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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321330/glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored-anti-hiv-env-single-chain-variable-fragments-interfere-with-hiv-1-env-processing-and-viral-infectivity
#1
Anisha Misra, Emile Gleeson, Weiming Wang, Chaobaihui Ye, Paul Zhou, Jason T Kimata
In previous studies, we demonstrated that single-chain variable fragments (scFv) from anti-HIV Env monoclonal antibodies act as entry inhibitors when tethered to the surface of target cells by a glycosyl-phosphitidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Interestingly, even if a virus escapes inhibition at entry, its replication is ultimately controlled. We hypothesized that in addition to functioning as entry inhibitors, anti-HIV GPI-scFvs may also interact with Env in an infected cell, thereby interfering with infectivity of newly produced virions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315611/isolation-of-a-high-affinity-bet-v-1-specific-igg-derived-scfv-from-a-subject-vaccinated-with-hypoallergenic-bet-v-1-fragments
#2
Elisabeth Gadermaier, Katharina Marth, Christian Lupinek, Raffaela Campana, Gerhard Hofer, Katharina Blatt, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Uwe Roder, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Susanne Vrtala, Walter Keller, Peter Valent, Rudolf Valenta, Sabine Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives have been used in clinical immunotherapy studies and clinical efficacy seems to be related to the induction of blocking IgG antibodies recognizing the wild type allergens. However, so far no treatment-induced IgG antibodies have been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To clone, express and characterize IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with two hypoallergenic recombinant fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 in a non-allergic subject...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305748/production-of-human-single-chain-fragment-antibody-scfv-against-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-her-2-by-phage-display-technology
#3
Saeideh Foroumadi, Masoumeh Rajabibazl, Azam Rahimpour, Solmaz Shahidi, Walead Ebrahimizadeh, Maral Yarahmadi, Shirin Rajabi, Azam Daraei
Breast cancer with more than 1.7 million diagnoses per year has been known as one of the most prevalent cancers among women worldwide. Despite the availability of advanced treatment options, cancer progression and metastasis is observed in 20% of patients. Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) is considered as an important prognostic and diagnostic tumor marker for breast cancer. While HER-2 is expressed on the surface of normal cells, its overexpression occurs in 20-25% on breast cancer tumor cells...
January 5, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245980/an-anti-capn5-intracellular-antibody-acts-as-an-inhibitor-of-capn5-mediated-neuronal-degeneration
#4
Yan Wang, Xiao Zhang, Zongming Song, Feng Gu
CAPN5 has been linked to autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Activation of CAPN5 may increase proteolysis and degradation of a wide range of substrates to induce degeneration in the retina and the nerve system. Thus, we developed an inhibitory intracellular single chain variable fragment (scFv) against CAPN5 as a potential way to rescue degeneration in ADNIV disease or in neuronal degeneration. We report that overexpression CAPN5 increases the levels of the auto-inflammatory factors toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin 1 alpha (IL1alpha), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and activated caspase 3 in 661W photoreceptor-like cells and SHSY5Y neuronal-like cells...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241061/scfv-modified-graphene-coated-ide-arrays-for-label-free-screening-of-cardiovascular-disease-biomarkers-in-physiological-saline
#5
Lotta E Delle, Vivek Pachauri, Shikha Sharma, Olena Shaforost, Hui Ma, Mohammad Adabi, Rainer Lilischkis, Patrick Wagner, Ronald Thoelen, Norbert Klein, Richard O'Kennedy, Sven Ingebrandt
Fatty-acid binding proteins (FABP) and myeloperoxidases (MPO) are associated with many chronic conditions in humans and considered to be important biomarkers for diagnosis of cardiac diseases. Here we assemble a new electrical biosensor platform based on graphene-coated interdigitated electrode arrays (IDE-arrays) towards ultrafast, label-free screening of heart type-FABP and MPO. Arrays of nanoscale (nanoIDE) and microscale (microIDE) electrode-arrays were fabricated on wafer-scale by combining nanoimprint and photolithography processes...
December 7, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227825/engineering-of-single-chain-antibodies-for-solubility
#6
Yaghoub Safdari
In the current study, we introduce a method to design intrinsically soluble single chain antibodies (scFvs) that can be easily produced in bacterial expression systems in a soluble form. Summarily, CDR loops are grafted on framework regions derived from intrinsically soluble subclass 3 (VH3 and VL3) human germline sequences. Framework-donor sequences should carry CDR loops of interest (in terms of canonical classes) and contain special residues in their hydrophobic cores. Recombinant variable fragments resultant from CDR grafting are subjected to 3D modeling, mutated (if necessary), and superposed to parental variable domains...
December 8, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187855/cd4-binding-site-directed-cross-neutralizing-scfv-monoclonals-from-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-indian-children
#7
Sanjeev Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Lubina Khan, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Madhav Mohata, Mudit Agarwal, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Subrata Sinha, Kalpana Luthra
Progression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection in children is faster than adults. HIV-1 subtype C is responsible for more than 50% of the infections globally and more than 90% infections in India. To date, there is no effective vaccine against HIV-1. Recent animal studies and human Phase I trials showed promising results of the protective effect of anti-HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Interaction between CD4 binding site (CD4bs) on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and CD4 receptor on the host immune cells is the primary event leading to HIV-1 infection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182455/isolation-of-blood-brain-barrier-crossing-antibodies-from-a-phage-display-library-by-competitive-elution-and-their-ability-to-penetrate-the-central-nervous-system
#8
George Thom, Jon Hatcher, Arron Hearn, Judy Paterson, Natalia Rodrigo, Arthur Beljeana Ian Gurrell, Carl Webster
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a formidable obstacle for delivery of biologic therapeutics to central nervous system (CNS) targets. Whilst the BBB prevents passage of the vast majority of molecules, it also selectively transports a wide variety of molecules required to maintain brain homeostasis. Receptor-mediated transcytosis is one example of a macromolecule transport system that is employed by cells of the BBB to supply essential proteins to the brain and which can be utilized to deliver biologic payloads, such as antibodies, across the BBB...
November 28, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151956/strategies-for-bispecific-single-chain-antibody-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Shu-Juan Zhou, Jia Wei, Shu Su, Fang-Jun Chen, Yu-Dong Qiu, Bao-Rui Liu
Genetic engineering has resulted in more than 50 recombinant bispecific antibody formats over the past two decades. Bispecific scFv antibodies represent a successful and promising immunotherapy platform that retargets cytotoxic T cells to tumor cells, with one scFv directed to tumor-associated antigens and the other to T cells. Based on this antibody construct, strategies for both specific tumor targeting and T cell activation are reviewed here. Three distinct types of tumor antigens are considered to optimize specificity and safety in bispecific scFv based treatment: cancer-testis antigens, neo-antigens and virus-associated antigens...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119245/development-and-characterisation-of-a-novel-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-antibody
#10
Emma K Biggs, Lihuan Liang, Jacqueline Naylor, Shimona Madalli, Rachel Collier, Matthew P Coghlan, David J Baker, David C Hornigold, Peter Ravn, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion by binding to GLP-1 receptors (GLP1Rs) on pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 mimetics are used in the clinic for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but despite their therapeutic success, several clinical effects of GLP-1 remain unexplained at a mechanistic level, particularly in extrapancreatic tissues. The aim of this study was to generate and characterise a monoclonal antagonistic antibody for the GLP1R for use in vivo...
November 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118005/redirecting-t-cells-to-hematological-malignancies-with-bispecific-antibodies
#11
Mireya Paulina Velasquez, Challice L Bonifant, Stephen Gottschalk
There is a need to improve outcomes for patients with recurrent and/or refractory hematological malignancies. Immunotherapy holds the promise to meet this need since it does not rely on the cytotoxic mechanism of conventional therapies. Among different forms of immunotherapy, redirecting T cells to hematological malignancies with bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is an attractive strategy. BsAbs are an 'off-the-shelf' product that is easily scalable in contrast to adoptive T-cell therapies. Among these, the bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) blinatumomab has emerged as the most successful BsAb to date...
November 8, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116506/construction-of-chicken-antibody-libraries
#12
Jeanni Fehrsen, Susan Wemmer, Wouter van Wyngaardt
Recombinant antibody libraries based on chicken immunoglobulin genes are potentially valuable sources of phage displayed scFvs for use in veterinary diagnostics and research. The libraries described in this chapter are based on chicken variable heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes joined by a short flexible linker cloned in the phagemid vector pHEN1. The resulting phagemids produce either scFvs displayed on the surface of the fusion phage subsequent to co-infection with helper phage, or soluble scFvs following IPTG induction...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097914/cd44v6-targeted-imaging-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-antibody-based-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Diana Spiegelberg, Johan Nilvebrant
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common and severe cancer with low survival rate in advanced stages. Noninvasive imaging of prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers could provide valuable information for planning and monitoring of the different therapy options. Thus, there is a major interest in development of new tracers towards cancer-specific molecular targets to improve diagnostic imaging and treatment. CD44v6, an oncogenic variant of the cell surface molecule CD44, is a promising molecular target since it exhibits a unique expression pattern in HNSCC and is associated with drug- and radio-resistance...
2017: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094051/improved-scfv-anti-lox-1-binding-activity-by-fusion-with-lox-1-binding-peptides
#14
Wei Hu, Qiuhong Xie, Hongyu Xiang
The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) targeted single-chain variable fragment (scFvs) is a promising molecule for the targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic molecules of atherosclerotic diseases; however, its applications are limited by the inherent low antigen affinity. In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) model of the anti-LOX-1 scFv was constructed and its docking with the LOX-1 protein was developed. To improve the LOX-1-binding activity, the anti-LOX-1 scFv was designed to fuse with one of three LOX-1-binding heptapeptides, LTPATAI, FQTPPQL, and LSIPPKA, at its N-terminus and C-terminus and in the linker region, which have different LOX-1-binding interfaces with the anti-LOX-1 scFv analyzed by an array of computational approaches...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090224/production-and-evaluation-of-specific-single-chain-antibodies-against-ctla-4-for-cancer-targeted-therapy
#15
Farideh Hosseinzadeh, Saeed Mohammadi, Foroogh Nejatollahi
BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) molecules are expressed on T-cells and inhibit their function by inhibiting activation of subsequent T-cell molecular pathways. Blocking of CTLA-4 inhibits the growth of malignant tumor cells. Anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies activate the immune system against cancer. Due to several advantages of single-chain antibodies (scFvs) compared to monoclonal antibodies in cancer immunotherapy, specific anti-CTLA-4 scFvs (single-chain variable fragment) were selected in this study...
October 2017: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076991/single-chain-antibody-fragment-against-venom-from-the-snake-daboia-russelii-formosensis
#16
Chi-Hsin Lee, Yu-Ching Lee, Yueh-Lun Lee, Sy-Jye Leu, Liang-Tzung Lin, Chi-Ching Chen, Jen-Ron Chiang, Pharaoh Fellow Mwale, Bor-Yu Tsai, Ching-Sheng Hung, Yi-Yuan Yang
Russell's vipers containing hemotoxic and neurotoxic venom commonly cause snake envenomation. Horse-derived antivenom is a specific antidote, but its production is expensive and has side effects. Developing a cost-effective and more tolerable therapeutic strategy is favorable. In this study, using glutaraldehyde-attenuated Daboia russelii formosensis (DRF) venom proteins to immunize chickens, polyclonal yolk-immunoglobulin (IgY) antibodies were generated and showed a specific binding affinity. Phage display technology was used to generate two antibody libraries of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) containing 3...
October 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029420/generation-and-evaluation-of-antibody-agents-for-molecular-imaging-of-cd44v6-expressing-cancers
#17
Anna-Karin Haylock, Johan Nilvebrant, Anja Mortensen, Irina Velikyan, Marika Nestor, Ronny Falk
AIM: The aim of this study was to generate and characterize scFv antibodies directed to human CD44v6, as well as to radiolabel and evaluate top candidates in vitro and in vivo for their potential use in CD44v6-targeted molecular imaging in cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phage display selections were used to isolate CD44v6-specific scFvs. A chain shuffling strategy was employed for affinity maturation based on a set of CD44v6-specific first-generation clones...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027080/different-expression-systems-resulted-in-varied-binding-properties-of-anti-paclitaxel-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibody-clone-1c2
#18
Gorawit Yusakul, Seiichi Sakamoto, Poomraphie Nuntawong, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Satoshi Morimoto
The binding properties of recombinant antibody fragments, such as affinity and specificity, determine their usefulness for therapeutic and analytical applications. Anti-paclitaxel single-chain variable fragment clone 1C2 (anti-PT scFv1C2) was expressed using Escherichia coli cell and Bombyx mori larvae expression systems. The binding characteristics of the scFvs were evaluated using indirect competitive ELISA. The linear range of binding between anti-PT scFv1C2 and paclitaxel was significantly different between the anti-PT scFv1C2s derived from E...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994732/production-of-single-chain-fv-antibodies-specific-for-ga-pyridine-an-advanced-glycation-end-product-age-with-reduced-inter-domain-motion
#19
Natsuki Fukuda, Kentaro Noi, Lidong Weng, Yoshihiro Kobashigawa, Hiromi Miyazaki, Yukari Wakeyama, Michiyo Takaki, Yusuke Nakahara, Yuka Tatsuno, Makiyo Uchida-Kamekura, Yoshiaki Suwa, Takashi Sato, Naoki Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Motoyoshi Nomizu, Yukio Fujiwara, Fumina Ohsaka, Takashi Saitoh, Katsumi Maenaka, Hiroyuki Kumeta, Shoko Shinya, Chojiro Kojima, Teru Ogura, Hiroshi Morioka
Due to their lower production cost compared with monoclonal antibodies, single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) have potential for use in several applications, such as for diagnosis and treatment of a range of diseases, and as sensor elements. However, the usefulness of scFvs is limited by inhomogeneity through the formation of dimers, trimers, and larger oligomers. The scFv protein is assumed to be in equilibrium between the closed and open states formed by assembly or disassembly of VH and VL domains. Therefore, the production of an scFv with equilibrium biased to the closed state would be critical to overcome the problem in inhomogeneity of scFv for industrial or therapeutic applications...
October 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981720/selection-of-novel-affinity-matured-human-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-4-antibody-fragments-by-yeast-display
#20
Xin Yu, Liang Qu, Darell D Bigner, Vidyalakshmi Chandramohan
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy due to its high level of expression in a number of malignant tumors, and its essential role in tumor growth and progression. Clinical application of CSPG4-targeting immunotherapies is hampered by the lack of fully human high-affinity CSPG4 antibodies or antibody fragments. To overcome this limitation, we performed affinity maturation on a novel human CSPG4 single-chain Fv fragment (scFv) using the random mutagenesis approach and screened for improved variants from a yeast display library using a modified whole-cell panning method followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
September 1, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
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