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functional nutrition

Shwu-Feng Tsay, Shih-Chung Chen, Shu-Jen Lu, Li-Ting Liu
Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
William H Jin, Eric A Mellon, Jessica M Frakes, Gilbert Z Murimwa, Pamela J Hodul, Jose M Pimiento, Mokenge P Malafa, Sarah E Hoffe
Background: Total psoas area (TPA), a marker of sarcopenia, has been used as an independent predictor of clinical outcomes in gastrointestinal (GI) cancers as a proxy for frailty and nutritional status. Our study aimed to evaluate whether TPA, in contrast to traditional measurements of nutrition like body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA), was predictive of outcomes in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) and locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Evelyn S Buckman, Ibok Oduro, Wisdom A Plahar, Charles Tortoe
Many plant species that are suitable for food across the world are neglected and underutilized. In order to increase their diversified food uses and thus help enhance food and nutrition security, we studied the chemical and functional properties of Pachyrhizus erosus (yam bean), which is a neglected and underutilized legume species. The chemical properties of flour produced from the yam bean include 5.8% moisture content, 5.7% crude fat, 6.2% crude fiber, and 85% available carbohydrate, indicating appropriate shelf-stable flour, low fat, and abundant energy...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Lai-Hua Liu, Teng-Fei Fan, Dong-Xue Shi, Chang-Jun Li, Ming-Jie He, Yi-Yin Chen, Lei Zhang, Chao Yang, Xiao-Yuan Cheng, Xu Chen, Di-Qin Li, Yi-Chen Sun
Although many members encoding different ammonium- and nitrate-transporters (AMTs, NRTs) were identified and functionally characterized from several plant species, little is known about molecular components for [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text] acquisition/transport in tobacco, which is often used as a plant model for biological studies besides its agricultural and industrial interest. We reported here the first molecular identification in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) of nine AMTs and four NRTs , which are respectively divided into four ( AMT1/2/3/4 ) and two ( NRT1/2 ) clusters and whose functionalities were preliminarily evidenced by heterologous functional-complementation in yeast or Arabidopsis...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jeffery M Reddan, David J White, Helen Macpherson, Andrew Scholey, Andrew Pipingas
Modifying nutritional intake through supplementation may be efficacious for altering the trajectory of cerebral structural decline evident with increasing age. To date, there have been a number of clinical trials in older adults whereby chronic supplementation with B vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, or resveratrol, has been observed to either slow the rate of decline or repair cerebral tissue. There is also some evidence from animal studies indicating that supplementation with glycerophospholipids (GPL) may benefit cerebral structure, though these effects have not yet been investigated in adult humans...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Hong Zhou, HaiXin Qian
Objective: To investigate enteral nutrition's effect on serum inflammatory factors and the cardiac function of malnourished elderly patients with heart failure. Patients and methods: A total of 105 elderly patients with heart failure were randomly divided into 3 groups: Treatment Group A, Treatment Group B, and the Control Group (Group C), each group having 35 patients and being administered conventional heart failure treatment. Group A was treated with 500 mL·d-1 of enteral nutrition for 1 month...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Mengjing Li, Hongsheng Ouyang, Hongming Yuan, Jianing Li, Zicong Xie, Kankan Wang, Tingting Yu, Minghao Liu, Xue Chen, Xiaochun Tang, Huping Jiao, Daxin Pang
The fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a fatty acid desaturase which was widely studied due to its beneficial function of converting n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFAs) to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs). To date, many fat-1 transgenic animals have been generated to study disease pathogenesis or improve meat quality. However, all of them were generated using a random integration method with variable transgene expression levels and the introduction of selectable marker genes often raise biosafety concern...
March 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
David Clemmons
The IGF binding protein family contains six members that share significant structural homology. Their principal function is to regulate the actions of IGF-I and IGF-II. These proteins are present in plasma and extracellular fluids and regulate access of both IGF-I and II to the type I IGF receptor. Additionally they have functions that are independent of their ability to bind IGFs. Each protein is regulated independently of IGF-I and IGF-II and this provides an important mechanism by which other hormones and physiologic variables can regulate IGF actions indirectly...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Antonio Martínez-Amat, Agustín Aibar-Almazán, Raquel Fábrega-Cuadros, David Cruz-Díaz, José D Jiménez-García, Faustino R Pérez-López, Alexander Achalandabaso, Rafael Barranco-Zafra, Fidel Hita-Contreras
Sarcopenic obesity (SO) represents a major public health concern. Physical activity has been recommended to minimize functional decline in the elderly and it may also be relevant to SO management. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to investigate the effects of different exercise modalities, alone or combined with nutritional supplementation, on body composition, muscle strength and physical function in healthy community-dwelling older adults with SO. A literature search was performed using the PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL and Cochrane Plus databases...
April 2018: Maturitas
Matthias Butter, Stefan Weiler, Luc Biedermann, Michael Scharl, Gerhard Rogler, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, Benjamin Misselwitz
Approximately 10-20% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cases are diagnosed after 60 years of age. Due to the high prevalence of conditions mimicking IBD at older age - including bowel disease associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diverticulitis, and microscopic colitis - differential diagnosis of IBD among older adults is frequently delayed. Late-onset IBD is characterized by a predominance of colonic disease and an overall milder disease course; disease progression and new intestinal manifestations are rare...
April 2018: Maturitas
Simon O Ichumar, Emma E Dahlberg, Ellen B Paynter, Fiona M C Lucey, Miranda R Chester, Lennelle Papertalk, Sandra C Thompson
OBJECTIVE: To assess the school breakfast program (SBP) in two schools with high Aboriginal student populations in rural Western Australia, their contribution to holistic support, nutritional health education and possibilities for improvement. METHODS: The operations and functioning of one regional and one remote SBP were assessed by stakeholder inquiry related to process and challenges, observations and documentary review. An intervention to increase health education, social interaction and learning about nutrition and food origins implemented in one school was assessed...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Y Q Liu, P Strappe, Z K Zhou, C Blanchard
Rice bran, a valuable byproduct of the rice milling process, has limitations in food industrial applications due to its instability during storage. This review summaries the methodology for stabilization and its impact on the nutritional properties of rice bran. A variety of treatments have been used and these include heat treatment, low-temperature storage, biological and chemical approaches and these will be discussed in terms of their ability to destroy/inhibit enzyme activity and improve storage performance of rice bran...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
M Loudiyi, A Aït-Kaddour
Chemical composition, sensory characteristics, textural and functional properties are among the most important characteristics, which directly relates to the global quality of cheese and to consumer acceptability. A number of factors including milk composition, processing conditions and salt content, influences these properties. The past decades many investigations were performed on the possibilities to reduce salt content of cheese due to its adverse health effects, the current lifestyle and the awareness of the consumers for nutrition quality products...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Mohamed A Farag, Amira R Khattab, Anja Ehrlich, Matthias Kropf, Andreas G Heiss, Ludger A Wessjohann
Lens culinaris and several Lupinus species are two legumes regarded as potential protein resources aside from their richness in phytochemicals. Characterization of their metabolite composition is warranted as a sustainable functional food. This study presents a discriminatory-holistic approach for metabolites profiling in accessions of four lentil cultivars and four lupinus species via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 107 metabolites were identified encompassing organic and amino acids, sugars and sterols along with anti-nutrients viz...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Joseph Firth, Simon Rosenbaum, Philip B Ward, Jackie Curtis, Scott B Teasdale, Alison R Yung, Jerome Sarris
AIM: The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in "first-episode psychosis" (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP...
March 21, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
Diego de Souza Gonçalves, Marina da Silva Ferreira, Susie Coutinho Liedke, Kamilla Xavier Gomes, Gabriel Afonso de Oliveira, Pedro Ernesto Lopes Leão, Gabriele Vargas Cesar, Sergio H Seabra, Juliana Reis Cortines, Arturo Casadevall, Leonardo Nimrichter, Gilberto Barbosa Domont, Magno Rodrigues Junqueira, Jose Mauro Peralta, Allan J Guimaraes
Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) are ubiquitously distributed in nature, and by contaminating medical devices such as heart valves and contact lenses, they cause a broad range of clinical presentations to humans. Although several molecules have been described to play a role in Ac pathogenesis, including parasite host-tissue invasion and escaping of host-defense, little information is available on their mechanisms of secretion. Herein, we describe the molecular components secreted by Ac, under different protein availability conditions to simulate host niches...
March 21, 2018: Virulence
XiaoLi Bing, Joseph Gerlach, Gregory Loeb, Nicolas Buchon
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura is an invasive species of vinegar fly that has become a prominent pest of berries and other soft-skinned fruits. Unlike most other Drosophila species, female D. suzukii flies lay their eggs in ripening and ripe fruits and larvae develop within the fruit. To understand how D. suzukii larvae utilize ripe and ripening fruits, which usually have low levels of protein, we investigated the microbiota of field-captured and laboratory-reared D. suzukii flies and further examined the combined influence of diet and microbes on host fitness...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Laura J Henze, Brendan T Griffin, Martin Christiansen, Christoffer Bundgaard, Peter Langguth, Rene Holm
The present study investigated the gastric emptying rate in Göttingen minipigs pre- and post-prandial and evaluated the effect of metoclopramide on the same parameter, using paracetamol as an absorption marker. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of the obtained plasma concentration data for paracetamol demonstrated that the fastest gastric emptying rate was observed in the animals that were allowed access to normal pig food. There was no significant difference in the stomach emptying rate observed between fasted and fed minipigs, when fed either with a FDA standard breakfast or a nutritional energy drink...
March 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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