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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637858/maternal-and-nourishment-factors-interact-to-influence-offspring-developmental-trajectories-in-social-wasps
#1
Jennifer M Jandt, Sainath Suryanarayanan, John C Hermanson, Robert L Jeanne, Amy L Toth
The social and nutritional environments during early development have the potential to affect offspring traits, but the mechanisms and molecular underpinnings of these effects remain elusive. We used Polistes fuscatus paper wasps to dissect how maternally controlled factors (vibrational signals and nourishment) interact to induce different caste developmental trajectories in female offspring, leading to worker or reproductive (gyne) traits. We established a set of caste phenotype biomarkers in P. fuscatus females, finding that gyne-destined individuals had high expression of three caste-related genes hypothesized to have roles in diapause and mitochondrial metabolism...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591211/dispersal-strategies-in-the-highly-polygynous-ant-crematogaster-orthocrema-pygmaea-forel-formicidae-myrmicinae
#2
Rachid Hamidi, Jean-Christophe de Biseau, Thomas Bourguignon, Glauco Bezerra Martins Segundo, Matheus Torres Marinho Bezerril Fontenelle, Yves Quinet
In ants, dispersal strategies and morphology of female sexuals are generally linked to the mode of colony founding. In species using long-range dispersal tactics, queen/worker dimorphism is generally high and young queens are able to initiate new colonies by themselves, using their metabolic reserves. By contrast, in species using short-range dispersal strategies, queen/worker dimorphism is generally low and, due to their limited metabolic reserves, queens have lost the capacity to raise their brood alone and to found their colony independently...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493295/towards-ultrasound-guided-adaptive-radiotherapy-for-cervical-cancer-evaluation-of-elekta-s-semi-automated-uterine-segmentation-method-on-3d-ultrasound-images
#3
Sarah A Mason, Tuathan P O'Shea, Ingrid M White, Susan Lalondrelle, Kate Downey, Mariwan Baker, Claus F Behrens, Jeffrey C Bamber, Emma J Harris
PURPOSE: 3D ultrasound (US) images of the uterus may be used to adapt radiotherapy (RT) for cervical cancer patients based on changes in daily anatomy. This requires accurate on-line segmentation of the uterus. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of Elekta's "Assisted Gyne Segmentation" (AGS) algorithm in semi-automatically segmenting the uterus on 3D transabdominal ultrasound images by comparison with manual contours. MATERIALS & METHODS: Nine patients receiving RT for cervical cancer were imaged with the 3D Clarity(®) transabdominal probe at RT planning, and 1 to 7 times during treatment...
May 10, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404777/transcriptomics-of-an-extended-phenotype-parasite-manipulation-of-wasp-social-behaviour-shifts-expression-of-caste-related-genes
#4
Amy C Geffre, Ruolin Liu, Fabio Manfredini, Laura Beani, Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, Christina M Grozinger, Amy L Toth
Parasites can manipulate host behaviour to increase their own transmission and fitness, but the genomic mechanisms by which parasites manipulate hosts are not well understood. We investigated the relationship between the social paper wasp, Polistes dominula, and its parasite, Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera), to understand the effects of an obligate endoparasitoid on its host's brain transcriptome. Previous research suggests that X. vesparum shifts aspects of host social caste-related behaviour and physiology in ways that benefit the parasitoid...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361946/rediscovery-and-reclassification-of-the-dipteran-taxon-nothomicrodon-wheeler-an-exclusive-endoparasitoid-of-gyne-ant-larvae
#5
Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud, Benoit J B Jahyny, Gunilla Ståhls, Graham Rotheray, Jacques H C Delabie, Jean-Paul Lachaud
The myrmecophile larva of the dipteran taxon Nothomicrodon Wheeler is rediscovered, almost a century after its original description and unique report. The systematic position of this dipteran has remained enigmatic due to the absence of reared imagos to confirm indentity. We also failed to rear imagos, but we scrutinized entire nests of the Brazilian arboreal dolichoderine ant Azteca chartifex which, combined with morphological and molecular studies, enabled us to establish beyond doubt that Nothomicrodon belongs to the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera), not the Syrphidae where it was first placed, and that the species we studied is an endoparasitoid of the larvae of A...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299419/insights-into-the-role-of-age-and-social-interactions-on-the-sexual-attractiveness-of-queens-in-an-eusocial-bee-melipona-flavolineata-apidae-meliponini
#6
Jamille Costa Veiga, Cristiano Menezes, Felipe Andrés León Contrera
The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152942/communities-of-practice-a-jurisdictional-approach-to-improving-the-quality-of-care-in-radiation-medicine-in-ontario
#7
Michelle Ang, Lindsay Elizabeth Reddeman, Michael Sharpe, Margaret Hart, Carina Simniceanu, Stephen Breen, Joon-Hyung J Kim, Dani Scott, Khaled Zaza, David D'Souza, Michael F Milosevic, Stewart Gaede, Andrea Marshall, Brian P Yaremko, Katharina Sixel, Nicole Harnett, Eric Gutierrez, Padraig Richard Warde
122 Background: The Radiation Treatment Program (RTP) at Cancer Care Ontario (CCO) established several Communities of Practice (CoPs), with the goal of improving radiation treatment (RT) quality and safety. The RTP identifies variation in practice and quality improvement (QI) opportunities in the 14 Regional Cancer Centres (RCCs) and facilitates the development of CoPs to share best practices and standardize care. METHODS: Since 2010, the RTP has formed 7 CoPs ( > 185 members in total): 4 intra-disciplinary (Radiation Therapy, Medical Physics, Advanced Practice Radiation Therapy, Radiation Safety) and 3 inter-disciplinary (Head and Neck (HN), Gynecological (GYNE) and Lung Cancer)...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913150/juvenile-hormone-titers-ovarian-status-and-epicuticular-hydrocarbons-in-gynes-and-workers-of-the-paper-wasp-belonogaster-longitarsus
#8
Hans C Kelstrup, Klaus Hartfelder, Nanike Esterhuizen, Theresa C Wossler
The prevailing paradigm for social wasp endocrinology is that of juvenile hormone (JH) functioning pleiotropically in potential and actual queens, where it fuels dominance behaviors, stimulates ovarian growth and/or affects the production of status-linked cuticular compounds. In colonies with annual cycles (e.g., temperate-zone species), female adults produced at the end of the summer (called gynes) are physiologically primed to hibernate. Despite the absence of egg-laying in the pre-overwintering phase, gynes engage in dominance interactions that may affect reproductive potential following hibernation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853401/lenomyrmex-hoelldobleri-a-new-ant-species-discovered-in-the-stomach-of-the-dendrobatid-poison-frog-oophaga-sylvatica-funkhouser
#9
Christian Rabeling, Jeffrey Sosa-Calvo, Lauren A O'Connell, Luis A Coloma, Fernando Fernández
The ant genus Lenomyrmex was recently discovered and described from mid to high elevation rainforests in southern Central and northwestern South America. Lenomyrmex currently consists of six described species, which are only rarely collected. Here, we add a new species, Lenomyrmex hoelldoblerisp. n., which was discovered in a stomach content sample of the dendrobatid frog, Oophaga sylvatica, from northwestern Ecuador. Lenomyrmex hoelldobleri can be distinguished from other species in the genus by the presence of a well-developed petiolar node, whereas in all other species the node of the petiole is ill-defined...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433124/taxonomic-revision-of-stigmatomma-roger-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-the-malagasy-region
#10
Flavia A Esteves, Brian L Fisher
In this study we present the first taxonomic revision of the ant genus Stigmatomma in the Malagasy biogeographic region, re-describe the previously known S. besucheti Baroni-Urbani, and describe seven new species to science (S. bolabola sp. n., S. irayhady sp. n., S. janovitsika sp. n., S. liebe sp. n., S. roahady sp. n., S. sakalava sp. n., and S. tsyhady sp. n.). The revision is based on the worker caste, but we provide brief descriptions of gynes and males for some species. Species descriptions, diagnosis, character discussion, identification key, and glossary are illustrated with 360 high-quality montage and SEM images...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055486/adaptive-radiotherapy-strategies-for-pelvic-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-implementations
#11
REVIEW
Sara Thörnqvist, Liv B Hysing, Laura Tuomikoski, Anne Vestergaard, Kari Tanderup, Ludvig P Muren, Ben J M Heijmen
UNLABELLED: Introdution: Variation in shape, position and treatment response of both tumor and organs at risk are major challenges for accurate dose delivery in radiotherapy. Adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been proposed to customize the treatment to these motion/response patterns of the individual patients, but increases workload and thereby challenges clinical implementation. This paper reviews strategies and workflows for clinical and in silico implemented ART for prostate, bladder, gynecological (gyne) and ano-rectal cancers...
August 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046965/role-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-with-menstrual-disorders-in-tertiary-care-center-of-walled-city-of-delhi
#12
Nangia Sangita Ajmani, Vinita Sarbhai, Namrta Yadav, Mohini Paul, Ayesha Ahmad, A K Ajmani
OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of thyroid disorders and its correlation with menstrual disorders. METHODS: 100 women aged between 15 and 45 years who attended gyne OPD in Kasturba Hospital, Delhi, were included for this cross-sectional study. The study group comprised 50 patients presented with menstrual complaints. The control group consisted of 50 women of same age group with complaints other than menstrual disorders. Thyroid function tests, anti-TPO antibody estimation, and endometrial sampling were done in all patients...
April 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26952568/women-in-urology-residency-1978-2013-a-critical-look-at-gender-representation-in-our-specialty
#13
Joshua A Halpern, Una J Lee, Erika M Wolff, Sameer Mittal, Jonathan E Shoag, Deborah J Lightner, Soo Kim, Jim C Hu, Bilal Chughtai, Richard K Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes over time in female representation among urology residents compared to those within other specialties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urology match data were obtained from the American Urological Association from 1996 to 2015. Trends in match rates of male and female urology applicants were assessed. Data for gender representation among residencies were extracted from reports in the Journal of the American Medical Association from 1978 to 2013...
June 2016: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949564/role-of-surgery-in-the-elderly-patients-affected-from-advanced-stage-ovarian-cancer
#14
E V Cafà, B Pecorino, G Scibilia, P Scollo
The aim of this study is to compare morbidity, surgical treatment and post-operative complications in elderly patients underwent surgery for advanced stage ovarian cancer, comparing to younger patients. Data of patients underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gyne-cology of Cannizzaro Hospital (Catania) for advanced stage (IIIC-IV) ovarian cancer were collected from January 2000 to December 2013. Patients were stratified by age in two groups (I > 65 years and II < 65 years old). Following variables were collected: stage of the tumor, associated diseases, previous chemotherapy, the type of surgical procedures, blood transfusions, intraoperative and postoperative morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay...
2015: Journal of Cancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26932246/cytomorphology-of-ovarian-clear-cell-carcinomas-in-peritoneal-effusions
#15
D Damiani, V Suciu, C Genestie, P Vielh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and describe the cytomorphology of malignant effusions from ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC). METHODS: Five cases of malignant peritoneal effusions from OCCC histologically confirmed were analysed and compared. RESULTS: Among the malignant peritoneal effusions exhibiting clear cell features, a characteristic feature of OCCC was the presence of large deposits of a hyaline matrix. This matrix may be typically arranged either in 'raspberry bodies' or 'globule-like' structures...
December 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26685925/monitoring-the-effects-of-thiamethoxam-applied-as-a-seed-treatment-to-winter-oilseed-rape-on-the-development-of-bumblebee-bombus-terrestris-colonies
#16
Helen Thompson, Mike Coulson, Natalie Ruddle, Selwyn Wilkins, Paul Harrington, Sarah Harkin
BACKGROUND: The development of bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax) colonies that had foraged for 5 weeks on flowering winter oilseed rape grown from seed treated with thiamethoxam (as Cruiser OSR) was assessed (two control, one treated field). Colony development was evaluated by monitoring the colony mass, forager activity was assessed, both at the hive and within the crop, and the contribution of oilseed rape to the pollen stored within the colony was analysed. RESULTS: Pollen collected from the treated crop contained residues of 1...
September 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629910/straight-but-not-narrow-within-gender-variation-in-the-gender-specificity-of-women-s-sexual-response
#17
Meredith L Chivers, Katrina N Bouchard, Amanda D Timmers
Gender differences in the specificity of sexual response have been a primary focus in sexual psychophysiology research, however, within-gender variability suggests sexual orientation moderates category-specific responding among women; only heterosexual women show gender-nonspecific genital responses to sexual stimuli depicting men and women. But heterosexually-identified or "straight" women are heterogeneous in their sexual attractions and include women who are exclusively androphilic (sexually attracted to men) and women who are predominantly androphilic with concurrent gynephilia (sexually attracted to women)...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26624163/a-taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-oxyopomyrmex-andr%C3%A3-1881-hymenoptera-formicidae
#18
Sebastian Salata, Lech Borowiec
Oxyopomyrmex André, 1881 is a small genus of myrmicine ants found in arid grasslands of the Mediterranean region. Here we provide a new taxonomic revision of the genus. Twelve species are recognized, including five new to science: O. laevibus sp. nov. (Greece: Crete), O. magnus sp. nov. (Spain), O. negevensis sp. nov. (Israel) O. polybotesi sp. nov. (Greece: Nisyros, W Turkey) and O. pygmalioni sp. nov. (Cyprus). Oxyopomyrmex santschii var. nigripes Santschi, 1907 and O. santschii var. nitidior Santschi, 1910 are raised to species level...
2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26623844/taxonomic-revision-of-the-neotropical-myrmicinae-ant-genus-blepharidatta-wheeler
#19
Carlos Roberto F Brandão, Rodrigo M Feitosa, Jorge L M Diniz
We revise the taxonomy of the exclusively Neotropical Myrmicinae ant genus Blepharidatta (Attini), redescribing the known species (B. brasiliensis and B. conops), and describing two new species, B. delabiei sp. n. (Brazil: Bahia) and B. fernandezi sp. n. (Colombia: Amazonas). We also describe worker sting apparatuses, larvae, males, and ergatoid gynes of all species, except for B. fernandezi, known only from few worker specimens; we provide a key for identifying workers, present distribution maps for all species and summarize the knowledge on the biology of Blepharidatta species...
2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26586868/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-ant-associated-fungus-phialophora-attae-cbs-131958
#20
Leandro F Moreno, J Benjamin Stielow, Michel de Vries, Vinicius A Weiss, Vania A Vicente, Sybren de Hoog
The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here.
2015: Genome Announcements
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