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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447605/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Christopher S Ahuja, Jefferson R Wilson, Satoshi Nori, Mark R N Kotter, Claudia Druschel, Armin Curt, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) has devastating consequences for the physical, social and vocational well-being of patients. The demographic of SCIs is shifting such that an increasing proportion of older individuals are being affected. Pathophysiologically, the initial mechanical trauma (the primary injury) permeabilizes neurons and glia and initiates a secondary injury cascade that leads to progressive cell death and spinal cord damage over the subsequent weeks. Over time, the lesion remodels and is composed of cystic cavitations and a glial scar, both of which potently inhibit regeneration...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446490/complicated-acute-cerebellitis-with-obstructive-hydrocephalus-and-tonsillar-herniation-in-a-child
#2
Manchikanti Venkatesh, Sunitha Vellathussery Chakkalakkoombil, Manju Bashini Duraipandi, Reena Gulati
Acute cerebellitis (AC) is a rare inflammatory syndrome presenting as cerebellar dysfunction, seen more frequently in children. AC can have a variable course with features of cerebellar dysfunction, raised intracranial pressure and neurological deficits, and can sometimes even be potentially fatal due to complications such as obstructive hydrocephalus and brainstem compression, warranting surgical intervention. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with raised intracranial pressure and ataxia...
April 26, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#3
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445240/evaluation-of-a-pediatric-early-warning-score-across-different-subspecialty-patients
#4
Nathan P Dean, J B Fenix, Michael Spaeder, Amanda Levin
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of a Pediatric Early Warning Score to predict deterioration in different subspecialty patient populations. DESIGN: Single center, retrospective cohort study. Patients were classified into five groups: 1) cardiac; 2) hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplant; 3) surgical; 4) neurologic; and 5) general medical. The relationship between the Pediatric Early Warning Score and unplanned ICU transfer requiring initiation of specific ICU therapies (intubation, high-flow nasal cannula, noninvasive ventilation, inotropes, or aggressive fluid hydration within 12 hr of transfer) was evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443583/retrograde-cerebral-air-embolism-in-a-patient-with-intestinal-necrosis-a-case-report
#5
Onur Taydaş, Mehmet Ruhi Onur, Erhan Akpınar
BACKGROUND: Cerebral venous air embolism (CVAE) is a severe clinical condition related to unfavoured outcome in patients with neurological impairment. CVAE may occur secondary to arterial or venous interventions. A rare mechanism of CVAE is retrograde embolism that is characterized by gas flow in a direction opposite to that of the normal blood flow. CASE REPORT: A 69-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with shortness of breath and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed intramural gas in the bowel and free gas in the mesenteric veins and portal vein...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443389/neuroscience-intermediate-level-care-units-staffed-by-intensivists-clinical-outcomes-and-cost-analysis
#6
Kwadwo Kyeremanteng, Ariel Hendin, Kalpana Bhardwaj, Kednapa Thavorn, Dave Neilipovitz, Dalibour Kubelik, Gianni D'Egidio, Grant Stotts, Erin Rosenberg
INTRODUCTION: With an aging population and increasing numbers of intensive care unit admissions, novel ways of providing quality care at reduced cost are required. Closed neurointensive care units improve outcomes for patients with critical neurological conditions, including decreased mortality and length of stay (LOS). Small studies have demonstrated the safety of intermediate-level units for selected patient populations. However, few studies analyze both cost and safety outcomes of these units...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443386/association-of-renal-function-and-symptoms-with-mortality-in-star-fruit-averrhoa-carambola-intoxication
#7
Choon-Bing Chua, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Huan-Wen Tsui, Po-Jen Yang, Kuo-Hsin Lee, Chih-Wei Hsu, I-Ting Tsai
BACKGROUND: Star fruit (SF) is a commonly available fruit produced and eaten in tropical and subtropical countries. Since 1993, various reports have described neurotoxicity after eating SF, but this clinical condition remains unfamiliar. We aimed to describe this clinical entity, the role of renal dysfunction in this disorder, treatment strategies, and prognosis of patients with SF intoxication. METHODS: We conducted a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases from 1993 to 2016...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442989/perinatal-brain-injury-as-a-consequence-of-preterm-birth-and-intrauterine-inflammation-designing-targeted-stem-cell-therapies
#8
REVIEW
Madison C B Paton, Courtney A McDonald, Beth J Allison, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442470/late-outcomes-in-children-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#9
Tin Wai Chow, Wing Kwan Leung, Frankie Wai Tsoi Cheng, Shekhar Medhukar Kumta, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Vincent Lee, Matthew Ming Kong Shing, Chi Kong Li
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease with diverse clinical courses. Despite improvement in survival outcomes in the recent decades, sequelae of the disease remain a concern. This study aimed to provide information on the long-term outcomes in patients with LCH, particularly on the sequelae and any associated factors. METHOD: Medical records of patients with diagnosis of LCH and being managed in our centre were retrospectively reviewed...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442361/neuroprotective-effects-of-astaxanthin-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Alireza Masoudi, Leila Dargahi, Fatemeh Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Hosein Pourgholami, Alireza Asgari, Mehdi Manoochehri, Masoumeh Jorjani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to constant neurological deficits and long-term unalterable disability. Apoptosis plays an important role in the initiation of the secondary injury cascades leading to progressive tissue damage and severely functional deficits after SCI. Although the primary mechanical destructive events cannot be reversed, a therapeutic intervention could be carried out in order to moderate the secondary injury damage several hours to weeks after injury. Astaxanthin (AST) is a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with the potential to render anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442204/out-of-hospital-thoracotomy-for-cardiac-arrest-after-penetrating-thoracic-trauma
#11
Mark G Van Vledder, Oscar J F Van Waes, Fabian O Kooij, Joost H Peters, Esther M M Van Lieshout, Michael H J Verhofstad
INTRODUCTION: Emergency department thoracotomy is an established procedure for cardiac arrest in patients suffering from penetrating thoracic trauma and yields relatively high survival rates (up to 21%) in patients with cardiac tamponade. To minimize the delay between arrest and thoracotomy, some have advocated thoracotomy on the accident scene. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients with return of spontaneous circulation and subsequent survival after out of hospital thoracotomy in the Netherlands...
April 15, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441894/self-directed-exercise-in-multiple-sclerosis-evaluation-of-a-home-automated-tele-management-system
#12
Susan S Conroy, Min Zhan, William J Culpepper, Walter Royal, Mitchell T Wallin
Introduction Physical rehabilitation is one of the few non-pharmaceutical therapies for maintaining or improving walking ability for patients with multiple sclerosis. However, travel distance to rehabilitation clinics, neurological disability and insurance coverage often limit access to specialised rehabilitation services. To address these issues, we utilised a web-based system to support a home-based self-directed exercise programme. Methods Patients ( n = 24) were randomised to either routine home rehabilitation or to the multiple sclerosis home automated tele-management system for a six-month period...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441281/incarcerated-medial-epicondyle-fractures-with-elbow-dislocation-risk-factors-associated-with-morbidity
#13
Carley Vuillermin, Kyna S Donohue, Patricia Miller, Andrea S Bauer, Dennis E Kramer, Yi-Meng Yen
BACKGROUND: Incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures in association with elbow trauma are rare and an absolute indication for intervention. Because of the infrequent nature, outcomes following this injury are not well documented. We studied a large cohort of these injuries to determine factors associated with functional outcomes. It was hypothesized that a greater duration between initial presentation and time of surgery would lead to poorer outcomes. METHODS: A total of 32 patients aged 18 and under who underwent surgical treatment for an incarcerated medical epicondyle fracture at a level-1 pediatric trauma center from 2003 to 2015 were identified...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439359/education-in-neurology-resident-documentation-using-payroll-simulation
#14
John W Liang, Vicki L Shanker
BACKGROUND: Approaches for teaching neurology documentation include didactic lectures, workshops, and face-to-face meetings. Few studies have assessed their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To improve the quality of neurology resident documentation through payroll simulation. METHODS: A documentation checklist was created based on Medicaid and Medicare evaluation and management (E/M) guidelines. In the preintervention phase, neurology follow-up clinic charts were reviewed over a 16-week period by evaluators blinded to the notes' authors...
April 2017: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438705/tigr4-strain-causes-more-severe-disease-than-wu2-strain-in-a-mouse-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-a-common-pathogenic-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE
#15
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 21, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437057/psychotic-and-bipolar-disorders-behavioral-disorders-in-dementia
#16
Sherri Morgan
Psychosis is one of the most common conditions in later life, with dementia being a main contributing factor. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), now categorizes the various types of dementia as neurocognitive disorders. Alzheimer disease is a common cause of dementia and psychosis. Psychosis also is seen in patients with vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Psychosis can be primary, caused by a psychiatric disorder listed in the DSM-5, or secondary, due to a medical or neurologic condition...
April 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435930/spinal-subdural-hematoma-a-rare-case-of-spinal-subdural-hematoma-complicating-routine-minimally-invasive-lumbar-discectomy-and-decompression-and-relevant-literature-review
#17
Chelsea C Boe, Brett A Freedman, Ravi Kumar, Kendall Lee, Robert McDonald, John Port
We present a case of apparently uncomplicated lumbar decompression and discectomy with delayed postoperative neurological deterioration secondary to subdural hematoma at the thoracolumbar level of the spinal cord. Previously described subdural hematomas have occurred spontaneously or related to iatrogenic injury. Hitherto, no case of acute postoperative subdural hematoma has been reported in the postoperative setting in the absence of known iatrogenic dural injury. A 76-year-old male with central and lateral recess spinal stenosis underwent apparently uncomplicated bilateral L3-4 and left sided L4-5 decompressive partial laminectomies and discectomy...
March 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435919/spontaneous-spinal-epidural-hematoma-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Jessica Figueroa, John G DeVine
Review the current literature regarding spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (SSEHs) and report on the known risk factors, evaluation, and treatment of this rare entity. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Ovid to identify articles pertaining to SSEHs. Due to the rarity of the pathologic entity, only scattered case reports and associated reviews are available. SSEHs are a rare yet potentially life-altering event. The underlying risk factors are poorly understood, and SSEHs present with minimal or no antecedent trauma...
March 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434123/conversion-disorder-functional-neurological-symptom-disorder-and-chronic-pain-comorbidity-assessment-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Patricia Tsui, Andrew Deptula, Derek Y Yuan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper examines the overlap of conversion disorder with chronic pain conditions, describes ways to assess for conversion disorder, and provides an overview of evidence-based treatments for conversion disorder and chronic pain, with a focus on conversion symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Conversion disorder is a significant problem that warrants further study, given that there are not many well-established guidelines. Accurate and timely assessment should help move treatment in a more fruitful direction and avoid unnecessary medical interventions...
June 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433236/stretch-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-contracture-an-abridged-republication-of-a-cochrane-systematic-review
#20
Lisa A Harvey, Owen M Katalinic, Robert D Herbert, Anne M Moseley, Natasha A Lannin, Karl Schurr
QUESTION: Is stretch effective for the treatment and prevention of contractures in people with neurological and non-neurological conditions? DESIGN: A Cochrane Systematic Review with meta-analyses of randomised trials. PARTICIPANTS: People with or at risk of contractures. INTERVENTION: Trials were considered for inclusion if they compared stretch to no stretch, or stretch plus co-intervention to co-intervention only...
April 2017: Journal of Physiotherapy
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