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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156349/biopolymer-gelatin-coated-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-showed-high-antibacterial-antibiofilm-and-anti-angiogenic-activity
#1
Mani Divya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Muthukumar Abinaya, Sekar Vijayakumar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
The use of natural polymers in drug design plays an important role in biomedical applications. Combinations of nanoparticles (NPs) and biopolymers have been shown to be useful for many purposes. This study focused on gelatin-coated zinc oxide NPs synthesized by co-precipitation. The particles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrum, showing a main peak at 375nm. The stability and crystalline nature of the particles was evaluated by Zeta potential and X-ray diffraction analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the possible functional groups of Ge-ZnO NPs, with strong bands at 3851, 3447, and 2923cm(-1)...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152631/mask-free-fabrication-of-a-versatile-microwell-chip-for-multidimensional-cellular-analysis-and-drug-screening
#2
Wenguang Yang, Haibo Yu, Gongxin Li, Fanan Wei, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
Cells are frequently studied because they are basic structural, functional, and biological units of living organisms. Extracting features from cellular behaviors can facilitate decision making in medical diagnoses and represents an important aspect in the development of biomedical engineering. Previous studies have just focused on either the individual cell or cell clusters separately, which leads to a great lack of information. Microwell technologies could address the challenges of in vitro cellular studies, from individual cell studies to 3D functional assays, by providing more information from smaller sample volumes and enabling the incorporation of low-cost high-throughput assays in the drug discovery process...
November 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150001/crispr-history-discovery-characterization-and-prosperity
#3
Wenyuan Han, Qunxin She
CRISPR research is a very young research field since it was only 10years ago when the system was found to confer antiviral defense. Nevertheless, there has been an explosion of publications in CRISPR research in the past 5years. The research was started with the comparative genomics of microbial genomes early this century, which revealed the prevalence of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) in bacteria and archaea. Series of hypotheses were made based on bioinformatics analyses and tested experimentally within a few years after the CRISPR acronym was coined...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148178/training-in-molecular-cytopathology-testing
#4
REVIEW
P Maxwell, M Salto-Tellez
Training in molecular cytopathology testing is essential in developing and maintaining skills in modern molecular technologies as they are introduced to a universal health care system such as extant in the UK and elsewhere. We review the system in place in Northern Ireland (NI) for molecular testing of solid tumours, as an example to train staff of all grades, including pathologists, clinical scientists, biomedical scientists and equivalent technical grades. We describe training of pathologists as part of the NI Deanery medical curriculum, the NI training programme for scientists and laboratory rotation for Biomedical Scientists...
November 17, 2017: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148115/the-actionability-of-exome-sequencing-testing-results
#5
Tanya Stivers, Stefan Timmermans
Genomic tests such as exome sequencing have recently become an option for diagnosing patients. The tests allow clinical geneticists to sequence the majority of patients' disease causing genetic variants. As a new technology, exome sequencing confronts the question of what the benefit is of this increased genetic information. Against a narrow perspective of clinical utility that emphasises tangible improvements in a patient's disease management, professional organisations have argued that genomic sequencing should be considered beneficial if it helps families and society...
November 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147993/preparation-and-characterization-of-gelatin-sericin-carboxymethyl-chitosan-medical-tissue-glue
#6
Min Liang, Zhenzhu Li, Cengceng Gao, Fuping Wang, Zhongmin Chen
BACKGROUND: The development and application of medical glue has been continuously expanding and advancing. However, there are few glues that combine low-cost with excellent biocompatibility. METHODS: We have prepared a medical tissue glue using a gelatin (Gel), sericin (SS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) blend solution, cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC). The combination's characteristics and microstructure morphology were observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145766/environmental-samples-make-soiled-bedding-sentinels-dispensable-for-hygienic-monitoring-of-ivc-reared-mouse-colonies
#7
Manuel Miller, Markus Brielmeier
Accurate knowledge of the health status of experimental animals is pivotal to high scientific and ethical standards in biomedical research. Individually ventilated cages (IVCs) are becoming the predominant system for housing laboratory mice, as they prevent cage-to-cage infections. However, this feature constitutes a major drawback for hygienic monitoring of mouse colonies, as traditional screening programs build on reliable transmission of infectious agents from experimental animals to sentinel mice commonly tested as representatives for the mouse colonies...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143053/recent-advances-in-microfluidic-technologies-for-cell-to-cell-interaction-studies
#8
REVIEW
Mario Rothbauer, Helene Zirath, Peter Ertl
Microfluidic cell cultures are ideally positioned to become the next generation of in vitro diagnostic tools for biomedical research, where key biological processes such as cell signalling and dynamic cell-to-cell interactions can be reliably analysed under reproducible physiological cell culture conditions. In the last decade, a large number of microfluidic cell analysis systems have been developed for a variety of applications including drug target optimization, drug screening and toxicological testing. More recently, advanced in vitro microfluidic cell culture systems have emerged that are capable of replicating the complex three-dimensional architectures of tissues and organs and thus represent valid biological models for investigating the mechanism and function of human tissue structures, as well as studying the onset and progression of diseases such as cancer...
November 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140181/rational-design-of-a-high-strength-bone-scaffold-platform-based-on-in-situ-hybridization-of-bacterial-cellulose-nano-hydroxyapatite-framework-and-silk-fibroin-reinforcing-phase
#9
Pei Jiang, Jiabing Ran, Pan Yan, Lingyue Zheng, Xinyu Shen, Hua Tong
Bacterial cellulose/hydroxyapatite (BC/HAp) composite had favourable bioaffinity but its poor mechanical strength limited its widespread applications in bone tissue engineering (BTE). Silk fibroin, which possesses special crystalline structure, has been widely used as organic reinforcing material, and different SFs have different amino acid sequences, which exhibit different bioaffinity and mechanical properties. In this regard, bacterial cellulose-Antheraea yamamai silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite(BC-AYSF/HAp), bacterial cellulose-Bombyx mori silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite(BC-BMSF/HAp), and BC/HAp nano-composites were synthesized via a novel in situ hybridization method...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137136/incorporation-of-fiber-bragg-sensors-for-shape-memory-polyurethanes-characterization
#10
Nélia Alberto, Maria A Fonseca, Victor Neto, Rogério Nogueira, Mónica Oliveira, Rui Moreira
Shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) are thermally activated shape memory materials, which can be used as actuators or sensors in applications including aerospace, aeronautics, automobiles or the biomedical industry. The accurate characterization of the memory effect of these materials is therefore mandatory for the technology's success. The shape memory characterization is normally accomplished using mechanical testing coupled with a heat source, where a detailed knowledge of the heat cycle and its influence on the material properties is paramount but difficult to monitor...
November 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134422/hiv-prevention-among-young-women-in-south-africa-understanding-multiple-layers-of-risk
#11
Christina Psaros, Cecilia Milford, Jennifer A Smit, Letitia Greener, Nzwakie Mosery, Lynn T Matthews, Abigail Harrison, Janna R Gordon, Matthew Mimiaga, David R Bangsberg, Steven A Safren
Despite concerted prevention efforts, young South African women remain at the epicenter of the HIV epidemic. Although these women have grown up in a community powerfully affected by HIV, systematic investigation into how this "second generation" of HIV-affected youth navigates HIV risk is lacking. This study qualitatively explored a complex interplay of factors influencing HIV risk among young pregnant women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 pregnant women (22 HIV-uninfected and 13 HIV-infected) aged 18-21, 18 healthcare providers, and focus groups with 19 community stakeholders...
November 13, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133762/rare-earth-nanoparticle-induced-cytotoxicity-on-spatial-cognition-memory-of-mouse-brain
#12
Cai-Hou Lin, Gui-Fen Liu, Jing Chen, Yan Chen, Ru-Hui Lin, Hong-Xing He, Jian-Ping Chen
BACKGROUND: Luminescent rare-earth-based nanoparticles have been increasingly used in nanomedicine due to their excellent physicochemical properties, such as biomedical imaging agents, drug carriers, and biomarkers. However, biological safety of the rare-earth-based nanomedicine is of great significance for future development in practical applications. In particular, biological effects of rare-earth nanoparticles on human's central nervous system are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential toxicity of rare-earth nanoparticles in nervous system function in the case of continuous exposure...
November 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132014/a-genetic-algorithm-for-simulating-correlated-binary-data-from-biomedical-research
#13
Jochen Kruppa, Bernd Lepenies, Klaus Jung
Correlated binary data arise in a large variety of biomedical research. In order to evaluate methods for their analysis, computer simulations of such data are often required. Existing methods can often not cover the full range of possible correlations between the variables or are not available as implemented software. We propose a genetic algorithm that approaches the desired correlation structure under a given marginal distribution. The procedure generates a large representative matrix from which the probabilities of individual observations can be derived or from which samples can be drawn directly...
October 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131160/human-primary-liver-cancer-derived-organoid-cultures-for-disease-modeling-and-drug-screening
#14
Laura Broutier, Gianmarco Mastrogiovanni, Monique Ma Verstegen, Hayley E Francies, Lena Morrill Gavarró, Charles R Bradshaw, George E Allen, Robert Arnes-Benito, Olga Sidorova, Marcia P Gaspersz, Nikitas Georgakopoulos, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Sabine Dietmann, Susan E Davies, Raaj K Praseedom, Ruby Lieshout, Jan N M IJzermans, Stephen J Wigmore, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Mathew J Garnett, Luc Jw van der Laan, Meritxell Huch
Human liver cancer research currently lacks in vitro models that can faithfully recapitulate the pathophysiology of the original tumor. We recently described a novel, near-physiological organoid culture system, wherein primary human healthy liver cells form long-term expanding organoids that retain liver tissue function and genetic stability. Here we extend this culture system to the propagation of primary liver cancer (PLC) organoids from three of the most common PLC subtypes: hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and combined HCC/CC (CHC) tumors...
November 13, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130898/single-step-synthesis-of-er-3-and-yb-3-ions-doped-molybdate-gd2o3-core-shell-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-imaging
#15
Izabela Kaminska, Danek Elbaum, Bozena Sikora, Przemysław Kowalik, Jakub Mikulski, Zofia Felcyn, Piotr Samol, Tomasz Wojciechowski, Roman Minikayev, Wojciech Paszkowicz, Wojciech Zaleszczyk, Maciej Szewczyk, Anna Konopka, Grzegorz Gruzeł, Mirosława Pawlyta, Mikołaj Donten, Kamil Ciszak, Karolina Zajdel, Małgorzata Baniewicz, Piotr Stępień, Mariusz Łapiński, Grzegorz Wilczyński, Krzysztof Fronc
Nanostructures as color-tunable luminescent markers have become major, promising tools for bioimaging and biosensing. The separated molybdate/Gd2O3 doped rare earth ions (erbium, Er(3+) and ytterbium, Yb(3+)) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs), were fabricated by a one step homogeneous precipitation process. Emission properties were studied by cathodo- and photoluminescence. The scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes were used to visualize and to determine the size and shape of the NPs. The spherical NPs were obtained...
November 13, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128529/laser-processed-calcium-phosphate-reinforced-cocrmo-for-load-bearing-applications-processing-and-wear-induced-damage-evaluation
#16
Himanshu Sahasrabudhe, Susmita Bose, Amit Bandyopadhyay
To mitigate shortcomings in current biomedical CoCrMo alloy, composites of CoCrMo with calcium phosphate (CaP) were envisioned. CoCrMo alloy was reinforced with CaP to enhance the wear resistance of the alloy. A powder based direct energy additive manufacturing technique of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) was used for processing of CoCrMo alloy with 1% and 3% (by weight) of CaP in the form of hydroxyapaptite. Addition of CaP was found to stabilize the ε (HCP) phase along with the more common γ (FCC) phase of the CoCrMo alloy, and the microstructure showed discontinuous chromium carbide phase...
November 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128261/multi-parametric-rigid-and-flexible-low-cost-disposable-sensing-platforms-for-biomedical-applications
#17
Salzitsa Anastasova, Panagiotis Kassanos, Guang-Zhong Yang
The measurement of Na(+), K(+) and H(+) is essential in medicine and plays an important role in the assessment of tissue ischemia. Microfabrication, inkjet- and screen-printing can be used for solid contact ion selective electrodes (ISE) realization; these, however, can be non-standardized, costly and time consuming processes. We present the realization of ISEs on post-processed electrodes fabricated via standardized printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing techniques. In vitro results are presented from two rigid platforms (32 ISEs) for liquid sample dip-stick measurements and two flexible platforms (6 and 32 ISEs) for post-surgical intestinal tissue monitoring, each with a common reference electrode (RE)...
October 18, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128214/application-of-whey-protein-isolate-in-bone-regeneration-effects-on-growth-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-forming-cells
#18
Timothy E L Douglas, Marta Vandrovcová, Nikola Kročilová, Julia K Keppler, Jana Zárubová, Andre G Skirtach, Lucie Bačáková
Recently, milk-derived proteins have attracted attention for applications in the biomedical field such as tissue regeneration. Whey protein isolate (WPI), especially its main component β-lactoglobulin, can modulate immunity and acts as an antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial agent. There are very few reports of the application of WPI in tissue engineering, especially in bone tissue engineering. In this study, we tested the influence of different concentrations of WPI on behavior of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC), and human neonatal dermal fibroblasts (FIB)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127535/predictors-of-hiv-testing-and-their-influence-on-prep-acceptance-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Tsz Ho Kwan, Shui Shan Lee
HIV testing is the gateway to biomedical means of prevention and treatment. Identifying predictors of HIV testing is important to inform future preventive interventions. Of 444 men who have sex with men without known HIV infection enrolled in a study in Hong Kong, 64% had ever been HIV-tested. Testers were generally older, better educated, had a higher monthly income, and more likely self-identified as gay. Testers often used Internet and frequented saunas for sex networking, compared with non-testers attending bars, massage centres and public toilets...
November 10, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126306/the-future-of-radiobiology
#20
David G Kirsch, Max Diehn, Aparna H Kesarwala, Amit Maity, Meredith A Morgan, Julie K Schwarz, Robert Bristow, Sandra Demaria, Iris Eke, Robert J Griffin, Daphne Haas-Kogan, Geoff S Higgins, Alec C Kimmelman, Randall J Kimple, Isabelle M Lombaert, Li Ma, Brian Marples, Frank Pajonk, Catherine C Park, Dörthe Schaue, Eric J Bernhard
Innovation and progress in radiation oncology depend on discovery and insights realized through research in radiation biology. Radiobiology research has led to fundamental scientific insights, from the discovery of stem/progenitor cells to the definition of signal transduction pathways activated by ionizing radiation that are now recognized as integral to the DNA damage response (DDR). Radiobiological discoveries are guiding clinical trials that test radiation therapy combined with inhibitors of the DDR kinases DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and immune or cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors...
November 3, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
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