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Jiajie Yu, Wenwen Chen, Shidong Chen, Pengli Jia, Guanyue Su, Youping Li, Xin Sun
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing surgical intervention faced challenges due to complexities of surgery and made it more difficult for surgeons and methodologists than pharmaceutical providers to build a well-design, conduct RCT. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to address the methodological challenges of RCTs on surgical intervention and offer potential solutions. METHODS: We searched PubMed in order to summarize 2-arm parallel randomized trials for surgical interventions published in 2013...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Christi M Barbee, Jessica A James, Jin Hyung Park, Emily M Smith, Carole E Johnson, Shari Clifton, Jeffrey L Danhauer
Standard audiometric evaluations are not sensitive enough to identify hidden hearing loss (HHL) and/or cochlear synaptopathy (CS). Patients with either of these conditions frequently present with difficulty understanding speech in noise or other complaints such as tinnitus. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify articles in peer-reviewed journals that assessed the sensitivity of audiologic measures for detecting HHL and/or CS, and which showed potential for use in a clinical test battery for these disorders...
May 2018: Seminars in Hearing
Geoffrey Brookshire, Daniel Casasanto
Different regions of the human cerebral cortex are specialized for different emotions, but the principles underlying this specialization have remained unknown. According to the sword and shield hypothesis , hemispheric specialization for affective motivation, a basic dimension of human emotion, varies across individuals according to the way they use their hands to perform approach- and avoidance-related actions. In a test of this hypothesis, here we measured approach motivation before and after five sessions of transcranial direct current stimulation to increase excitation in the left or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in healthy adults whose handedness ranged from strongly left-handed to strongly right-handed...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Manuel Hernández Salazar, Antonio Zarate Méndez, Oscar Meneses Luna, Lucía Ledesma Torres, Ramón Paniagua Sierra, Mary Carmen Sánchez Moreno, Juan Leonardo Serrato Avila
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The irreducible neuroaggressive disorder (IND) is a well-described entity known to be associated with impulsive and aggressive behavior. While various studies have assessed available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment regimens, patients with IND continue to pose a major threat to themselves and society. While targeted stereotactic therapy for IND has gained traction in recent years, there is a paucity of information describing comparative effectiveness of different validated anatomic regions...
June 15, 2018: Neurocirugía
Paola Scognamiglio, Giacomina Chiaradia, Marta Giovanetti, Emidio Albertini, Antonella Camposeragna, Massimo Farinella, Daniela Lorenzetti, Massimo Oldrini, Laura Rancilio, Anna Caraglia, Francesco Paolo Maraglino, Giuseppe Ippolito, Enrico Girardi
BACKGROUND: Globally the access to HIV testing has greatly increased over the past 30 years. Nonetheless, a high proportion of people living with HIV remains undiagnosed, even in resource rich countries. To increase the proportion of people aware of their HIV serostatus and their access to medical care, several strategies have been proposed including HIV rapid test programs offered outside health facilities. The aim of this project was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the HIV rapid testing offered in community and outreach settings in Italy...
June 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ángel Serrano-Aroca, César David Vera-Donoso, Victoria Moreno-Manzano
Current clinical strategies for bladder reconstruction or substitution are associated to serious problems. Therefore, new alternative approaches are becoming more and more necessary. The purpose of this work is to review the state of the art of the current bioengineering advances and obstacles reported in bladder regeneration. Tissue bladder engineering requires an ideal engineered bladder scaffold composed of a biocompatible material suitable to sustain the mechanical forces necessary for bladder filling and emptying...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Per Hartvig Honoré, Anna Basnet, Laila Eljaja, Pernille Kristensen, Lene Munkholm Andersen, Signe Neustrup, Pia Møllgaard, Ole J Bjerrum
Introduction Animal disease models are predictive for signs seen in disease. They may rarely mimic all signs in a specific disease in humans with respect to etiology, cause or development. Several models have been developed for different pain states and the alteration of behavior has been interpreted as a response to external stimulus or expression of pain or discomfort. Considerable attention must be paid not to interpret other effects such as somnolence or motor impairment as a pain response and similarly not to misinterpret the response of analgesics...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
S Zoëga, S Gunnarsdóttir, D B Gordon
Aims To gain an understanding of the concept of quality pain management (QPM) in the hospital setting, and to define the concept. Methods A concept evaluation based on the method by Morse and colleagues was done. The literature was searched according to selected key words in five databases. Over 5000 articles were found but data were limited to 37 articles directly related to both quality and pain management in adults in the hospital setting, and published in peer-reviewed journals or by an official organization...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Jan Borre Johansen, Cecilie Roe, Eva Bakke, Anne Marit Mengshoel, Nada Andelic
Background and aim The Norwegian version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI) has been widely used in previous studies. To our knowledge, the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the NDI have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the Norwegian version of the NDI in neck pain patients seen in a specialized outpatient clinic. Methods This study included patients referred to the neck and back outpatient clinic at Oslo University Hospital...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Ahmad Farajzadah Sheikh, Sajad Aslani, Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, Mansour Amin, Hamed Goodarzi, Nabi Jomehzadeh, Reza Ranjbar, Mina Moradzadeh, Samireh Azarpira, Mohammad Moradi, Mohamad Hashemzadeh
Different E.coli phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) through possess four functional groups; (I) adhesins , (II) microcins , (III) toxins , and (IV) capsule can be caused urinary tract infections. Special phylogenetic group with high virulence content become a worldwide health concern. Resistance to antimicrobial agents increasingly complicates the management of extraintestinal infections due to E.coli , which are a major source of illness, death, and increased healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to determination of virulence content and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of different Uropathogenic E...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Vincenzo Crupi, Jonathan D Nelson, Björn Meder, Gustavo Cevolani, Katya Tentori
Searching for information is critical in many situations. In medicine, for instance, careful choice of a diagnostic test can help narrow down the range of plausible diseases that the patient might have. In a probabilistic framework, test selection is often modeled by assuming that people's goal is to reduce uncertainty about possible states of the world. In cognitive science, psychology, and medical decision making, Shannon entropy is the most prominent and most widely used model to formalize probabilistic uncertainty and the reduction thereof...
June 17, 2018: Cognitive Science
S Vela, Neira Sainz, María J Moreno-Aliaga, M Solas, María J Ramirez
A potential role of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) has been suggested in memory, learning, and cognitive processes. Therefore, ω-3 PUFAs might be a promising treatment option, albeit controversial, for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among the different mechanisms that have been proposed as responsible for the beneficial effects of ω-3 PUFAs, inhibition of JNK stands as a particularly interesting candidate. In the present work, it has been studied whether the administration of two different PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and a DHA-derived specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator (MaR1) is able to reverse cognitive deficits in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse model of sporadic AD...
June 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Robert Edgar
Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene is widely used to survey microbial communities. Specialized 16S rRNA databases have been developed to support this approach including Greengenes, RDP and SILVA. Most taxonomy annotations in these databases are predictions from sequence rather than authoritative assignments based on studies of type strains or isolates. In this work, I investigated the taxonomy annotations and guide trees provided by these databases. Using a blinded test, I estimated that the annotation error rate of the RDP database is ∼10%...
2018: PeerJ
Katya Vangelova, Irina Dimitrova, Bistra Tzenova
OBJECTIVES: The work ability of aging teachers is of special interest because of high risk of stress. The aim of the study was to follow the work ability of aging teachers and compare it with that of aging non-teacher professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 424 teachers of age ≤ 44 years old (N = 140) and ≥ 45 years old (N = 284), with about 10% male teachers in both age groups, matched by sex and age with non-teacher professionals. Work ability was assessed by means of the Work Ability Index (WAI)...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
Ozgur Ozkaya, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Hakan As, Emre Vardarli
Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180...
April 7, 2018: Sports
Sorin Siegler, Tobias Konow, Claudio Belvedere, Andrea Ensini, Rewati Kulkarni, Alberto Leardini
Joint surface interaction and ligament constraints determine the kinematic characteristics of the ankle and subtalar joints. Joint surface interaction is characterized by joint contact mechanics and by relative joint surface position potentially characterized by distance mapping. While ankle contact mechanics was investigated, limited information is available on joint distance mapping and its changes during motion. The purpose of this study was to use image-based distance mapping to quantify this interaction at the ankle and subtalar joints during tri-planar rotations of the ankle complex...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Suk Ling Wee, Shwu Bing Tan, Andreas Jürgens
The plants of the enigmatic genus Rafflesia are well known for their gigantic flowers and their floral features such as pungent floral scent and vivid dark color, which mimics the food/brood sites of carrion. However, information on the pollination biology of this plant group remains limited and mostly anecdotal. In the present paper, we studied the floral volatiles of R. cantleyi Solms-Laubach and their role in pollinator attraction. To achieve these aims, the floral scent was collected in situ in the field using a dynamic headspace method followed by chemical analysis via GC-MS...
June 12, 2018: Phytochemistry
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, T Gagua, D Gagua
The isolated hypothyroxinemia of pregnancy (IHP) has gained specific attention in the specialized literature during the recent years as the possible factor impeding the intellectual development of fetus and increasing the risk of complications related with pregnancy, delivery and perinatal period. Aim of the study was to define the importance of isolated hypothyroxinemia in the development of obstetric and somatic pathologies in outpatient population of pregnant females. The study of prospective design was performed at the base of "David Gagua Clinic" Ltd...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
Patrick J Schuler
In the head and neck region, great potential is seen in robot-assisted surgery (RAS). Mainly in cancer surgery, the use of robotic systems seems to be of interest. Until today, two robotic systems (DaVinci® und FLEX®) have gained approval for clinical use in the head and neck region, and multiple other systems are currently in pre-clinical testing. Although, certain groups of patients may benefit from RAS, no unbiased randomized clinical studies are available. Until today, it was not possible to satisfactorily prove any advantage of RAS as compared to standard procedures...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
S J Moug, N Henderson, C N Tiernan, J Bisset, E Ferguson, D Harji, C Maxwell-Armstrong, E MacDermid, A G Acheson, R J C Steele, N S Fearnhead
AIM: Colorectal surgeons regularly make the decision to anastomose, defunction or form an end colostomy when performing rectal surgery. This study aimed to define personality traits of colorectal surgeons and explore any influence of such traits on the decision to perform a rectal anastomosis. METHOD: 50 attendees of The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland 2016 conference participated. After written consent, all underwent personality testing: alexithymia (inability to understand emotions); type of thinking process (intuitive versus rational) and personality traits (extraversion; agreeableness; openness; emotional stability; conscientiousness)...
June 14, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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