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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734873/a-computational-fluid-structure-interaction-analysis-of-coronary-y-grafts
#1
Bruno Guerciotti, Christian Vergara, Sonia Ippolito, Alfio Quarteroni, Carlo Antona, Roberto Scrofani
Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The stenotic coronary vessels are generally treated with coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs), which can be either arterial (internal mammary artery, radial artery) or venous (saphenous vein). However, the different mechanical properties of the graft can influence the outcome of the procedure in terms of risk of restenosis and subsequent graft failure. In this paper, we perform a computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis of patient-specific multiple CABGs (Y-grafts) with the aim of better understanding the influence of the choice of bypass (arterial vs venous) on the risk of graft failure...
July 19, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734294/the-standard-mean-field-treatment-of-inter-particle-attraction-in-classical-dft-is-better-than-one-might-expect
#2
Andrew J Archer, Blesson Chacko, Robert Evans
In classical density functional theory (DFT), the part of the Helmholtz free energy functional arising from attractive inter-particle interactions is often treated in a mean-field or van der Waals approximation. On the face of it, this is a somewhat crude treatment as the resulting functional generates the simple random phase approximation (RPA) for the bulk fluid pair direct correlation function. We explain why using standard mean-field DFT to describe inhomogeneous fluid structure and thermodynamics is more accurate than one might expect based on this observation...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730435/supported-fluid-lipid-bilayer-as-a-scaffold-to-direct-assembly-of-rna-nanostructures
#3
Aleksandra P Dabkowska, Agnes Michanek, Luc Jaeger, Arkadiusz Chworos, Tommy Nylander, Emma Sparr
RNA architectonics offers the possibility to design and assemble RNA into specific shapes, such as nanoscale 3D solids or nanogrids. Combining the minute size of these programmable shapes with precise positioning on a surface further enhances their potential as building blocks in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. Here we describe a bottom-up approach to direct the arrangement of nucleic acid nanostructures by using a supported fluid lipid bilayer as a surface scaffold. The strong attractive electrostatic interactions between RNA polyanions and cationic lipids promote RNA adsorption and self-assembly...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721606/fluid-structure-finite-element-modelling-and-clinical-measurement-of-the-wideband-acoustic-input-admittance-of-the-newborn-ear-canal-and-middle-ear
#4
Hamid Motallebzadeh, Nima Maftoon, Jacob Pitaro, W Robert J Funnell, Sam J Daniel
The anatomical differences between the newborn ear and the adult one result in different input admittance responses in newborns than those in adults. Taking into account fluid-structure interactions, we have developed a finite-element model to investigate the wideband admittance responses of the ear canal and middle ear in newborns for frequencies up to 10 kHz. We have also performed admittance measurements on a group of 23 infants with ages between 14 and 28 days, for frequencies from 250 to 8000 Hz with 1/12-octave resolution...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717801/mimicking-arterial-thrombosis-in-a-3d-printed-microfluidic-in-vitro-vascular-model-based-on-computed-tomography-angiography-data
#5
Pedro F Costa, Hugo J Albers, John E A Linssen, Heleen H T Middelkamp, Linda van der Hout, Robert Passier, Albert van den Berg, Jos Malda, Andries D van der Meer
Arterial thrombosis is the main instigating factor of heart attacks and strokes, which result in over 14 million deaths worldwide every year. The mechanism of thrombosis involves factors from the blood and the vessel wall, and it also relies strongly on 3D vessel geometry and local blood flow patterns. Microfluidic chip-based vascular models allow controlled in vitro studies of the interaction between vessel wall and blood in thrombosis, but until now, they could not fully recapitulate the 3D geometry and blood flow patterns of real-life healthy or diseased arteries...
July 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713245/multifaceted-roles-of-metzincins-in-cns-physiology-and-pathology-from-synaptic-plasticity-and-cognition-to-neurodegenerative-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Patrycja Brzdak, Daria Nowak, Grzegorz Wiera, Jerzy W Mozrzymas
The extracellular matrix (ECM) and membrane proteolysis play a key role in structural and functional synaptic plasticity associated with development and learning. A growing body of evidence underscores the multifaceted role of members of the metzincin superfamily, including metalloproteinases (MMPs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs), A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs (ADAMTSs) and astacins in physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712543/influence-of-overlapping-pattern-of-multiple-overlapping-uncovered-stents-on-the-local-mechanical-environment-a-patient-specific-parameter-study
#7
Shuo Wang, Yongxue Zhang, Jiaxuan Feng, Yuan Huang, Aziz Tokgoz, Umar Sadat, Jonathan H Gillard, Qingsheng Lu, Zhongzhao Teng
BACKGROUND: Multiple overlapping uncovered stents (MOUS) system has shown potentials in managing complex aortic aneurysms with side branches involvement. It promotes the development of thrombus by modulating local flow pattern that reduces the wall tension, while maintaining patency of side branches. However the modulation of local hemodynamic parameters depends on various factors that have not been assessed comprehensively. METHODS: Aneurysm 3D geometry was reconstructed based on CT images...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709364/structural-interactions-in-ionic-liquids-linked-to-higher-order-poisson-boltzmann-equations
#8
R Blossey, A C Maggs, R Podgornik
We present a derivation of generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations starting from classical theories of binary fluid mixtures, employing an approach based on the Legendre transform as recently applied to the case of local descriptions of the fluid free energy. Under specific symmetry assumptions, and in the linearized regime, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reduces to a phenomenological equation introduced by Bazant et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046102 (2011)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.046102, whereby the structuring near the surface is determined by bulk coefficients...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709335/entropic-multirelaxation-time-lattice-boltzmann-method-for-moving-and-deforming-geometries-in-three-dimensions
#9
B Dorschner, S S Chikatamarla, I V Karlin
Entropic lattice Boltzmann methods have been developed to alleviate intrinsic stability issues of lattice Boltzmann models for under-resolved simulations. Its reliability in combination with moving objects was established for various laminar benchmark flows in two dimensions in our previous work [B. Dorschner, S. Chikatamarla, F. Bösch, and I. Karlin, J. Comput. Phys. 295, 340 (2015)JCTPAH0021-999110.1016/j.jcp.2015.04.017] as well as for three-dimensional one-way coupled simulations of engine-type geometries in B...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709299/anisotropic-hydrodynamic-function-of-dense-confined-colloids
#10
Kim Nygård, Johan Buitenhuis, Matias Kagias, Konstantins Jefimovs, Federico Zontone, Yuriy Chushkin
Dense colloidal dispersions exhibit complex wave-vector-dependent diffusion, which is controlled by both direct particle interactions and indirect nonadditive hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. In bulk the hydrodynamic interactions are probed routinely, but in confined geometries their studies have been hitherto hindered by additional complications due to confining walls. Here we solve this issue by combining high-energy x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray-scattering experiments on colloid-filled microfluidic channels to yield the confined fluid's hydrodynamic function in the short-time limit...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709282/hybrid-smoothed-dissipative-particle-dynamics-and-immersed-boundary-method-for-simulation-of-red-blood-cells-in-flows
#11
Ting Ye, Nhan Phan-Thien, Chwee Teck Lim, Lina Peng, Huixin Shi
In biofluid flow systems, often the flow problems of fluids of complex structures, such as the flow of red blood cells (RBCs) through complex capillary vessels, need to be considered. The smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD), a particle-based method, is one of the easy and flexible methods to model such complex structure fluids. It couples the best features of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), with parameters having specific physical meaning (coming from SPH discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations), combined with thermal fluctuations in a mesoscale simulation, in a similar manner to the DPD...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709263/impact-of-diffusion-on-transverse-dispersion-in-two-dimensional-ordered-and-random-porous-media
#12
Dzmitry Hlushkou, Stanislau Piatrusha, Ulrich Tallarek
Solute dispersion in fluid flow results from the interaction between advection and diffusion. The relative contributions of these two mechanisms to mass transport are characterized by the reduced velocity ν, also referred to as the Péclet number. In the absence of diffusion (i.e., when the solute diffusion coefficient D_{m}=0 and ν→∞), divergence-free laminar flow of an incompressible fluid results in a zero-transverse dispersion coefficient (D_{T}=0), both in ordered and random two-dimensional porous media...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708538/glycosidases-in-porcine-follicular-fluid-and-their-effect-on-zona-pellucida-awn-1-spermadhesin-interaction
#13
Tomáš Dráb, Štěpán Ren, Pavla Maňásková-Postlerová, Marie Tichá, Věra Jonáková, Jiří Liberda
Oligosaccharide moieties on the surface of the oocyte belong to the key molecules that direct the course of fertilization and are subjected to changes during oocyte maturation in the follicle. In our study, we focused on the activities of five glycosidases in the fluids from porcine secondary and preovulatory follicles (α-l-fucosidase, α-d-galactosidase, β-d-galactosidase, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, and α-d-mannosidase). All of them were detected active at neutral and acidic pH. However, changes in their activities associated with follicle development were observed only in the case of α-d-mannosidase, which was increased (P < 0...
June 8, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707518/interaction-of-copper-ii-complexes-by-bovine-serum-albumin-spectroscopic-and-calorimetric-insights
#14
Namrata Singh, Darshana Pagariya, Surbhi Jain, Sunil Naik, Nand Kishore
Serum albumins being the most abundant proteins in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid are significant carriers of essential transition metal ions in the human body. Studies of copper (II) complexes have gained attention because of their potential applications in synthetic, biological and industrial processes. Study of binding interactions of such bioinorganic complexes with serum albumins improves our understanding of biomolecular recognition process essential for rational drug desig. In the present investigation, we have applied quantitative approach to explore interactions of novel synthesized copper (II) complexes viz...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706505/cell-cell-interaction-proteins-gap-junctions-tight-junctions-and-desmosomes-and-water-transporter-aquaporin-4-in-meningothelial-cells-of-the-human-optic-nerve
#15
Thi Ngoc Co Zeleny, Corina Kohler, Albert Neutzner, Hanspeter E Killer, Peter Meyer
PURPOSE: Meningothelial cells (MECs) play a central role in the maintenance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and in physiological and pathophysiological processes within the subarachnoid space (SAS) linking them to optic nerve (ON) pathologies. Still, not much is known about their structural properties that might enable MECs to perform specific functions within the ON microenvironment. METHODS: For closer characterization of the structural properties of the human MEC layer in the arachnoid, we performed immunohistological analyses to evaluate the presence of cell-cell interaction markers, namely, markers for tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5), gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43), and desmosomes (Desmoplakin) as well as for water channel marker aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retrobulbar, midorbital, and intracanalicular human ON sections...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697671/bacterial-membranes-structure-domains-and-function
#16
Henrik Strahl, Jeff Errington
The bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is composed of roughly equal proportions of lipids and proteins. The main lipid components are phospholipids, which vary in acyl chain length, saturation, and branching and carry head groups that vary in size and charge. Phospholipid variants determine membrane properties such as fluidity and charge that in turn modulate interactions with membrane-associated proteins. We summarize recent advances in understanding bacterial membrane structure and function, focusing particularly on the possible existence and significance of specialized membrane domains...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693819/haemodynamics-and-stresses-in-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-a-fluid-structure-interaction-study-into-the-effect-of-proximal-neck-and-iliac-bifurcation-angle
#17
Corey J Drewe, Louis P Parker, Lachlan J Kelsey, Paul E Norman, Janet T Powell, Barry J Doyle
Our knowledge of how geometry influences abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) biomechanics is still developing. Both iliac bifurcation angle and proximal neck angle could impact the haemodynamics and stresses within AAA. Recent comparisons of the morphology of ruptured and intact AAA show that cases with large iliac bifurcation angles are less likely to rupture than those with smaller angles. We aimed to perform fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations on a range of idealised AAA geometries to conclusively determine the influence of proximal neck and iliac bifurcation angle on AAA wall stress and haemodynamics...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690408/wave-reflection-and-transmission-in-multiply-stented-blood-vessels
#18
T K Papathanasiou, A B Movchan, D Bigoni
Closed circulatory systems display an exquisite balance between vascular elasticity and viscous fluid effects, to induce pulse-smoothing and avoid resonance during the cardiac cycle. Stents in the arterial tree alter this balance through stiffening and because a periodic structure is introduced, capable of interacting with the fluid in a complex way. While the former feature has been investigated, the latter received no attention so far. But periodic structures are the building blocks of metamaterials, known for their 'non-natural' behaviour...
June 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690045/a-fsi-computational-framework-for-vascular-physiopathology-a-novel-flow-tissue-multiscale-strategy
#19
Daniele Bianchi, Elisabetta Monaldo, Alessio Gizzi, Michele Marino, Simonetta Filippi, Giuseppe Vairo
A novel fluid-structure computational framework for vascular applications is herein presented. It is developed by combining the double multi-scale nature of vascular physiopathology in terms of both tissue properties and blood flow. Addressing arterial tissues, they are modelled via a nonlinear multiscale constitutive rationale, based only on parameters having a clear histological and biochemical meaning. Moreover, blood flow is described by coupling a three-dimensional fluid domain (undergoing physiological inflow conditions) with a zero-dimensional model, which allows to reproduce the influence of the downstream vasculature, furnishing a realistic description of the outflow proximal pressure...
July 6, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689953/the-significance-of-the-angle-between-superior-mesenteric-artery-and-aorta-in-spontaneous-isolated-superior-mesenteric-artery-dissection
#20
Zhongyin Wu, Jie Yi, Huanming Xu, Wei Guo, Lijun Wang, Duanduan Chen, Jiang Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of the angle between superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and distal aorta in spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) by clinical and biomechanical analyses. METHODS: 37 patients with SISMAD (one asymptomatic) and 148 controls (1:4 matched for age [mean, 50.2 years], gender [92% male], and body mass index; and being ruled out for arterial disease) underwent aortic computed tomography angiography. SMA-distal aorta angle, measured on sagittal plane, was compared along with baseline characteristics (body mass index, smoking history and comorbidities) between groups; and assessed as tool to evaluate SISMAD risk after stratification into four angle-interval categories...
July 6, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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