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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775320/layered-fluid-structure-and-anomalous-diffusion-under-nanoconfinement
#1
Gerald J Wang, Nicolas G Hadjiconstantinou
Molecular diffusion under nanoconfinement can differ significantly from diffusion in bulk fluids. Using molecular-dynamics simulations and molecular-mechanics arguments, we elucidate the effect of layering at the confining boundaries on the self-diffusion of a simple, single-phase, confined fluid. In particular, we show that anomalous diffusion due to layering is controlled by the degree of layering as quantified by the recently proposed Wall number (Wa), which compares the strength of the wall-fluid interaction to the thermal energy...
May 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774617/3d-structured-stretchable-strain-sensors-for-out-of-plane-force-detection
#2
Zhiyuan Liu, Dianpeng Qi, Wan Ru Leow, Jiancan Yu, Michele Xiloyannnis, Leonardo Cappello, Yaqing Liu, Bowen Zhu, Ying Jiang, Geng Chen, Lorenzo Masia, Bo Liedberg, Xiaodong Chen
Stretchable strain sensors, as the soft mechanical interface, provide the key mechanical information of the systems for healthcare monitoring, rehabilitation assistance, soft exoskeletal devices, and soft robotics. Stretchable strain sensors based on 2D flat film have been widely developed to monitor the in-plane force applied within the plane where the sensor is placed. However, to comprehensively obtain the mechanical feedback, the capability to detect the out-of-plane force, caused by the interaction outside of the plane where the senor is located, is needed...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768889/label-free-alignment-of-nonmagnetic-particles-in-a-small-uniform-magnetic-field
#3
Zhaomeng Wang, Ying Wang, Rui Ge Wu, Z P Wang, R V Ramanujan
Label-free manipulation of biological entities can minimize damage, increase viability and improve efficiency of subsequent analysis. Understanding the mechanism of interaction between magnetic and nonmagnetic particles in an inverse ferrofluid can provide a mechanism of label-free manipulation of such entities in a uniform magnetic field. The magnetic force, induced by relative magnetic susceptibility difference between nonmagnetic particles and surrounding magnetic particles as well as particle-particle interaction were studied...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767519/molecular-structure-and-permeability-at-the-interface-between-phase-separated-membrane-domains
#4
Rodrigo Maghdissian Cordeiro
Phase-separated membrane domains, also known as lipid rafts, are believed to play an important role in cell function. Although most rafts are sterol-enriched membrane regions, evidence suggests that living cells may also contain gel-like rafts. Interactions between gel and fluid domains have a large impact on membrane properties, as is the case with permeability. The membrane permeability may reach a peak at the main phase transition temperature, by far exceeding the values recorded at the fluid phase. It has been proposed that gel-fluid interfaces are leaky, but the effect has not yet been demonstrated at the molecular level...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765405/recent-progress-of-fabrication-of-cell-scaffold-by-electrospinning-technique-for-articular-cartilage-tissue-engineering
#5
REVIEW
Yingge Zhou, Joanna Chyu, Mimi Zumwalt
As a versatile nanofiber manufacturing technique, electrospinning has been widely employed for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Since the structure of natural extracellular matrices varies substantially in different tissues, there has been growing awareness of the fact that the hierarchical 3D structure of scaffolds may affect intercellular interactions, material transportation, fluid flow, environmental stimulation, and so forth. Physical blending of the synthetic and natural polymers to form composite materials better mimics the composition and mechanical properties of natural tissues...
2018: International Journal of Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760998/3d-time-blood-flow-mapping-using-spim-micropiv-in-the-developing-zebrafish-heart
#6
Vytautas Zickus, Jonathan M Taylor
We present SPIM-μPIV as a flow imaging system, capable of measuring in vivo flow information with 3D micron-scale resolution. Our system was validated using a phantom experiment consisting of a flow of beads in a 50 μm diameter FEP tube. Then, with the help of optical gating techniques, we obtained 3D + time flow fields throughout the full heartbeat in a ∼3 day old zebrafish larva using fluorescent red blood cells as tracer particles. From this we were able to recover 3D flow fields at 31 separate phases in the heartbeat...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760665/left-ventricular-trabeculations-decrease-the-wall-shear-stress-and-increase-the-intra-ventricular-pressure-drop-in-cfd-simulations
#7
Federica Sacco, Bruno Paun, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Tinen L Iles, Paul A Iaizzo, Guillaume Houzeaux, Mariano Vázquez, Constantine Butakoff, Jazmin Aguado-Sierra
The aim of the present study is to characterize the hemodynamics of left ventricular (LV) geometries to examine the impact of trabeculae and papillary muscles (PMs) on blood flow using high performance computing (HPC). Five pairs of detailed and smoothed LV endocardium models were reconstructed from high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of ex-vivo human hearts. The detailed model of one LV pair is characterized only by the PMs and few big trabeculae, to represent state of art level of endocardial detail...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759947/a-simplified-method-to-account-for-wall-motion-in-patient-specific-blood-flow-simulations-of-aortic-dissection-comparison-with-fluid-structure-interaction
#8
Mirko Bonfanti, Stavroula Balabani, Mona Alimohammadi, Obiekezie Agu, Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam, Vanessa Díaz-Zuccarini
Aortic dissection (AD) is a complex and highly patient-specific vascular condition difficult to treat. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can aid the medical management of this pathology, yet its modelling and simulation are challenging. One aspect usually disregarded when modelling AD is the motion of the vessel wall, which has been shown to significantly impact simulation results. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methods are difficult to implement and are subject to assumptions regarding the mechanical properties of the vessel wall, which cannot be retrieved non-invasively...
May 11, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755742/multiple-scale-structures-from-faraday-waves-to-soft-matter-quasicrystals
#9
REVIEW
Samuel Savitz, Mehrtash Babadi, Ron Lifshitz
For many years, quasicrystals were observed only as solid-state metallic alloys, yet current research is now actively exploring their formation in a variety of soft materials, including systems of macromolecules, nanoparticles and colloids. Much effort is being invested in understanding the thermodynamic properties of these soft-matter quasicrystals in order to predict and possibly control the structures that form, and hopefully to shed light on the broader yet unresolved general questions of quasicrystal formation and stability...
May 1, 2018: IUCrJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744606/three-dimensional-flows-in-a-hyperelastic-vessel-under-external-pressure
#10
Sen Zhang, Xiaoyu Luo, Zongxi Cai
We study the collapsible behaviour of a vessel conveying viscous flows subject to external pressure, a scenario that could occur in many physiological applications. The vessel is modelled as a three-dimensional cylindrical tube of nonlinear hyperelastic material. To solve the fully coupled fluid-structure interaction, we have developed a novel approach based on the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method and the frontal solver. The method of rotating spines is used to enable an automatic mesh adaptation...
May 9, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742101/buoyancy-effects-in-stagnation-point-flow-of-maxwell-fluid-utilizing-non-fourier-heat-flux-approach
#11
Ammar Mushtaq, Meraj Mustafa, Tasawer Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi
Here we utilize a non-Fourier approach to model buoyancy aiding or opposing flow of Maxwell fluid in the region of stagnation-point towards a vertical stretchable surface. Flow field is permeated by uniform transverse magnetic field. Two different heating processes namely (i) prescribed surface temperature (PST) and (ii) constant wall temperature (CWT) are analyzed. Through suitable transformations, the similarity equations are formed which are treated numerically for a broad range of magnetic interaction parameter...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738945/improved-sensitivity-and-limit-of-detection-of-lateral-flow-devices-using-spatial-constrictions-of-the-flow-path
#12
Ioannis N Katis, Peijun J W He, Robert W Eason, Collin L Sones
We report on the use of a laser-direct write (LDW) technique that allows the fabrication of lateral flow devices with enhanced sensitivity and limit of detection. This manufacturing technique comprises the dispensing of a liquid photopolymer at specific regions of a nitrocellulose membrane and its subsequent photopolymerisation to create impermeable walls inside the volume of the membrane. These polymerised structures are intentionally designed to create fluidic channels which are constricted over a specific length that spans the test zone within which the sample interacts with pre-deposited reagents...
May 3, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737842/an-ultrahigh-co-2-loaded-silicalite-1-zeolite-structural-stability-and-physical-properties-at-high-pressures-and-temperatures
#13
Tomas Marqueño, David Santamaria-Perez, Javier Ruiz-Fuertes, Raquel Chuliá-Jordán, Jose L Jordá, Fernando Rey, Chris McGuire, Abby Kavner, Simon MacLeod, Dominik Daisenberger, Catalin Popescu, Placida Rodriguez-Hernandez, Alfonso Muñoz
We report the formation of an ultrahigh CO2 -loaded pure-SiO2 silicalite-1 structure at high pressure (0.7 GPa) from the interaction of empty zeolite and fluid CO2 medium. The CO2 -filled structure was characterized in situ by means of synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. Rietveld refinements and Fourier recycling allowed the location of 16 guest carbon dioxide molecules per unit cell within the straight and sinusoidal channels of the porous framework to be analyzed. The complete filling of pores by CO2 molecules favors structural stability under compression, avoiding pressure-induced amorphization below 20 GPa, and significantly reduces the compressibility of the system compared to that of the parental empty one...
May 8, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737631/a-fluid-structure-interaction-fsi-based-numerical-investigation-of-peristalsis-in-an-obstructed-human-ureter
#14
Ahmed Tasnub Takaddus, Prashanta Gautam, Abhilash J Chandy
Urine moves from the kidney to the bladder through the ureter. A series of compression waves facilitates this transport. Due to the highly concentrated mineral deposits in urine, stones are formed in the kidney and travel down through the urinary tract. While passing, a larger stone can get stuck and cause severe damage to ureter wall. Also, stones in the ureter obstructing the urine flow can cause pain and backflow of urine which in turn might require surgical intervention. The current study develops a 2D axisymmetric numerical model in order to gain an understanding of the ureter obstruction and its effects on the flow, which are critical in assessing the different treatment options...
May 8, 2018: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736635/effect-of-distal-thickening-and-stiffening-of-plaque-cap-on-arterial-wall-mechanics
#15
Pengsrorn Chhai, Kyehan Rhee
To investigate the effect of longitudinal variations of cap thickness and tissue properties on wall stresses and strains along the atherosclerotic stenosis, stenotic plaque models (uniformly thick, distally thickened, homogenous, and distally stiffened) were constructed and subjected to computational stress analyses with due consideration of fluid-structure interactions (FSI). The analysis considered three different cap thicknesses-45, 65, and 200 μm-and tissue properties-soft, fibrous, and hard. The maximum peak cap stress (PCS) and strain were observed in the upstream throat section and demonstrated increases of the order of 345 and 190%, respectively, as the cap thickness was reduced from 200 to 45 μm in uniformly thick models...
May 8, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735263/an-anisotropic-constitutive-model-for-immersogeometric-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis-of-bioprosthetic-heart-valves
#16
Michael C H Wu, Rana Zakerzadeh, David Kamensky, Josef Kiendl, Michael S Sacks, Ming-Chen Hsu
This paper considers an anisotropic hyperelastic soft tissue model, originally proposed for native valve tissue and referred to herein as the Lee-Sacks model, in an isogeometric thin shell analysis framework that can be readily combined with immersogeometric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis for high-fidelity simulations of bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs) interacting with blood flow. We find that the Lee-Sacks model is well-suited to reproduce the anisotropic stress-strain behavior of the cross-linked bovine pericardial tissues that are commonly used in BHVs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727463/chlamydia-exploits-filopodial-capture-and-a-macropinocytosis-like-pathway-for-host-cell-entry
#17
Charlotte Ford, Andrea Nans, Emmanuel Boucrot, Richard D Hayward
Pathogens hijack host endocytic pathways to force their own entry into eukaryotic target cells. Many bacteria either exploit receptor-mediated zippering or inject virulence proteins directly to trigger membrane reorganisation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. By contrast, extracellular C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) apparently employ facets of both the zipper and trigger mechanisms and are only ~400 nm in diameter. Our cryo-electron tomography of C. trachomatis entry revealed an unexpectedly diverse array of host structures in association with invading EBs, suggesting internalisation may progress by multiple, potentially redundant routes or several sequential events within a single pathway...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727452/antigen-b-from-echinococcus-granulosus-enters-mammalian-cells-by-endocytic-pathways
#18
Edileuza Danieli da Silva, Martin Cancela, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira, Arnaldo Zaha
BACKGROUND: Cystic hydatid disease is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage (hydatid) of Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda, Taeniidae). The hydatid develops in the viscera of intermediate host as a unilocular structure filled by the hydatid fluid, which contains parasitic excretory/secretory products. The lipoprotein Antigen B (AgB) is the major component of E. granulosus metacestode hydatid fluid. Functionally, AgB has been implicated in immunomodulation and lipid transport. However, the mechanisms underlying AgB functions are not completely known...
May 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726881/capillary-driven-binding-of-thin-triangular-prisms-at-fluid-interfaces
#19
Joseph A Ferrar, Deshpreet Singh Bedi, Shangnan Zhou, Peijun Zhu, Xiaoming Mao, Michael J Solomon
We observe capillary-driven binding between thin, equilateral triangular prisms at a flat air-water interface. The edge length of the equilateral triangle face is 120 μm, and the thickness of the prism is varied between 2 and 20 μm. For thickness to length (T/L) ratios of 1/10 or less, pairs of triangles preferentially bind in either tip-to-tip or tip-to-midpoint edge configurations; for pairs of prisms of thickness T/L = 1/5, the tip of one triangle binds to any position along the other triangle's edge. The distinct binding configurations for small T/L ratios result from physical bowing of the prisms, a property that arises during their fabrication...
May 4, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726688/influence-of-surfactant-structure-on-photoluminescent-%C3%AF-conjugated-polymer-nanoparticles-interfacial-properties-and-protein-binding
#20
Laura Urbano, Luke Ashley Clifton, Hoi Ki Ku, Hannah Kendall-Troughton, Kalliopi-Kelli A Vandera, Bruno F E Matarèse, Thais Fedatto Abelha, Peixun Li, Tejal A Desai, Cecile A Dreiss, Robert David Barker, Mark A Green, Lea Ann Dailey, Richard D Harvey
Π-conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) are under investigation as photoluminescent agents for diagnostics and bioimaging. To determine whether the choice of surfactant can improve CPN properties and prevent protein adsorption, five non-ionic polyethylene glycol alkyl ether surfactants were used to produce CPNs from three representative π-conjugated polymers. The surfactant structure did not influence size or yield, which were dependent on the nature of the conjugated polymer. Hydrophobic interaction chromatography, contact angle, quartz crystal microbalance and neutron reflectivity studies were used to assess the affinity of the surfactant to the conjugated polymer surface, and indicated that all surfactants were displaced by the addition of a model serum protein...
May 4, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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