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vagal stimulation

Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
Emi Yuda, Hiroki Ogasawara, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano
BACKGROUND: In the contemporary life environments, our body is increasingly exposed to various sources of colored light, which may affect our physiological functions as non-image-forming effects. We examined the impacts of colored lights on the autonomic functions by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A lighting device consisting of four organic light-emitting diode (OLED) modules (55 × 55 mm(2)) with adjustable red-green-blue color was secured 24 cm above the eyes of subject lying supine in a light-shielded laboratory...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Hirotaka Ueda, Mayu Suga, Takakazu Yagi, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Shouichi Miyawaki
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of vagal afferent activation on salivation and swallowing-like events. Salivation is part of a reflex induced by stimulation of the oral area during feeding or chewing. Recently, we reported that nausea induced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) activation produced salivation and swallowing in humans. Here, we investigated the ability of visceral sensation to enhance salivation and swallowing in rodents in order to inform the mechanism of GER-mediated stomatognathic activation...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
John M Wo, Thomas V Nowak, Shamaila Waseem, Matthew P Ward
Gastroparesis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Some patients have debilitating vomiting, weight loss, and dehydration, while others have effortless regurgitation of undigested foods or postprandial distress suggestive of functional dyspepsia. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been proposed as an effective treatment option for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy. Evidence suggests that the clinically available device, a low-energy high-frequency GES, activates the vagal afferent pathways to influence the central control mechanisms for nausea and vomiting...
September 27, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Mohsen Moslehpour, Toru Kawada, Kenji Sunagawa, Masaru Sugimachi, Ramakrishna Mukkamala
The total baroreflex arc is the open-loop system relating carotid sinus pressure (CSP) to arterial pressure (AP). The nonlinear dynamics of this system were recently characterized. First, Gaussian white noise CSP stimulation was employed in open-loop conditions in normotensive and hypertensive rats with sectioned vagal and aortic depressor nerves. Then, nonparametric system identification was applied to measured CSP and AP to establish a second-order nonlinear Uryson model. The aim in this study was to assess the importance of higher-order nonlinear dynamics via development and evaluation of a third-order nonlinear model of the total arc using the same experimental data...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Veronika Engert, Anna M Koester, Antje Riepenhausen, Tania Singer
Animal models and human studies using paradigms designed to stimulate endogenous oxytocin release suggest a stress-buffering role of oxytocin. We here examined the involvement of stress-induced peripheral oxytocin secretion in reactivity and recovery phases of the human psychosocial stress response. Healthy male and female participants (N=114) were subjected to a standardized laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. In addition to plasma oxytocin, cortisol was assessed as a marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-) axis activity, alpha-amylase and heart rate as markers of sympathetic activity, high frequency heart rate variability as a marker of vagal tone and self-rated anxiety as an indicator of subjective stress experience...
August 31, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Peter Taggart, Hugo Critchley, Stefan van Duijvendoden, Pier D Lambiase
Advances in investigative techniques have led to an increasing awareness and understanding of the role of central neural control in the autonomic nervous system regulation of the heart. Substantial evidence exists for a role of the higher centres in neuro-cardiac control including the effect of focal brain stimulation and acute brain lesions on cardiac electrophysiology, blood pressure, contractile function and the development of arrhythmias. Mental stress and strong emotions have long been associated with sudden cardiac death...
August 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, Jean-Philippe Longpré, John Andrew Armour, Alain Vinet, Vincent Jacquemet, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Jeffrey Laurence Ardell
BACKGROUND: Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether pre-emptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. METHODS: IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n=8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs (2) stellate or vagal stimulation...
September 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Aikaterini Thanou, Stavros Stavrakis, John W Dyer, Melissa E Munroe, Judith A James, Joan T Merrill
BACKGROUND: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases and has been observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We examined the relationship of HRV with SLE disease activity and selected cytokine pathways. METHODS: Fifty-three patients from the Oklahoma Lupus Cohort were evaluated at two visits each. Clinical assessments included the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) index, physician global assessment (PGA), and Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-SLEDAI Flare Index...
2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Colin Reardon
Communication between the nervous and immune systems can significantly alter immune cell function in a number of inflammatory diseases. Elegant studies have defined a basic functional circuit in a "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" that highlights a unique role for the vagus nerve, and has brought about a resurgence in the field of neuro-immunology. This research has further identified that in addition to tonic signals that can restrain immune cell activation; the anti-inflammatory reflex arc is amiable to targeted stimulation as a therapeutic modality...
October 2016: Immunology Letters
Florent Besnier, Marc Labrunée, Atul Pathak, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Céline Galès, Jean-Michel Sénard, Thibaut Guiraud
Patients with cardiovascular disease show autonomic dysfunction, including sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, which leads to fatal events. This review aims to place sympathovagal balance as an essential element to be considered in management for cardiovascular disease patients who benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation program. Many studies showed that exercise training, as non-pharmacologic treatment, plays an important role in enhancing sympathovagal balance and could normalize levels of markers of sympathetic flow measured by microneurography, heart rate variability or plasma catecholamine levels...
August 16, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Inuka Kishara Gooneratne, Alexander L Green, Patricia Dugan, Arjune Sen, Angelo Franzini, Tipu Aziz, Binith Cheeran
For patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy in whom surgical resection of the epileptogenic focus fails or was not feasible in the first place, there were few therapeutic options. Increasingly, neurostimulation provides an alternative treatment strategy for these patients. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is well established. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cortical responsive stimulation (CRS) are newer neurostimulation therapies with recently published long-term efficacy and safety data. In this literature review, we introduce these therapies to a non-specialist audience...
November 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
H Antuschevich, M Kapica, A Krawczynska, A Herman, I Kato, A Kuwahara, R Zabielski
Apelin is considered as important gut regulatory peptide ligand of APJ receptor with a potential physiological role in gastrointestinal cytoprotection, regulation of food intake and drinking behavior. Circulating apelin inhibits secretion of pancreatic juice through vagal- cholecystokinin-dependent mechanism and reduces local blood flow. Our study was aimed to determine the effect of fundectomy and intraperitoneal or intragastric administration of apelin-13 on pancreatic and gastric enzymes activities in adult rats...
June 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Tiffany Field
In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Fabrice Bartolomei, Francesca Bonini, Elsa Vidal, Agnes Trébuchon, Stanislas Lagarde, Isabelle Lambert, Aileen McGonigal, Didier Scavarda, Romain Carron, Christian G Benar
An effect of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) on cortical synchronization has been postulated but remains to be verified. In this study we investigated the impact of VNS on functional connectivity (Fc) using direct intracerebral recordings (stereotactic EEG, SEEG). Five patients with epilepsy who underwent SEEG recordings during ongoing VNS therapy were investigated. Interdependencies between twenty-six selected bipolar SEEG channels were estimated by nonlinear regression analysis during ON and OF periods of stimulation...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Yue Liang, Fang Tong, Lin Zhang, Wenhe Li, Yiwu Zhou
Vascular involvement is a well-recognized manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) which has the potential to be fatal when disrupted. We here present a case of sudden death due to the fatal arterial rupture resulted from infiltration of the neurofibromas. A 42-year-old man who suffered from NF1 presented a 1-h history of sudden onset of pain in his right cervical region. His condition worsened and became unconscious on his way to the emergency room. Despite resuscitation efforts, he died 30min later without regaining consciousness...
July 2016: Legal Medicine
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