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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737621/baroreflex-activation-therapy-a-new-approach-to-the-management-of-advanced-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#1
Edoardo Gronda, Darrel Francis, Faiez Zannad, Christian Hamm, Josep Brugada, Emilio Vanoli
: Chronic heart failure is a common clinical condition characterized by persistent excessive sympathetic nervous system activation. The derangement of the sympathetic activity has relevant implications for disease progression and patient survival. Aiming to positively impact patient outcome, autonomic nervous system modulatory therapies have been developed and tested in animal and clinical studies. As a general gross assumption, direct vagal stimulation and baroreflex activation are considered equivalent. This assumption does not take into account the fact that direct cervical vagal nerve stimulation involves activation of both afferent and efferent fibers innervating not only the heart, but the entire visceral system, leading to undesired responses to and from this compartment...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#2
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707286/intragastric-balloon-treatment-for-obesity-review-of-recent-studies
#3
REVIEW
Chinara M Tate, Allan Geliebter
INTRODUCTION: The FDA recently approved three intragastric balloon (IGB) devices, ReShape, ORBERA™, and Obalon for treatment of obesity. Given the high cost, complication risk, and invasiveness of bariatric surgery, IGB treatment may present a safer and lower cost option for weight reduction. IGBs are generally placed in the stomach endoscopically for up to 6 months to reduce gastric capacity, enhance feelings of fullness, and induce weight loss. The mechanism of action likely involves stimulation of gastric mechanoreceptors triggering short-acting vagal signals to brain regions implicated in satiety...
July 13, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705925/management-of-hiccups-in-palliative-care-patients
#4
REVIEW
Yong Suk Jeon, Alison Mary Kearney, Peter Graham Baker
Persistent hiccups are a frustrating experience for palliative care patients, and can have a profound impact on their quality of life. This article provides an evidence-based approach overview of the causes and treatment of this not infrequently debilitating condition for such patients, with a management algorithm. In situations where no readily reversible cause is identified, or where simple physical manoeuvres, such as breath holding have failed, a systematic approach is required. Hiccups can be broadly divided into central and peripheral types...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694158/implication-of-the-vagus-nerve-in-breathing-pattern-during-sequential-swallowing-in-rats
#5
Yacine Ouahchi, Celia Duclos, Jean Paul Marie, Eric Verin
The ventilatory pattern during sequential swallowing is influenced by the vagal activity. As the vagus nerve is paired and mixed, we aimed (1) to determine if vagal implication in swallowing and breathing coordination is symmetric. (2) to study the importance of vagal afferences in swallowing and breathing coordination. Sixty two Wistar rats (7-11weeks, 260-400g) were studied by barometric plethysmography. In the first part of the study, we determined the effects of a right cervical vagotomy and the effects of a left cervical vagotomy on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (14 rats with right vagotomy, 14 rats with left vagotomy and 14 rats with sham surgery)...
July 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#6
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690686/vagus-nerve-stimulation-as-a-potential-adjuvant-to-behavioral-therapy-for-autism-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Crystal T Engineer, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard
BACKGROUND: Many children with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders undergo expensive, time-consuming behavioral interventions that often yield only modest improvements. The development of adjunctive interventions that can increase the benefit of rehabilitation therapies is essential in order to improve the lives of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. MAIN TEXT: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA approved therapy that is safe and effective in reducing seizure frequency and duration in individuals with epilepsy...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684460/abdominal-surgery-induced-gastric-ileus-and-activation-of-m1-like-macrophages-in-the-gastric-myenteric-plexus-prevention-by-central-vagal-activation-in-rats
#8
Pu-Qing Yuan, Yvette Taché
Inflammation plays a role in abdominal surgery (AS)-induced intestinal ileus that is alleviated by electrical vagal stimulation. The stable thyrotropin-releasing hormone agonist, RX77368 injected intracisternally (ic) activates dorsal motor nucleus neurons and gastric vagal efferent discharges. We investigated the gastric inflammation induced by AS and the modulation by ic RX-77368 in rats. RX77368 (50 ng/rat) or saline was injected ic followed, 1 h later, by laparotomy and small intestinal/cecal manipulation...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679109/investigation-of-vagal-afferent-functioning-using-the-heartbeat-event-related-potential
#9
Christina Huang, R N Gevirtz, Julie Onton, Jose R Criado
Although there has been much support for HRV Biofeedback as an effective intervention for various disorders, there is a lack of comprehension of the underlying mechanisms. The predominant theories of increased vagal efferents and baroreflex gain are insufficient in explaining the frequent observations that HRV Biofeedback impacts changes in constructs beyond ANS mediation, such as emotion regulation, attentional control, and self-regulatory reserve. It has been suspected that vagal afferent functioning may be the underlying mechanism, but little research has explored this...
July 2, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663046/long-term-vagal-stimulation-for-heart-failure-eighteen-month-results-from-the-neural-cardiac-therapy-for-heart-failure-nectar-hf-trial
#10
Gaetano M De Ferrari, Craig Stolen, Anton E Tuinenburg, D Jay Wright, Josep Brugada, Christian Butter, Helmut Klein, Petr Neuzil, Cornelis Botman, Maria Angeles Castel, Antonio D'Onofrio, Gert J de Borst, Scott Solomon, Kenneth M Stein, Bernd Schubert, Kevin Stalsberg, Nicholas Wold, Stephen Ruble, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: The NECTAR-HF study evaluated safety and feasibility of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of heart failure patients. The first six-month randomized phase of the study did not show improvement in left ventricular remodelling in response to VNS. This study reports the 18-month results and provides novel findings aiming to understand the lack of efficacy of VNS, including a new technique assessing the effects of VNS. METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomized 2:1 to active or inactive VNS for 6months, thereafter VNS was activated for all patients...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659824/hypersensitivity-of-vagal-pulmonary-afferents-induced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-mice
#11
Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Lu-Yuan Lee
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Inhalation of TNFα also induces airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy human subjects, and the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study reported that TNFα caused airway inflammation and a sustained elevation of pulmonary chemoreflex responses in mice, suggesting a possible involvement of heightened sensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers. To investigate this possibility, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a pretreatment with TNFα on the sensitivity of vagal pulmonary afferents in anesthetized mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648089/evidence-of-activation-of-vagal-afferents-by-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-an-electrophysiological-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#12
Romain Nonis, Kevin D'Ostilio, Jean Schoenen, Delphine Magis
Background Benefits of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) devices have been shown in episodic cluster headache and preliminarily suggested in migraine, but direct evidence of vagus nerve activation using such devices is lacking. Vagal somatosensory evoked potentials (vSEPs) associated with vagal afferent activation have been reported for invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) and non-invasive auricular vagal stimulation. Here, we aimed to show and characterise vSEPs for cervical nVNS. Methods vSEPs were recorded for 12 healthy volunteers who received nVNS over the cervical vagus nerve, bipolar electrode/DS7A stimulation over the inner tragus, and nVNS over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#13
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620379/neuroimmune-interactions-in-schizophrenia-focus-on-vagus-nerve-stimulation-and-activation-of-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#14
REVIEW
Fabiana Maria das Graças Corsi-Zuelli, Fernanda Brognara, Gustavo Fernando da Silva Quirino, Carlos Hiroji Hiroki, Rafael Sobrano Fais, Cristina Marta Del-Ben, Luis Ulloa, Helio Cesar Salgado, Alexandre Kanashiro, Camila Marcelino Loureiro
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating mental disorders and is aggravated by the lack of efficacious treatment. Although its etiology is unclear, epidemiological studies indicate that infection and inflammation during development induces behavioral, morphological, neurochemical, and cognitive impairments, increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. The inflammatory hypothesis of schizophrenia is also supported by clinical studies demonstrating systemic inflammation and microglia activation in schizophrenic patients...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619068/late-onset-jaw-and-teeth-pain-mimicking-trigeminal-neuralgia-associated-with-chronic-vagal-nerve-stimulation-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Gabriela Timarova, Andrej Šteňo
BACKGROUND: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for refractory epilepsy is well established. Trigeminal neuralgia itself is a common disease in adults, and thus, late-onset pain in the trigeminal region under VNS, which is extremely rare, may not be recognized as caused by VNS. CASE PRESENTATION: Two patients with drug-resistant symptomatic epilepsy treated with chronic VNS experienced stimulation-related pain in the lower and upper jaw and teeth on the side of stimulation...
June 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615966/acute-physiological-and-electrical-accentuation-of-vagal-tone-has-no-effect-on-pain-or-gastrointestinal-motility-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#16
Jacob Juel, Christina Brock, Søren S Olesen, Adnan Madzak, Adam D Farmer, Qasim Aziz, Jens B Frøkjær, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
BACKGROUND: The effective management of pain in chronic pancreatitis (CP) remains a therapeutic challenge. Analgesic drugs, such as opioids, and the underlying pathology can impair gut function. The autonomic nervous system influences hormone secretion and gut motility. In healthy volunteers, electrical (using noninvasive transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation [t-VNS]) and physiological (using deep slow breathing [DSB]) modulation of parasympathetic tone results in pain attenuation and enhanced gut motility...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606851/cardiorespiratory-action-of-opioid-tachykinin-agonist-peptide-hybrid-in-anaesthetized-rats-transduction-pathways
#17
Piotr Wojciechowski, Małgorzata Szereda-Przestaszewska, Andrzej Wojciech Lipkowski
AWL3106 composed of opioid (dermorphin) and tachykinin (substance P7-11) pharmacophores is a new compound with high analgesic potency and markedly reduced ability to induce tolerance and dependence. The present study aimed to determine the respiratory and cardiovascular responses evoked by this peptide in urethane-chloralose anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in the presence or absence of vagal connection. Intravenous injection of AWL3106 at a dose of 0.3μmol/kg in intact rats resulted in apnoea lasting 5...
June 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585221/vagal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-depression
#18
REVIEW
Flavia R Carreno, Alan Frazer
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent. Although standards antidepressants are more effective than placebo, up to 35% of patients do not respond to 4 or more conventional treatments and are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Considerable effort has been devoted to trying to find effective treatments for TRD. This review focuses on vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), approved for TRD in 2005 by the Food and Drugs Administration. Stimulation is carried by bipolar electrodes on the left cervical vagus nerve, which are attached to an implanted stimulator generator...
July 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577109/phosgene-induced-acute-lung-injury-ali-differences-from-chlorine-induced-ali-and-attempts-to-translate-toxicology-to-clinical-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Wenli Li, Juergen Pauluhn
BACKGROUND: Phosgene (carbonyl dichloride) gas is an indispensable chemical inter-mediate used in numerous industrial processes. There is no clear consensus as to its time- and inhaled-dose-dependent etiopathologies and associated preventive or therapeutic treatment strategies. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary function was examined in rats exposed by inhalation to the alveolar irritant phosgene or to the airway irritant chlorine during and following exposure. Terminal measurements focused on hematology, protein extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and increased lung weight...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551320/effects-of-chronic-abdominal-vagal-stimulation-of-small-diameter-neurons-on-brain-metabolism-and-food-intake
#20
Charles-Henri Malbert, Eric Bobillier, Chloé Picq, Jean-Louis Divoux, David Guiraud, Christine Henry
BACKGROUND: Abdominal bilateral vagal stimulation reduces food intake in animals. However, the classical square wave, mA range current generator is poorly effective to evoke action potentials on A∂ and C neurons that represent the majority of vagal neurons at the abdominal level. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: METHODS: The current thresholds for pulsons (S2 & S3) and millisecond pulses (S1) required to trigger action potentials were calculated in 5 anaesthetized pigs using single fibre recording...
July 2017: Brain Stimulation
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