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vagal stimulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529069/cholinergic-modulation-of-the-immune-system-presents-new-approaches-for-treating-inflammation
#1
REVIEW
Donald B Hoover
The nervous system and immune system have broad and overlapping distributions in the body, and interactions of these ubiquitous systems are central to the field of neuroimmunology. Over the past two decades, there has been explosive growth in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that mediate central modulation of immune functions through the autonomic nervous system. A major catalyst for growth in this field was the discovery that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) caused a prominent attenuation of the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin in experimental animals...
May 18, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525197/-treatment-resistant-depression-actuality-and-perspectives-in-2017
#2
REVIEW
N Lucas, P Hubain, G Loas, F Jurysta
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 3 to 17 % of adults. 15 to 30 % of patients with MDD suffer from treatment resistant depression (TRD). No international consensus defines TRD. The most common definition is " MDD that is not enough improved after two successive and different classes of antidepressant treatments in appropriate dose and duration ". The appropriate dose corresponds to maximal dose accepted by scientific reports and clinical recommendations, while the appropriate duration is around 6 weeks...
2017: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#3
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497257/-therapy-of-migranes
#4
D Holle-Lee, S Nägel, C Gaul
In migraine attack treatment analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and triptans can be utilized. The efficacy of acute attack treatment is relevant to prevent migraine chronification. For prophylactic treatment β‑blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, flunarizine, antiepileptics and onabotulinumtoxin A are available. There is evidence that some other substances (e. g. sartans) are also efficacious in this regard. Furthermore, nondrug approaches are essential in migraine therapy. Early education and prophylactic treatment of patients at risk may prevent from medication overuse headache...
May 11, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491717/-runaway-vagal-nerve-stimulator-a-case-of-cyclic-asystole
#5
G Sofia Tomova, Duc H Do, Yuliya Krokhaleva, Henry Honda, Eric Buch, Noel G Boyle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: HeartRhythm Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488608/epilepsy-surgery-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Sita Jayalakshmi, Sudhindra Vooturi, Swapan Gupta, Manas Panigrahi
Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In approximately 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with anticonvulsive drugs, and such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and majority are children. Epilepsy surgery in children, who have been carefully chosen, can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-third of children with intractable seizures. In the multimodality presurgical evaluation approach, sufficient concordance should be established among various independent investigations, thus identifying the location and extent of the epileptogenic zone with a high degree of confidence...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476920/clinically-styled-vagus-nerve-stimulation-augments-spontaneous-discharge-in-second-and-higher-order-sensory-neurons-in-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#7
Eric Beaumont, Regenia B Phillips Campbell, Michael C Andresen, Stephanie Lc Scofield, Krishna Singh, Imad Libbus, Bruce H KenKnight, Logan Snyder, Nathan Cantrell
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) currently treats patients with drug resistant epilepsy, depression and heart failure. The mild intensities used in chronic VNS suggest that primary visceral afferents and central nervous system activation are involved. Here we measured the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in anesthetized rats using clinically-styled VNS. Our chief findings indicate that VNS at threshold bradycardic intensity activated NTS neuron discharge in one third of NTS neurons...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475580/neural-substrate-of-posterior-left-atrium-a-novel-modulation-for-inducibility-and-remodeling-of-atrial-fibrillation-in-canine
#8
Mu Qin, Li Li, Xu Liu, Tao Liu, Shao Bo Shi
BACKGROUND: The neural mechanism of posterior left atrium (PLA) for genesis of atrial fibrillation has not been completely elucidated. We sought to assess the contribution of PLA denervation on atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility and atrial remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: After left thoracotomy in anesthetized dogs (n = 32), electrode catheters were attached to the PLA, left atrial roof, left pulmonary vein and left atrial appendage. Experiment 1 (n = 16): Vagal stimulation (VS group, n = 8) led to more pronounced ERP shortening in PLA than in other sites (CTL:71±7 ms vs VS: 52±6 ms, P<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473434/vagal-nerve-stimulator-masquerading-as-an-inhaled-foreign-body-in-a-child
#9
Ayeshah Abdul-Hamid, Samuel MacKeith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462724/non-pharmacological-modulation-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-for-heart-failure-treatment-where-do-we-stand
#10
Costas Tsioufis, Panayiotis Iliakis, Alexandros Kasiakogias, Dimitrios Konstantinidis, Dragan Lovic, Dimitrios Petras, Michalis Doumas, Eleftherios Tsiamis, Vasilios Papademetriou, Dimitrios Tousoulis
An imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a central pathophysiologic mechanism in heart failure (HF) and has been a principal target of treatment in these patients. Traditional pharmacologic agents do not provide specific modulation of discrete arms of the ANS, while side effects may lead to poor tolerance. Technological advances have provided a series of invasive methods that may provide a focused effect on the ANS in selected patient groups. Renal denervation, initially targeted for patients with resistant hypertension, has given positive preliminary results in terms of heart structure and function...
April 28, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462451/complexity-of-stomach-brain-interaction-induced-by-molecular-hydrogen-in-parkinson-s-disease-model-mice
#11
Yusuke Yoshii, Taikai Inoue, Yuya Uemura, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Mami Noda
Molecular hydrogen (H2), as a new medical gas, has protective effects in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous report, the neuroprotective effect of drinking water with saturated H2 (H2 water) in PD mice might be due to stomach-brain interaction via release of gastric hormone, ghrelin. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H2-induced ghrelin more precisely. To confirm the contribution of ghrelin in H2 water-drinking PD model mice, ghrelin-knock out (KO) mice were used...
May 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461749/treatment-resistant-lennox-gastaut-syndrome-therapeutic-trends-challenges-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Adam P Ostendorf, Yu-Tze Ng
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a severe, childhood-onset electroclinical syndrome comprised of multiple seizure types, intellectual and behavioral disturbances and characteristic findings on electroencephalogram of slow spike and wave complexes and paroxysmal fast frequency activity. Profound morbidity often accompanies a common and severe seizure type, the drop attack. Seizures often remain refractory, or initial treatment efficacy fades. Few individuals are seizure free despite the development of multiple generations of antiseizure medications over decades and high-level evidence on several choices...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#13
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440954/heart-rate-variability-indices-as-predictors-of-the-response-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#14
Hongyun Liu, Zhao Yang, Lei Huang, Wei Qu, Hongwei Hao, Luming Li
OBJECTIVE: To assess heart-rate variability (HRV) measures of interictal electrocardiography (ECG) for drug-resistant epilepsy and to relate the findings to the outcome of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment. METHODS: Time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear analyses were used to analyze preoperative HRV measures in 32 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who had received VNS implants at the same hospital and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects...
April 25, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#15
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424953/treatment-update-of-chronic-migraine
#16
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Cho, Tae-Jin Song, Min Kyung Chu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although chronic migraine (CM) is a common disorder that severely impacts patient functioning and quality of life, it is usually underdiagnosed, and treatment responses often remain poor even after diagnosis. In addition, effective treatment options are limited due to the rarity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with CM. In the present review, we discuss updated pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and neurostimulation treatment options for CM...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421634/vagus-nerve-stimulation-a-new-promising-therapeutic-tool-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), that is Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, affects about 1.5 million persons in the USA and 2.2 million in Europe. The pathophysiology of IBD involves immunological, genetic and environmental factors. The treatment is medico-surgical but suspensive. Anti-TNFα agents have revolutionized the treatment of IBD but have side effects. In addition, a non-negligible percentage of patients with IBD stop or take episodically their treatment. Consequently, a nondrug therapy targeting TNFα through a physiological pathway, devoid of major side effects and with a good cost-effectiveness ratio, would be of interest...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407526/the-impact-of-antidepressants-on-seizure-frequency-and-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-of-patients-with-epilepsy-is-it-worth-investigating
#18
Ramses Ribot, Bichun Ouyang, Andres M Kanner
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWE) remain under-recognized and under-treated, despite being the most common psychiatric co-morbidities. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are considered first-line treatment for primary depression and anxiety disorders. We performed this study to investigate if SSRIs and SNRIs could affect the seizure frequency of PWE and to assess whether such effect is independent of the response of the mood and anxiety disorders to these drugs...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400500/differential-hemodynamic-and-respiratory-responses-to-right-and-left-cervical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-rats
#19
Harald M Stauss
Neuromodulation through vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently explored for a variety of clinical conditions. However, there are no established VNS parameters for animal models of human diseases, such as hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess hemodynamic and respiratory responses to right- or left-sided cervical VNS in a hypertensive rat model. Anesthetized stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats were instrumented for arterial blood pressure and heart rate monitoring and left- or right-sided VNS Cervical VNS was applied through bipolar coil electrodes...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395952/a-novel-methodology-for-assessing-laryngeal-and-vagus-nerve-integrity-in-patients-under-general-anesthesia
#20
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Oscar R Tapia, Sedat Ulkatan, Vedran Deletis
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel methodology for intraoperative neuro-monitoring of laryngeal and vagus nerves by utilizing the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). METHODS: Case series of 15 patients undergoing thyroid and cervical spine surgeries under total intravenous general anesthesia. Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated to elicit a LAR using endotracheal tube based electrodes. Contralateral R1 (cR1) and R2 (cR2) responses were recorded using the endotracheal tube electrode contralateral to the simulating electrode...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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