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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335546/dietary-protein-and-amino-acid-supplementation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-course-what-impact-on-the-colonic-mucosa
#1
REVIEW
Sandra Vidal-Lletjós, Martin Beaumont, Daniel Tomé, Robert Benamouzig, François Blachier, Annaïg Lan
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), after disease onset, typically progress in two cyclically repeated phases, namely inflammatory flare and remission, with possible nutritional status impairment. Some evidence, either from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies indicate that the quantity and the quality of dietary protein consumption and amino acid supplementation may differently influence the IBD course according to the disease phases. For instance, although the dietary protein needs for mucosal healing after an inflammatory episode remain undetermined, there is evidence that amino acids derived from dietary proteins display beneficial effects on this process, serving as building blocks for macromolecule synthesis in the wounded mucosal area, energy substrates, and/or precursors of bioactive metabolites...
March 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335094/growth-and-physiological-responses-of-broiler-chickens-to-diets-containing-raw-full-fat-soybean-meal-and-supplemented-with-a-high-impact-microbial-protease
#2
Mammo Mengesha Erdaw, Shubiao Wu, Paul A Iji, Rider A Perez-Maldonado
Objective: This study was to evaluate the change and function of the pancreas, and small intestine in relation to growth performance of broilers on diets supplemented with raw soybean meal (RSBM) and protease. Samples of test ingredients and diets, after mixing and prior to being used were also assessed on contents of anti-nutritional factors. Methods: A 3 x 3 factorial study was used, with three levels of RSBM (commercial SBM was replaced by RSBM at 0, 10 or 20%) and protease (0...
March 21, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334400/a-bio-economic-case-study-of-canadian-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies-marker-assisted-selection-mas-in-queen-breeding-affects-beekeeper-profits
#3
Miriam Bixby, Kathy Baylis, Shelley E Hoover, Rob W Currie, Andony P Melathopoulos, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, M Marta Guarna
Over the past decade in North America and Europe, winter losses of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies have increased dramatically. Scientific consensus attributes these losses to multifactorial causes including altered parasite and pathogen profiles, lack of proper nutrition due to agricultural monocultures, exposure to pesticides, management, and weather. One method to reduce colony loss and increase productivity is through selective breeding of queens to produce disease-, pathogen-, and mite-resistant stock...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334357/sweetener-intake-by-rats-selectively-bred-for-differential-saccharin-intake-sucralose-stevia-and-acesulfame-potassium
#4
Nancy K Dess, Kiana Dobson, Brandon T Roberts, Clinton D Chapman
Behavioral responses to sweeteners have been used to study the evolution, mechanisms, and functions of taste. Occidental low and high saccharin consuming rats (respectively, LoS and HiS) have been selectively outbred on the basis of saccharin intake and are a valuable tool for studying variation among individuals in sweetener intake and its correlates. Relative to HiS rats, LoS rats consume smaller amounts of all nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners tested to date, except aspartame. The lines also differ in intake of the commercial product Splenda; the roles of sucralose and saccharides in the difference are unclear...
March 15, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334144/the-effects-of-plant-nutritional-strategy-on-soil-microbial-denitrification-activity-through-rhizosphere-primary-metabolites
#5
Julien P Guyonnet, Florian Vautrin, Guillaume Meiffren, Clément Labois, Amélie A M Cantarel, Serge Michalet, Gilles Comte, Feth El Zahar Haichar
The aim of this study was to determine (i) whether plant nutritional strategy affects the composition of primary metabolites exuded into the rhizosphere and (ii) their impact on denitrification activity in soil. We answer this question by analysing primary metabolite contents extracted from the root-adhering soil (RAS) and the roots of three grasses representing different nutrient management strategies: conservative (Festuca paniculata), intermediate (Bromus erectus) and exploitative (Dactylis glomerata). We also investigated the impact of primary metabolites on soil microbial denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) without carbon addition, comparing for each plant RAS and bulk soils...
February 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333357/dietary-patterns-foods-and-nutrients-in-male-fertility-parameters-and-fecundability-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#6
Albert Salas-Huetos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a global public health issue, affecting 15% of all couples of reproductive age. Male factors, including decreased semen quality, are responsible for ~25% of these cases. The dietary pattern, the components of the diet and nutrients have been studied as possible determinants of sperm function and/or fertility. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Previous systematic reviews have been made of the few heterogeneous low-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in small samples of participants and investigating the effect of specific nutrients and nutritional supplements on male infertility...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333344/probing-the-evolutionary-history-of-human-bitter-taste-receptor-pseudogenes-by-restoring-their-function
#7
Davide Risso, Maik Behrens, Eduardo Sainz, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Dennis Drayna
Lineage-specific gene losses can be driven by selection or environmental adaptations. However, a lack of studies on the original function of species-specific pseudogenes leaves a gap in our understanding of their role in evolutionary histories. Pseudogenes are of particular relevance for taste perception genes, which encode for receptors that confer the ability to both identify nutritionally valuable substances and avoid potentially harmful substances. To explore the role of bitter taste pseudogenization events in human origins, we restored the open reading frames of the three human-specific pseudogenes and synthesized the reconstructed functional hTAS2R2, hTAS2R62 and hTAS2R64 receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332171/sport-and-male-sexuality
#8
REVIEW
P Sgrò, L Di Luigi
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332114/training-the-gut-for-athletes
#9
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be "trained" and perceptions of fullness decreased; some studies have suggested that nutrient-specific increases in gastric emptying may occur...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332110/minimizing-injury-and-maximizing-return-to-play-lessons-from-engineered-ligaments
#10
REVIEW
Keith Baar
Musculoskeletal injuries account for more than 70% of time away from sports. One of the reasons for the high number of injuries and long return to play is that we have only a very basic understanding of how our training alters tendon and ligament (sinew) structure and function. Sinews are highly dense tissues that are difficult to characterize both in vivo and in vitro. Recently, engineered ligaments have been developed in vitro using cells from human anterior cruciate ligaments or hamstring tendons. These three-dimensional tissues can be grown in a laboratory, treated with agents thought to affect sinew physiology, and then mechanically tested to determine their function...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330812/molecular-evidence-for-differential-long-term-outcomes-of-early-life-severe-acute-malnutrition
#11
Allan Sheppard, Sherry Ngo, Xiaoling Li, Michael Boyne, Debbie Thompson, Anthony Pleasants, Peter Gluckman, Terrence Forrester
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in infants may present as one of two distinct syndromic forms: non-edematous (marasmus), with severe wasting and no nutritional edema; or edematous (kwashiorkor) with moderately severe wasting. These differences may be related to developmental changes prior to the exposure to SAM and phenotypic changes appear to persist into adulthood with differences between the two groups. We examined whether the different response to SAM and subsequent trajectories may be explained by developmentally-induced epigenetic differences...
March 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330581/functional-decline-in-older-patients-with-cancer-receiving-chemotherapy-a-multicenter-prospective-study
#12
Cindy Kenis, Lore Decoster, Julie Bastin, Hannelore Bode, Katrien Van Puyvelde, Jacques De Grève, Godelieve Conings, Katleen Fagard, Johan Flamaing, Koen Milisen, Jean-Pierre Lobelle, Hans Wildiers
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the evolution of functional status (FS) 2 to 3months after initiation of chemotherapy, to identify factors associated with functional decline during chemotherapy treatment and to investigate the prognostic value of functional decline for overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients ≥70years with a malignant tumor were included when chemotherapy was initiated. All patients underwent a geriatric assessment (GA) including FS measured by Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330275/phytochemicals-of-moringa-oleifera-a-review-of-their-nutritional-therapeutic-and-industrial-significance
#13
REVIEW
Ramesh Kumar Saini, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan, Young-Soo Keum
Moringa oleifera Lam., also known as the 'drumstick tree,' is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines, functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel production. The multiple biological activities including antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective, as well as folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera (MO) are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329809/mediterranean-dietary-patterns-and-impaired-physical-function-in-older-adults
#14
Ellen A Struijk, Pilar Guallar-Castillón, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther López-García
Background: Information about nutritional risk factors of functional limitation is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the Mediterranean diet and risk of physical function impairment in older adults. Methods: We used data from 1,630 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥60 years. In 2008-2010, adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern was measured with the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS)...
October 19, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329157/low-normalized-grip-strength-is-a-biomarker-for-cardiometabolic-disease-and-physical-disabilities-among-u-s-and-chinese-adults
#15
Mark D Peterson, Kate Duchowny, Qinqin Meng, Yafeng Wang, Xinxin Chen, Yaohui Zhao
Background: Evidence highlights the importance of muscular strength as a protective factor for health and function across aging populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which low normalized grip strength (NGS) serves as a biomarker for both cardiometabolic disease and physical disability in U.S. and Chinese adults. Methods: Middle aged and older adults from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 combined surveys (n = 4,544), and the 2011 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (n = 6,030) were included...
March 10, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#16
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327565/impaired-nutritional-status-in-geriatric-trauma-patients
#17
F S Müller, O W Meyer, P Chocano-Bedoya, S Schietzel, M L Gagesch, G Freystaetter, V Neuhaus, H-P Simmen, W Langhans, H A Bischoff-Ferrari
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition is an established risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes. Our aim was to assess nutritional status among geriatric trauma patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We enrolled 169 consecutive patients (⩾70 years) admitted to the Geriatric Traumatology Centre (University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland). On admission to acute care, nutritional status was assessed with the mini nutritional assessment (score<17=malnourished (M), ⩽23.5=at risk of malnutrition (ARM), >23...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327524/reducing-risk-of-salmonellosis-through-egg-decontamination-processes
#18
REVIEW
Thilini Piushani Keerthirathne, Kirstin Ross, Howard Fallowfield, Harriet Whiley
Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327211/reduced-fetal-vitamin-d-status-by-maternal-undernutrition-during-discrete-gestational-windows-in-sheep
#19
J K Cleal, M R Hargreaves, K R Poore, J C Y Tang, W D Fraser, M A Hanson, L R Green
Placental transport of vitamin D and other nutrients (e.g. amino acids, fats and glucose) to the fetus is sensitive to maternal and fetal nutritional cues. We studied the effect of maternal calorific restriction on fetal vitamin D status and the placental expression of genes for nutrient transport [aromatic T-type amino acid transporter-1 (TAT-1); triglyceride hydrolase/lipoprotein uptake facilitator lipoprotein lipase (LPL)] and vitamin D homeostasis [CYP27B1; vitamin D receptor (VDR)], and their association with markers of fetal cardiovascular function and skeletal muscle growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327177/intestinal-t-lymphocyte-homing-is-associated-with-gastric-emptying-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-critically-ill-a-prospective-observational-study
#20
Christian Greis, Zohal Rasuly, Rolf A Janosi, Lambros Kordelas, Dietrich W Beelen, Tobias Liebregts
BACKGROUND: Impaired gastric emptying is common in critically ill patients. Intestinal dysmotility, a major cause of feed intolerance, may foster infectious complications due to mucosal barrier disruption. However, little is known about gut-directed immune activation, intestinal barrier function and its association with impaired gastric emptying in critically ill patients at ICU admission. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at two tertiary care medical ICUs...
March 22, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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