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cardiac health

Son Nguyen, Allen Zhu, William Toppen, Adeel Ashfaq, Jessica Davis, Richard Shemin, Abie H Mendelsohn, Peyman Benharash
Although the true incidence of postoperative dysphagia after cardiac surgery is unknown, it has been reported to occur in 3 to 21.6 per cent of patients. Historically, dysphagia has been associated with increased surgical complications and prolonged hospital stay. This study aimed to evaluate the costs and outcomes associated with dysphagia after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing nonemergent, nontransplant cardiac operations between June 2013 and June 2014 were eligible for inclusion. Independent predictors of cost were identified through a multivariate linear regression model...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Nittaya Srisuk, Jan Cameron, Chantal F Ski, David R Thompson
AIM: To evaluate a heart failure education program developed for patients and carers in Thailand. BACKGROUND: Heart failure is major health problem. This is the first trial of a family-based education program for heart failure patients and carers residing in rural Thailand. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred patient-carer dyads attending cardiac clinics in southern Thailand from April 2014-March 2015 were randomized to usual care (n=50) or a family-based education program (n=50) comprising face-to-face counselling, a heart failure manual and DVD and telephone support...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
C Manghani, A Gupta, V Tripathi, V Rani
Cardiomyopathy and associated heart failure continues to be one of the most severe complications that threaten a large population. Curcumin, one of the three curcuminoids of the spice turmeric, is very well known for a multitude of health benefits and functions. Norepinephrine (NE), a catecholamine and also a stress hormone may cause the cardiomyocytes to develop increased sensitivity to death with its increasing concentrations. In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of curcumin in NE-induced cardiac apoptosis using several fluorescent and nonfluorescent microscopic techniques like DAPI, PI, Giemsa, PicroSirius and TUNEL...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
Petrina Kapewangolo, Michael Knott, Regina E K Shithigona, Sylvia L Uusiku, Martha Kandawa-Schulz
BACKGROUND: Hoodia gordonii products are widely commercialized for anti-obesity purposes; however, minimal research is available on the other health properties demonstrated by this popular herbal plant. METHODS: H. gordonii crude extracts (ethanol and ethyl acetate) were assayed for in vitro anti-HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase activity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assays were used for the antioxidant analysis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Paul S Myles, Julian A Smith, Andrew Forbes, Brendan Silbert, Mohandas Jayarajah, Thomas Painter, D James Cooper, Silvana Marasco, John McNeil, Jean S Bussières, Shay McGuinness, Kelly Byrne, Matthew T V Chan, Giovanni Landoni, Sophie Wallace
Background Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. Methods In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo coronary-artery surgery and were at risk for perioperative complications to receive aspirin or placebo and tranexamic acid or placebo. The results of the tranexamic acid comparison are reported here...
October 23, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
L A Pérula-de Torres, V González-Blanco V, R Luque-Montilla, E Martín-Rioboó, M A Martínez-Adell, J Ruiz-de Castroviejo
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia in clinical practice and has important prognostic implications. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the validity and the reliability of taking the arterial pulse (TAP) in patients over 65 years for detecting in AF and other rhythm disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, observational, multicentre study to validate a diagnostic test within in a controlled clinical trial. SETTING: 39 Primary Care Centres in the Spanish National Health Service...
October 20, 2016: Semergen
Jean-Christophe Chauvet-Gelinier, Bernard Bonin
Cardiovascular events and emotional disorders share a common epidemiology, thus suggesting fundamental pathways linking these different diseases. Growing evidence in the literature highlights the influence of psychological determinants in somatic diseases. A patient's socio-economic aspects, personality traits, health behavior and even biological pathways may contribute to the course of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac events often occur suddenly and the episode can be traumatic for people not prepared for such an event...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Y Huo, Z C Jing, X F Zeng, J M Liu, Z X Yu, G C Zhang, Y Li, Y Wang, Q S Ji, P Zhu, B X Wu, Y Zheng, P P Wang, J Li
BACKGROUND: Although several new drugs have been approved in recent years, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis. Ambrisentan, a selective endothelin type A antagonist, has been approved for treatment of PAH. This open label study assessed the efficacy and safety of ambrisentan in Chinese subjects with PAH. METHODS: Eligible patients with PAH (World Health Organisation [WHO] functional class [FC] II orIII) were enrolled and received Ambrisentan (5 mg) once daily for a 12-week preliminary evaluation period, and a 12-week dose-adjustment period (dose titration to 10 mgallowed)...
October 22, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Isabelle F van der Velpen, Stephanie Feleus, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Behnam Sabayan
INTRODUCTION: Cardiac function is a key player in maintaining energy homeostasis in the brain. Heart failure is closely related to higher risk of neurocognitive disorders. Recent evidence shows that this relationship might not be limited to patients with advanced heart failure, and even suboptimal cardiac functioning is associated with accelerated brain aging. Hence, hemodynamic and serum cardiac markers may provide valuable information about the risk of dementia. METHODS: We provide an overview on the link between cardiac markers and cognitive function by a systematic search in five databases...
October 19, 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Cheryl L Cox, M Robyn Andersen, Aimee K Santucci, Les L Robison, Melissa M Hudson
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To document the per survivor and per additional survivor screening costs of a mailed survivorship care plan (SCP) with advanced practice nurse (APN) telephone counseling (SCP+C) or without APN telephone counseling (SCP).
. DESIGN: Randomized, longitudinal clinical trial.
. SETTING: St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.
. SAMPLE: 411 at-risk pediatric cancer survivors (aged 26-59 years), stratified by age (younger than 30 years versus 30 years or older), recommended screening frequency (every one, two, or five years), gender, and cancer diagnosis (hematologic versus solid tumor)...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Robert F Riley, Chadwick D Miller, Gregory B Russell, Erin N Harper, Brian C Hiestand, James W Hoekstra, Cedric W Lefebvre, Bret A Nicks, David M Cline, Kim L Askew, Simon A Mahler
INTRODUCTION: The HEART Pathway is a diagnostic protocol designed to identify low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain that are safe for early discharge. This protocol has been shown to significantly decrease health care resource utilization compared with usual care. However, the impact of the HEART Pathway on the cost of care has yet to be reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cost analysis of patients enrolled in the HEART Pathway trial, which randomized participants to either usual care or the HEART Pathway protocol...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Wan-Chun Lu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Yu-Chen Kao, Chin-Bin Yeh, Terry B J Kuo, Chuan-Chia Chang, Hsin-An Chang
BACKGROUND: Reduced health-related quality of life in the physical domain (HRQOLphysical) has been reported to increase risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unclear. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) that connects the body and mind is a biologically plausible candidate to investigate this mechanism. The aim of our study is to examine whether the HRQOLphysical independently contributes to heart rate variability (HRV), which reflects ANS activity...
October 21, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Stefanie C Vuotto, Kevin R Krull, Chenghong Li, Kevin C Oeffinger, Daniel M Green, Sunita K Patel, Deokumar Srivastava, Marilyn Stovall, Kirsten K Ness, Gregory T Armstrong, Leslie L Robison, Tara M Brinkman
BACKGROUND: The current study was performed to examine associations between childhood cancer therapies, chronic health conditions, and symptoms of emotional distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: Participants included 5021 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean age, 32.0 years [standard deviation, 7.6 years] with a time since diagnosis of 23.2 years [standard deviation, 4.5 years]) who completed measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress...
October 20, 2016: Cancer
Rafael Mesquita, Frits M E Franssen, Sarah Houben-Wilke, Nicole H M K Uszko-Lencer, Lowie E G W Vanfleteren, Yvonne M J Goërtz, Fabio Pitta, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether and to what extent impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) affects physical and psychological status in COPD. We aimed to compare health outcome measures between COPD patients with and without impaired LVEF after adjusting for age, sex, BMI and FEV1. METHODS: Impaired LVEF was defined as values <50%. 85 COPD patients with impaired LVEF and 85 COPD patients with normal LVEF were matched for sex, age, BMI and FEV1...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Faraz Kureshi, Kevin F Kennedy, Philip G Jones, Randal J Thomas, Suzanne V Arnold, Praneet Sharma, Timothy Fendler, Donna M Buchanan, Mohammed Qintar, P Michael Ho, Brahmajee K Nallamothu, Neil B Oldridge, John A Spertus
Importance: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and referral to CR has been introduced as a performance measure of high-quality care. The association of participation in CR with patients' health status (eg, quality of life, symptoms, and functional status) is poorly defined. Objective: To examine the association of participation in CR with health status outcomes after AMI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of patients enrolled in 2 AMI registries: PREMIER, from January 1, 2003, to June 28, 2004, and TRIUMPH, from April 11, 2005, to December 31, 2008...
October 19, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Sarah Schalekamp-Timmermans, Jerome Cornette, Albert Hofman, Willem A Helbing, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers, Bero O Verburg
BACKGROUND: There are sex differences in the risk of development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). According to the developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD), CVD originates in fetal life. This study examines fetal sex differences in cardiovascular development in utero. METHODS: In 1028 pregnant women, we assessed fetal circulation using pulsed wave Doppler examinations between 28 and 34 weeks gestation. To test associations between fetal sex and fetal circulation measurements, linear regression models were used adjusting for fetal size, gestational age, and fetal heart rate...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhasani, Sajad Khosravi, Mahya Tohidi
INTRODUCTION: In order to improve health, hospital sources such as beds and staffing should be properly allocated and used. The aim of this study is reallocation of Shafa hospital beds in Kerman using a goal-programming model. METHODS: This study was an applied cross-sectional study, which used the goal programming model and software WinQSB to optimize bed allocation. By review of the literature and interviews with experts, the constraints in beds allocation were identified, and using the collected data the desired model was designed...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Shashank S Sinha, Devraj Sukul, John J Lazarus, Vivek Polavarapu, Paul S Chan, Robert W Neumar, Brahmajee K Nallamothu
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrest is a major public health concern worldwide. The extent and types of randomized controlled trials (RCT)-our most reliable source of clinical evidence-conducted in these high-risk patients over recent years are largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic review, identifying all RCTs published in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from 1995 to 2014 that focused on the acute treatment of nontraumatic cardiac arrest in adults...
October 18, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Dokyoung Sophia You, Mary W Meagher
OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. METHODS: After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing...
October 13, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
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