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vagal stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898202/optimization-of-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-using-functional-mri
#1
Natalia Yakunina, Sam Soo Kim, Eui-Cheol Nam
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and a number of other disorders. Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (tVNS) has been considered as a non-invasive alternative. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the effects of tVNS used different stimulation parameters and locations in the ear, which makes it difficult to determine the optimal tVNS methodology...
November 29, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895475/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-the-qt-variability-index-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-in-healthy-subjects-older-than-60-years
#2
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Cristina Ottaviani, Claudia Fiorucci, Nicola Petrocchi, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Matteo Pascucci, Damiano Magrì
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years) matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI), and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878616/effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-medication-resistant-epilepsy-comparison-between-patients-with-and-without-medication-changes
#3
María A García-Pallero, Eduardo García-Navarrete, Cristina V Torres, Jesús Pastor, Marta Navas, R G Sola
BACKGROUND: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) response is not immediate. A progressive decline in seizure frequency is usually found during a period of 12-18 months after implantation. During this time, the patient's medication is usually modified, which can create doubts about whether their clinical improvement is due to medication changes or to VNS itself. Our goal is to compare two groups of patients treated with VNS, with and without changes in their medication. METHODS: We prospectively analyze 85 patients who were treated with VNS in our hospital between 2005 and 2014...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873376/extended-long-term-effects-of-cervical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-on-headache-intensity-frequency-and-affective-cognitive-headache-perception-in-drug-resistant-complex-partial-seizure-patients
#4
Bogdan Pintea, Kevin Hampel, Jan Boström, Rainer Surges, Hartmut Vatter, Ilana S Lendvai, Thomas M Kinfe
OBJECTIVES: Invasive vagal nerve stimulation (iVNS) is an established treatment option for drug-resistant focal seizures and has been assumed to diminish frequent co-incidental daily headache/migraine. However, long-term effects on cognitive/affective head pain perception, headache intensity/frequency are lacking. We therefore investigated potential iVNS-induced effects in patients with drug-resistant focal seizure and daily headache/migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical database was used to select 325 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy treated by either iVNS plus best medical treatment (BMT) or BMT alone, compared to a healthy control group (HC)...
November 22, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863972/vagus-nerve-stimulator-related-speech-exercise-induced-cough
#5
Charlotte Dandurand, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Karim Elayoubi, Alexander G Weil, Paul Lespérence, Alain Bouthillier
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic or recurrent treatment resistant depression. Although considered a safe procedure, increasing output current can be associated with stimulation induced side effects. We report the first case of dry cough induced by speech and mild exercise, occurring in the off mode following implantation of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNSor). We discuss the possible pathophysiology and the potential treatment options of this rare complication...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852563/effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-st25-and-bl25-in-a-sennae-induced-rat-model-of-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#6
Xianwei Zhu, Zhibin Liu, Wenmin Niu, Yuan Wang, Aimin Zhang, Hongyan Qu, Jing Zhou, Lu Bai, Yong Yang, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) may have a role in the treatment of diarrhoea symptoms. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signalling molecule in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which initiates peristaltic, secretory, vasodilatory, vagal and nociceptive reflexes. In addition, according to the results of our previous report, EA stimulation mediates GI peristalsis by increasing expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). AIM: To investigate the effect of EA at acupuncture points ST25 and BL25 in a rat model of diarrhoea...
November 15, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852001/reduced-epicardial-vagal-nerve-density-and-impaired-vagal-control-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-model
#7
Matthew S Delfiner, John Siano, Ying Li, Eduard I Dedkov, Youhua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autonomic remodeling, characterized by sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, contributes to heart failure (HF) progression. However, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for vagal withdrawal in HF remain(s) unclear, and whether HF causes epicardial autonomic nerve remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats, and 10 sham surgery rats served as the control. MI-HF was confirmed 2 months after the surgery by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurement...
October 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844147/acute-ivabradine-treatment-reduces-heart-rate-without-increasing-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility-irrespective-of-underlying-vagal-activity-in-dogs
#8
Kazunori Uemura, Masashi Inagaki, Can Zheng, Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Masaru Sugimachi
Ivabradine, a bradycardic agent, has been shown to stably reduce patient's heart rate (HR) in the setting of acute cardiac care. However, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) risk and acute ivabradine treatment remains a controversial clinical issue, and has not been thoroughly investigated. Bradycardia and abnormal atrial refractoriness induced by ivabradine treatment may enhance vulnerability to AF induction, especially when vagal nerve is concurrently activated. We aimed to experimentally investigate the effects of acute ivabradine treatment with/without concurrent vagal activation on AF inducibility...
November 14, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816306/intravenous-electrical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prior-to-coronary-reperfusion-in-a-canine-ischemia-reperfusion-model-markedly-reduces-infarct-size-and-prevents-subsequent-heart-failure
#10
Takahiro Arimura, Keita Saku, Takamori Kakino, Takuya Nishikawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kazuo Sakamoto, Takuya Kishi, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Reducing myocardial damage is a prerequisite to prevent chronic heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potent anti-infarct effect, technical difficulties have precluded its clinical application. We developed a novel therapeutic strategy of intravenous VNS (iVNS) and examined whether iVNS administered prior to coronary reperfusion in a canine AMI model reduces infarct size and prevents heart failure...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800619/vagal-regulation-in-breastfeeding-infants-and-their-mothers
#11
Kelsey M Quigley, Ginger A Moore, Cathi B Propper, Barbara D Goldman, Martha J Cox
Consistent with the gustatory-vagal hypothesis, vagal stimulation during breastfeeding may contribute to infants' physiological regulatory development independent of caregiving effects. This study examined whether breastfeeding predicted 6-month-old infants' (N = 151) and their mothers' vagal regulation during the face-to-face still-face (FFSF). Although breastfed and nonbreastfed infants showed expected vagal withdrawal during the Still-Face episode, only breastfed infants showed continued withdrawal during the reunion episode, suggesting greater physiological mobilization to repair the interaction...
November 1, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779300/-results-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-a-national-epilepsy-referral-centre
#12
P Roldan-Ramos, L A Reyes-Figueroa, J Rumia, E Martinez-Lizana, A Donaire, M Carreno-Martinez
AIM: To describe clinical results and complications derived from vagal nerve stimulation therapy in drug resistant epileptic patients unsuitable for other surgical treatments, since the first implant in an epilepsy national referral centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the patients implanted in our centre was held. Data related to baseline characteristics of their epilepsy and therapy complications was collected. RESULTS: 32 new implants in 31 patients are included, mean age of 34 years, 29...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776979/chronic-kidney-disease-impairs-renal-nerve-and-haemodynamic-reflex-responses-to-vagal-afferent-input-through-a-central-mechanism
#13
REVIEW
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729269/analgesic-and-anti-edematogenic-effects-of-oral-trypsin-were-abolished-after-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-and-spinal-monoaminergic-inhibition-in-rats
#14
Flora Lucena, Vanessa Foletto, Lucas Zanon Mascarin, Carlos Rogério Tonussi
AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis brings great burdens to the patients. In addition to the highly expensive treatment, they are commonly associated with severe side-effects. In such context, the research for safe and affordable treatments is needed. MAIN METHODS: Arthritis was induced by CFA (0.5mg/mL) in female wistar rats. Trypsin was given p.o. (2.95mg/kg; 2mL) 24 hs after the intra-articular CFA injection. Articular incapacitation was measured daily by counting the paw elevation time (PET; s) during 1-min periods of stimulated walk, throughout the 7-days after intra-articular CFA injection...
October 8, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716445/suppression-of-vagal-cardiac-modulation-by-blue-light-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Emi Yuda, Hiroki Ogasawara, Yutaka Yoshida, Junichiro Hayano
BACKGROUND: In the contemporary life environments, our body is increasingly exposed to various sources of colored light, which may affect our physiological functions as non-image-forming effects. We examined the impacts of colored lights on the autonomic functions by the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A lighting device consisting of four organic light-emitting diode (OLED) modules (55 × 55 mm(2)) with adjustable red-green-blue color was secured 24 cm above the eyes of subject lying supine in a light-shielded laboratory...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707722/vagal-afferent-activation-induces-salivation-and-swallowing-like-events-in-anesthetized-rats
#16
Hirotaka Ueda, Mayu Suga, Takakazu Yagi, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Hideki Kashiwadani, Tomoyuki Kuwaki, Shouichi Miyawaki
The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of vagal afferent activation on salivation and swallowing-like events. Salivation is part of a reflex induced by stimulation of the oral area during feeding or chewing. Recently, we reported that nausea induced by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) activation produced salivation and swallowing in humans. Here, we investigated the ability of visceral sensation to enhance salivation and swallowing in rodents in order to inform the mechanism of GER-mediated stomatognathic activation...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693445/reversal-of-cardiac-vagal-effects-of-physostigmine-by-adjunctive-muscarinic-blockade
#17
James Winter, Alexandra R Cook, Dawn H Patient, Stevan R Emmett, John Tattersall, Michael J Shattock
Pre-treatment with reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is an effective strategy for reducing lethality following organophosphate nerve agent exposure. AChE inhibition may have unwanted cardiac side effects, which could be negated by adjunctive anti-cholinergic therapy. The aims of the present study were to examine the concentration-dependent effects of physostigmine on cardiac responses to vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), to test whether adjunctive treatment with hyoscine can reverse these effects and to assess the functional interaction and electrophysiological consequences of a combined pre-treatment...
September 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678506/gastric-electrical-stimulation-for-gastroparesis-and-chronic-unexplained-nausea-and-vomiting
#18
REVIEW
John M Wo, Thomas V Nowak, Shamaila Waseem, Matthew P Ward
Gastroparesis is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome. Some patients have debilitating vomiting, weight loss, and dehydration, while others have effortless regurgitation of undigested foods or postprandial distress suggestive of functional dyspepsia. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has been proposed as an effective treatment option for patients with gastroparesis refractory to medical therapy. Evidence suggests that the clinically available device, a low-energy high-frequency GES, activates the vagal afferent pathways to influence the central control mechanisms for nausea and vomiting...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676327/chronic-sarpogrelate-treatment-reveals-5-ht7-receptor-in-the-serotonergic-inhibition-of-the-rat-vagal-bradycardia
#19
José Ángel García-Pedraza, Mónica García, María Luisa Martín, Nélida Eleno, Asunción Morán
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates the cardiac parasympathetic neurotransmission, inhibiting the bradyarrhythmia by 5-HT2 receptor activation. We aimed to determine whether the chronic selective 5-HT2 blockade (sarpogrelate) could modify the serotonergic modulation on vagal cardiac outflow in pithed rat. Bradycardic responses in rats treated with sarpogrelate (30 mg/kg.day; p.o.) were obtained by electrical stimulation of the vagal fibers (3, 6, and 9 Hz) or i.v. injections of acetylcholine (ACh; 1, 5, and 10 μg/kg)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667485/functional-pharmacological-characterisation-of-ser100-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#20
Inmaculada C Villar, Kristen J Bubb, Amie J Moyes, Eva Steiness, Trygve Gulbrandsen, Finn Olav Levy, Adrian J Hobbs
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SER100 is a selective nociceptin receptor (NOP) agonist with sodium-potassium-sparing aquaretic and anti-natriuretic activity. This study was designed to characterize the functional cardiovascular pharmacology of SER100 in vitro and in vivo, including experimental models of cardiovascular disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Haemodynamic, ECG parameters and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined using radiotelemetry in healthy, conscious mice...
September 25, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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