, Dae Youn Hwang, Jaebeom Lee
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with their unique and outstanding properties, such as strong mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications because of their optical transparency, physiological inertness, blood compatibility, non-toxicity, and gas permeability. In present study, most of artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANGCs) are not transparent...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076439/predictors-of-student-productivity-in-biomedical-graduate-school-applications
#17
Joshua D Hall, Anna B O'Connell, Jeanette G Cook
Many US biomedical PhD programs receive more applications for admissions than they can accept each year, necessitating a selective admissions process. Typical selection criteria include standardized test scores, undergraduate grade point average, letters of recommendation, a resume and/or personal statement highlighting relevant research or professional experience, and feedback from interviews with training faculty. Admissions decisions are often founded on assumptions that these application components correlate with research success in graduate school, but these assumptions have not been rigorously tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076356/the-limitations-of-the-gre-in-predicting-success-in-biomedical-graduate-school
#18
Liane Moneta-Koehler, Abigail M Brown, Kimberly A Petrie, Brent J Evans, Roger Chalkley
Historically, admissions committees for biomedical Ph.D. programs have heavily weighed GRE scores when considering applications for admission. The predictive validity of GRE scores on graduate student success is unclear, and there have been no recent investigations specifically on the relationship between general GRE scores and graduate student success in biomedical research. Data from Vanderbilt University Medical School's biomedical umbrella program were used to test to what extent GRE scores can predict outcomes in graduate school training when controlling for other admissions information...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075342/trunk-motion-system-tms-using-printed-body-worn-sensor-bws-via-data-fusion-approach
#19
Mohammad Iman Mokhlespour Esfahani, Omid Zobeiri, Behzad Moshiri, Roya Narimani, Mohammad Mehravar, Ehsan Rashedi, Mohamad Parnianpour
Human movement analysis is an important part of biomechanics and rehabilitation, for which many measurement systems are introduced. Among these, wearable devices have substantial biomedical applications, primarily since they can be implemented both in indoor and outdoor applications. In this study, a Trunk Motion System (TMS) using printed Body-Worn Sensors (BWS) is designed and developed. TMS can measure three-dimensional (3D) trunk motions, is lightweight, and is a portable and non-invasive system. After the recognition of sensor locations, twelve BWSs were printed on stretchable clothing with the purpose of measuring the 3D trunk movements...
January 8, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074545/development-and-testing-of-a-database-of-nih-research-funding-of-aapm-members-a-report-from-aapm-working-group-for-the-development-of-a-research-database-wgdrd
#20
Brendan Whelan, Eduardo Moros, Rebecca Fahrig, James Deye, Thomas Yi, Michael Woodward, Paul Keall, Jeff Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: To produce and maintain a database of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) members, to perform a top level analysis of this data, and to make this data (hereafter referred to as the AAPM research database) available for the use of the AAPM and its members. METHODS: NIH funded research dating back to 1985 is available for public download through the NIH exporter website, and AAPM membership information dating back to 2002 was supplied by the AAPM...
January 11, 2017: Medical Physics
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