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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677189/progress-in-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-human-cystic-and-alveolar-echinococcosis-compounds-and-therapeutic-targets
#1
Mar Siles-Lucas, Adriano Casulli, Roberto Cirilli, David Carmena
Human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are helmintic zoonotic diseases caused by infections with the larval stages of the cestode parasites Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. Both diseases are progressive and chronic, and often fatal if left unattended for E. multilocularis. As a treatment approach, chemotherapy against these orphan and neglected diseases has been available for more than 40 years. However, drug options were limited to the benzimidazoles albendazole and mebendazole, the only chemical compounds currently licensed for treatment in humans...
April 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676512/occupational-functional-plasticity-revealed-by-brain-entropy-a-resting-state-fmri-study-of-seafarers
#2
Nizhuan Wang, Huijun Wu, Min Xu, Yang Yang, Chunqi Chang, Weiming Zeng, Hongjie Yan
Recently, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been increasingly used to assess brain function. Brain entropy is an effective model for evaluating the alteration of brain complexity. Specifically, the sample entropy (SampEn) provides a feasible solution for revealing the brain's complexity. Occupation is one key factor affecting the brain's activity, but the neuropsychological mechanisms are still unclear. Thus, in this article, based on fMRI and a brain entropy model, we explored the functional complexity changes engendered by occupation factors, taking the seafarer as an example...
April 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675987/the-usage-of-procalcitonin-in-finland
#3
B Tujula, M Kokki, K Pulkki, J Romppanen, S Sjövall, H Tuominen, H Kokki
BACKGROUND: We have surveyed the use of procalcitonin (PCT) in Finland with a specific emphasis on intensive care unit (ICU) patients. METHODS: The PCT use was surveyed from all 11 laboratories providing services for all 15 secondary and all five tertiary care hospitals in Finland. The laboratories reported the PCT use of each hospital in 2014 and 2015. Four hospitals were analysed for the first 100 adult ICU patients with PCT measurements in 2015. The indication for PCT measurement and whether PCT values affected antibiotic treatment were collected from patient records...
April 19, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674422/a-perspective-on-the-evolving-story-of-psma-biology-and-psma-based-imaging-and-endoradiotherapeutic-strategies
#4
Denise S O'Keefe, Dean J Bacich, Steve S Huang, Warren D Heston
We will review the evolution of knowledge of the biology of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) and how the translation to therapy has also developed. The usual key to discovery is a realistic model for experimentation and hypothesis testing. This is especially true for the prostate where the human prostate differs significantly from that of other often used species for research models. We will emphasize the genetic characterization of PSMA, The nature of the PSMA protein and its role as a carboxypeptidase, with differing important substrates and products in different tissues...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673986/rapid-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-test-developed-using-paper-chromatography-chip-and-azobenzene-modified-oligonucleotides
#5
Sotaro Sano, Shigehiko Miyamoto, Seiji Kawamoto
Although nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) is widely used for pathogen detection, rapid NAT systems that do not require special and expensive instruments must be developed in order to enable point of care (POC)-NATs, which contribute to early initiation of treatment. As a POC-NAT system, Kaneka DNA chromatography chip (KDCC), developed using DNA tag-bound primer through modified substance, was shown to be suitable for POC testing, due to the rapid detection time, simple procedures, and low manufacturing costs...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673166/revisiting-strephosymbolie-the-connection-between-interhemispheric-transfer-and-developmental-dyslexia
#6
Roberta Daini, Paola De Fabritiis, Chiara Ginocchio, Carlo Lenti, Cristina Michela Lentini, Donatella Marzorati, Maria Luisa Lorusso
The hypothesis that an atypical hemispheric specialization is associated to developmental dyslexia (DD) is receiving renewed interest, lending some support to Orton’s theory. In this article, we investigated whether interhemispheric transfer processes (IHT) are likely to be involved in developmental dyslexia. In this study, we tested 13 children with developmental dyslexia and 13 matched controls (aged 8 to 13 years) in four different tasks. In a tactile transfer task, the dyslexic children’s performance was less accurate...
April 17, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672665/evolutionary-and-functional-potential-of-ploidy-increase-within-individual-plants-somatic-ploidy-mapping-of-the-complex-labellum-of-sexually-deceptive-bee-orchids
#7
Richard M Bateman, Jessica J Guy, Paula J Rudall, Ilia J Leitch, Jaume Pellicer, Andrew R Leitch
Background and Aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals, relating size of nucleus to cell micromorphology and (more speculatively) to function. Methods: We compared the labella (specialized pollinator-attracting petals) of two European orchid genera: Dactylorhiza has a known predisposition to organismal polyploidy, whereas Ophrys exhibits exceptionally complex epidermal patterning that aids pseudocopulatory pollination...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671825/visual-non-instrumental-on-site-detection-of-fumonisin-b%C3%A2-b%C3%A2-and-b%C3%A2-in-cereal-samples-using-a-clean-up-combined-with-gel-based-immunoaffinity-test-column-assay
#8
Wei Sheng, Hesen Wu, Weihong Ji, Zhi Li, Fangyu Chu, Shuo Wang
A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in cereal samples for spot tests without the need for special instruments. The developed IATC assay had equivalent recognition capability for fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), fumonisin B₂ (FB₂), or fumonisin B₃ (FB₃), and exhibited no cross-reactivity with aflatoxin B₁, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, or the T-2 toxin. The sample pretreatment was accomplished more rapidly and with greater ease, the entire assay procedure was completed in approximately 10 min, including sample pretreatment and testing...
April 19, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670859/differences-in-virulence-between-legionella-pneumophila-isolates-from-human-and-non-human-sources-determined-in-galleria-mellonella-infection-model
#9
Patrícia S Sousa, Inês N Silva, Leonilde M Moreira, António Veríssimo, Joana Costa
Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous bacterium in freshwater environments and in many man-made water systems capable of inducing pneumonia in humans. Despite its ubiquitous character most studies on L. pneumophila virulence focused on clinical strains and isolates from man-made environments, so little is known about the nature and extent of virulence variation in strains isolated from natural environments. It has been established that clinical isolates are less diverse than man-made and natural environmental strains, suggesting that only a subset of environmental isolates is specially adapted to infect humans...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670329/preparation-and-in-vitro-in-vivo-evaluation-of-plga-microspheres-containing-norquetiapine-for-long-acting-injection
#10
Chun-Woong Park, Hyo-Jung Lee, Dong-Won Oh, Ji-Hyun Kang, Chang-Soo Han, Dong-Wook Kim
Background: Norquetiapine ( N -desalkyl quetiapine, NQ) is an active metabolite of quetiapine with stable pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties. However, its short half-life is a drawback for clinical applications, and long-acting formulations are required. Purpose: The objectives of this study were to prepare improved entrapment efficiency NQ freebase microspheres by the solvent evaporation method with poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) as a release modulator and to evaluate their physicochemical and in vitro/in vivo release properties...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669313/role-of-fna-and-special-stains-in-rapid-cytopathological-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis
#11
Ridhi Sood, Ruchita Tyagi, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Gursheen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Akashdeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Nocardia, a gram-positive aerobic bacillus of the Actinomycetales family, is a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary nocardiosis are nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, pneumocystis, staphylococcal or fungal infections, or as malignancy. Aspiration cytology with special stains is a quick and effective approach for accurate diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 7 cases of pulmonary nocardiosis, admitted to the pathology department in a tertiary-care hospital in Punjab...
April 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668455/lateral-cephalometric-study-in-adult-bulgarians-with-normal-occlusion
#12
Katya G Todorova-Plachiyska, Mariya G Stoilova-Todorova
Orthodontic treatment is effective when the facial and cephalometric characteristics of the ethnic background of patients are considered because the normal measurements for one group are not necessarily normal for another group. It is important to develop individual standards for each population. Different racial groups must be treated according to their own characteristics. The aim of this study was to establish a cephalometric standard of the cranial bases and jaw bases for Bulgarian population and to find the differences between males and females...
March 1, 2018: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668138/-molecular-typing-of-leishmania-leishmania-amazonensis-and-species-of-the-subgenus-viannia-associated-with-cutaneous-and-mucosal-leishmaniasis-in-colombia-a-concordance-study
#13
Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho, Carolina Camargo, Yira Díaz-Toro, Marcela Parra-Muñoz
INTRODUCTION: Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) is the reference standard for the characterization of Leishmania species. The test is restricted to specialized laboratories due to its technical complexity, cost, and time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is used to identify Leishmania species. OBJECTIVE: To establish the concordance between the two tests as identifying methods for circulating species in Colombia...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668078/adherence-and-immune-response-to-revaccination-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-at-a-pediatric-onco-hematology-reference-center
#14
Fernanda Gouveia-Alves, Roseane Gouveia, Valéria C Ginani, Adriana Seber, Danielle A Kuramoto, Gabriel F A Murad, Fernanda G Spina, Antonio S Petrilli, Victor G Zecchin, Celso Granato, Fabianne Carlesse, M Isabel de Moraes-Pinto
BACKGROUND: Revaccination after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is necessary to compensate for the loss of immunological memory. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to revaccination schedule and the humoral immune response to different vaccine antigens in HSCT pediatric and young adult patients. METHODS: Patients submitted to HSCT for over 3 years were recruited. After written informed consent, a questionnaire was filled in, the vaccination card was analyzed, a blood sample was collected and tested by ELISA for diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, measles, rubella and varicella antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667603/atomic-clocks-for-geodesy
#15
Tanja E Mehlstäubler, Gesine Grosche, Christian Lisdat, Piet O Schmidt, Heiner Denker
We review experimental progress on optical atomic clocks and frequency transfer, and consider the prospects of using these technologies for geodetic measurements. Today, optical atomic frequency standards have reached relative frequency inaccuracies below 10-17 , opening new fields of fundamental and applied research. The dependence of atomic frequencies on the gravitational potential makes atomic clocks ideal candidates for the search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein's general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new gravity field sensors...
April 18, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667547/new-markers-for-predicting-fertility-of-the-male-gametes-in-the-post-genomic-age
#16
Savina Dipresa, Luca De Toni, Carlo Foresta, Andrea Garolla
A number of test have been proposed to assess male fertility potential, ranging from routine testing by light microscopic method for evaluating semen samples, to screening test for DNA integrity aimed to look at sperm chromatin abnormalities. Spermatozoa are an extremely differentiated cell, they have critical functions for embryo development and heredity, in addiction to delivering a haploid paternal genome to the oocyte. Towards this goal certain requirements must always be met. The ability of spermatozoa to perform its reproductive function taking place in the spermatogenesis, a highly specialized process depending on multiple factors with effect on male fertility...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667315/shoulder-stiffness-back-pain-and-wrist-pain-are-older-primiparas-more-vulnerable
#17
Hiroko Iwata, Emi Mori, Kunie Maehara, Akiko Sakajo, Kyoko Aoki, Koji Tamakoshi
AIM: To describe changes in prevalence of shoulder stiffness, back pain, and wrist pain during the first 6 months postpartum, and to examine the association of these symptoms with maternal age and parity. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 13 Japanese hospitals between 2012 and 2013. A total of 2709 (response rate 71.9%) women provided longitudinal data, using self-report questionnaires at 5 time points: during their hospital stay, and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months postpartum...
April 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667122/the-gene-editing-of-super-ego
#18
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666929/development-of-physical-fitness-in-austrian-primary-school-children-a-longitudinal-study-among-overweight-and-non-overweight-children-over-2-5-years
#19
Gerhard Ruedl, Dominik Franz, Anika Frühauf, Martin Kopp, Martin Niedermeier, Clemens Drenowatz, Klaus Greier
BACKGROUND: Physical activity and physical fitness play an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence and reduce the risk of becoming overweight or obese in adulthood. AIM: To evaluate the development of physical fitness in overweight and non-overweight primary school children from the first to third grades. METHODS: Using a longitudinal study design, body height and weight as well as physical fitness of primary school children from Tyrol, Austria were measured five times during a period of 2...
April 17, 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666586/ecological-and-phylogenetic-relationships-shape-the-peripheral-olfactory-systems-of-highly-specialized-gall-midges-cecidomiiydae
#20
Béla P Molnár, Tina Boddum, Sharon R Hill, Bill S Hansson, Ylva Hillbur, Göran Birgersson
Insects use sensitive olfactory systems to detect relevant host volatiles and avoid unsuitable hosts in a complex environmental odor landscape. Insects with short lifespans, such as gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), are under strong selection pressure to detect and locate suitable hosts for their offspring in a short period of time. Ephemeral gall midges constitute excellent models for investigating the role of olfaction in host choice, host shift, and speciation. Midges mate near their site of emergence and females migrate in order to locate hosts for oviposition, thus females are expected to be more responsive to olfactory cues emitted by the host compared to males...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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