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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335253/soft-interaction-in-liposome-nanocarriers-for-therapeutic-drug-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Domenico Lombardo, Pietro Calandra, Davide Barreca, Salvatore Magazù, Mikhail A Kiselev
The development of smart nanocarriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs has experienced considerable expansion in recent decades, with the development of new medicines devoted to cancer treatment. In this respect a wide range of strategies can be developed by employing liposome nanocarriers with desired physico-chemical properties that, by exploiting a combination of a number of suitable soft interactions, can facilitate the transit through the biological barriers from the point of administration up to the site of drug action...
June 25, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334407/organismal-and-spatial-partitioning-of-energy-and-macronutrient-transformations-within-a-hypersaline-mat
#2
Jennifer M Mobberley, Stephen R Lindemann, Hans C Bernstein, James J Moran, Ryan S Renslow, Jerome Babauta, Dehong Hu, Haluk Beyenal, William C Nelson
Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements...
March 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321413/fluid-structure-interaction-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-effect-of-modeling-techniques
#3
Shengmao Lin, Xinwei Han, Yonghua Bi, Siyeong Ju, Linxia Gu
In this work, the impact of modeling techniques on predicting the mechanical behaviors of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is systematically investigated. The fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model for simultaneously capturing the transient interaction between blood flow dynamics and wall mechanics was compared with its simplified techniques, that is, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or computational solid stress (CSS) model. Results demonstrated that CFD exhibited relatively smaller vortexes and tends to overestimate the fluid wall shear stress, compared to FSI...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317777/preparation-characterization-and-stability-of-curcumin-loaded-zein-shellac-composite-colloidal-particles
#4
Cuixia Sun, Chenqi Xu, Like Mao, Di Wang, Jie Yang, Yanxiang Gao
Curcumin-loaded zein-shellac composite particles were prepared by the antisolvent co-precipitation method. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin was significantly improved from 82.7% in zein particles to 93.2% in zein-shellac complex particles. The result of differential scanning calorimetry suggested that curcumin in the polymeric matrix was in an amorphous state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that curcumin had non-covalently interacted with zein and shellac, mainly through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317393/structural-analysis-of-two-different-stent-configurations
#5
M Simão, J M Ferreira, J Mora-Rodriguez, H M Ramos
Two different stent configurations (i.e. the well known Palmaz-Schatz (PS) and a new stent configuration) are mechanically investigated. A finite element model was used to study the two geometries under combining loads and a computational fluid dynamic model based on fluid structure interaction was developed investigating the plaque and the artery wall reactions in a stented arterial segment. These models determine the stress and displacement fields of the two stents under internal pressure conditions. Results suggested that stent designs cause alterations in vascular anatomy that adversely affect arterial stress distributions within the wall, which have impact in the vessel responses such as the restenosis...
March 20, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316038/the-impact-of-the-aortic-valve-impairment-on-the-distant-coronary-arteries-hemodynamics-a-fluid-structure-interaction-study
#6
Hossein Mohammadi, Raymond Cartier, Rosaire Mongrain
Atherosclerosis is still the leading cause of death in the developed world. Although its initiation and progression is a complex multifactorial process, it is well known that blood flow-induced wall shear stress (WSS) is an important factor involved in early atherosclerotic plaque initiation. In recent clinical studies, it was established that the regional pathologies of the aortic valve can be involved in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the impact of hemodynamic effects is not yet fully elucidated for disease initiation and progression...
March 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314103/computational-study-of-the-forces-driving-aggregation-of-ultrasmall-nanoparticles-in-biological-fluids
#7
Sergio A Hassan
Nanoparticle (NP) aggregation can lead to prolonged retention in tissues or embolism, among other adverse effects. Successful use in biomedicine thus requires the capability to make NPs with limited aggregative potential. Rational design is presently a challenge due to incomplete knowledge of their interactions in biofluids. Recently, ultrasmall gold NPs passivated with endogenous antioxidant glutathione have shown promise for use in vivo. Computer simulations are here conducted to identify the forces underlying aggregation (or lack thereof) of these NPs in a cell culture...
March 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303952/physics-of-microstructures-enhancement-of-thin-film-evaporation-heat-transfer-in-microchannels-flow-boiling
#8
Sajjad Bigham, Abdolreza Fazeli, Saeed Moghaddam
Performance enhancement of the two-phase flow boiling heat transfer process in microchannels through implementation of surface micro- and nanostructures has gained substantial interest in recent years. However, the reported results range widely from a decline to improvements in performance depending on the test conditions and fluid properties, without a consensus on the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior. This gap in knowledge stems from a lack of understanding of the physics of surface structures interactions with microscale heat and mass transfer events involved in the microchannel flow boiling process...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303107/localization-and-ordering-of-lipids-around-aquaporin-0-protein-and-lipid-mobility-effects
#9
Rodolfo Briones, Camilo Aponte-Santamaría, Bert L de Groot
Hydrophobic matching, lipid sorting, and protein oligomerization are key principles by which lipids and proteins organize in biological membranes. The Aquaporin-0 channel (AQP0), solved by electron crystallography (EC) at cryogenic temperatures, is one of the few protein-lipid complexes of which the structure is available in atomic detail. EC and room-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) of dimyristoylglycerophosphocholine (DMPC) annular lipids around AQP0 show similarities, however, crystal-packing and temperature might affect the protein surface or the lipids distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299733/mapping-lipid-bilayer-recognition-sites-of-metalloproteinases-and-other-prospective-peripheral-membrane-proteins
#10
Tara C Marcink, Rama K Koppisetti, Yan G Fulcher, Steven R Van Doren
Peripheral binding of proteins to lipid bilayers is critical not only in intracellular signaling but also in metalloproteinase shedding of signaling proteins from cell surfaces. Assessment of how proteins recognize fluid bilayers peripherally using crystallography or structure-based predictions has been important but incomplete. Assay of dynamic protein-bilayer interactions in solution has become feasible and reliable using paramagnetic NMR and site-directed fluor labeling. Details of preparations and assay protocols for these spectroscopic measurements of bilayer proximity or contact, respectively, are described...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297907/films-layers-and-droplets-the-effect-of-near-wall-fluid-structure-on-spreading-dynamics
#11
Hanyu Yin, David N Sibley, Uwe Thiele, Andrew J Archer
We present a study of the spreading of liquid droplets on a solid substrate at very small scales. We focus on the regime where effective wetting energy (binding potential) and surface tension effects significantly influence steady and spreading droplets. In particular, we focus on strong packing and layering effects in the liquid near the substrate due to underlying density oscillations in the fluid caused by attractive substrate-liquid interactions. We show that such phenomena can be described by a thin-film (or long-wave or lubrication) model including an oscillatory Derjaguin (or disjoining or conjoining) pressure and explore the effects it has on steady droplet shapes and the spreading dynamics of droplets on both an adsorption (or precursor) layer and completely dry substrates...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297852/dynamical-and-structural-properties-of-a-granular-model-for-a-magnetorheological-fluid
#12
F Donado, J M Sausedo-Solorio, R E Moctezuma
We study a two-dimensional nonvibrating granular system as a model of a magnetorheological fluid. The system is composed of magnetic steel particles on a horizontal plane under a vertical sinusoidal magnetic field and a horizontal static magnetic field. When the amplitude of the horizontal field is zero, we find that the motion of the particles has characteristics similar to those of Brownian particles. A slowing down of the dynamics is observed as the particle concentration increases or the magnitude of the vertical magnetic field decreases...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296340/lactadherin-is-a-candidate-oviduct-lewis-x-trisaccharide-receptor-on-porcine-spermatozoa
#13
E Silva, D Frost, L Li, N Bovin, D J Miller
A recent study has demonstrated that porcine spermatozoa recognize with high affinity carbohydrate structures containing Lewis X motifs. Sperm adhesion to Lewis X is proposed to mediate sperm binding to the oviduct epithelium to form a reservoir. The objective of this study was to identify Lewis X-binding proteins from porcine spermatozoa as candidate receptors for oviduct glycans. To identify low-abundance proteins typically masked by proteins originating from seminal fluid, Lewis X candidate receptors were enriched from cauda epididymal boar spermatozoa...
March 15, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294043/polysaccharide-based-materials-associated-with-or-coordinated-to-gold-nanoparticles-synthesis-and-medical-application
#14
Débora P Facchi, Joziel A da Cruz, Elton G Bonafé, Antonio G B Pereira, André R Fajardo, Sandro A S Venter, Johny P Monteiro, Edvani C Muniz, Alessandro F Martins
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have enormous potential for application in imaging, diagnosis, and therapies in the medical field. AuNPs are renowned for their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties, large surface area, and biocompatibility with body fluids. Further, AuNPs have featured prominently in new methodologies for cancer treatments, like photothermal and imaging therapies. Although AuNPs present enormous potential for application in the medical field, their instability under physiological conditions prevents further uses...
March 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293138/effective-equations-governing-an-active-poroelastic-medium
#15
J Collis, D L Brown, M E Hubbard, R D O'Dea
In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid-structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The 'active' nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e...
February 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291699/in-silico-investigation-of-cornea-deformation-during-irrigation-aspiration-in-phacoemulsification-in-cataract-surgery
#16
Dariush Bayatpour, Omid Abouali, Alireza Ghaffarieh, Goodarz Ahmadi
To analyze the stress, strain and displacement of the human cornea under the action of negative intraocular pressure, which occurs during phacoemulsification in cataract surgery, a multidisciplinary approach including biomedical engineering, solid mechanics, numerical analysis, and fluid dynamics was used. Fluid-structure interaction method was implemented using 3-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of cornea tissue in conjunction with CFD analysis of anterior chamber fluid flow to study the deformation of the cornea under negative gage pressure during irrigation and aspiration (I/A)...
March 10, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275725/electrostatic-cloaking-of-surface-structure-for-dynamic-wetting
#17
Satoshi Nita, Minh Do-Quang, Jiayu Wang, Yu-Chung Chen, Yuji Suzuki, Gustav Amberg, Junichiro Shiomi
Dynamic wetting problems are fundamental to understanding the interaction between liquids and solids. Even in a superficially simple experimental situation, such as a droplet spreading over a dry surface, the result may depend not only on the liquid properties but also strongly on the substrate-surface properties; even for macroscopically smooth surfaces, the microscopic geometrical roughness can be important. In addition, because surfaces may often be naturally charged or electric fields are used to manipulate fluids, electric effects are crucial components that influence wetting phenomena...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272891/interaction-energies-in-complexes-of-zn-and-amino-acids-a-comparison-of-ab-initio-and-force-field-based-calculations
#18
Ran Friedman, Emma Ahlstrand, Kersti Hermansson
Zinc plays important roles in structural stabilization of proteins, enzyme catalysis and signal transduction. Many Zn binding sites are located at the interface between the protein and the cellular fluid. In aqueous solutions, Zn ions adopt an octahedral coordination, while in proteins zinc can have different coordinations with a tetrahedral conformation found most frequently. The dynamics of Zn binding to proteins, and the formation of complexes that involve Zn, are dictated by interactions between Zn and its binding partners...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268867/fea-modeling-and-fluid-flow-simulation-of-human-rectum-with-inserted-bowel-catheters
#19
Yong Zhang, Tina VanRiper, Brian Rague, Drew Weidman
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268599/simulation-of-motor-current-waveforms-in-monitoring-aortic-valve-state-during-ventricular-assist-device-support
#20
Khalid A Alonazi, Nigel H Lovell, Socrates Dokos
Monitoring of aortic valve (AV) opening and closure during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) heart pump support is crucial in preventing AV abnormalities and remodeling caused by anomalous resirculation. In this study, simulations of LVAD motor current waveforms were undertaken to investigate AV response to rotary blood pump assistance, as well as to detect AV open and close status under heart failure conditions. A two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction finite-element model is presented to predict AV state during LVAD outflow...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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