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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925666/marginal-effects-of-systemic-ccr5-blockade-with-maraviroc-on-oral-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-transmission-to-infant-macaques
#1
Egidio Brocca-Cofano, Cuiling Xu, Katherine S Wetzel, Mackenzie L Cottrell, Benjamin B Policicchio, Kevin D Raehtz, Dongzhu Ma, Tammy Dunsmore, George S Haret-Richter, Karam Musaitif, Brandon F Keele, Angela D Kashuba, Ronald G Collman, Ivona Pandrea, Cristian Apetrei
Current approaches do not eliminate all HIV-1 maternal-to-infant transmissions (MTIT); new prevention paradigms might help avert new infections. We administered Maraviroc (MVC) to rhesus macaques (RMs) to block CCR5-mediated entry, followed by repeated oral exposure of a CCR5-dependent clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 (SIVmac766). MVC significantly blocked the CCR5 coreceptor in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tissue cells. All control animals and 60% of MVC-treated infant RMs became infected by the 6th challenge, with no significant difference between the number of exposures (p=0...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900165/surviving-and-thriving-shifting-the-public-health-response-to-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-report-of-the-3rd-hiv-exposed-uninfected-child-workshop
#2
Amy L Slogrove, Renaud Becquet, Ellen G Chadwick, Hélène C F Côté, Shaffiq Essajee, Rohan Hazra, Valériane Leroy, Mary Mahy, Maurine Murenga, Jacqueline Wambui Mwangi, Laura Oyiengo, Nigel Rollins, Martina Penazzato, George R Seage, Lena Serghides, Marissa Vicari, Kathleen M Powis
Great gains were achieved with the introduction of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals, including improved child survival. Transition to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focused on surviving, thriving, and transforming, representing an important shift to a broader public health goal, the achievement of which holds the promise of longer-term individual and societal benefits. A similar shift is needed with respect to outcomes for infants born to women living with HIV (WLHIV). Programming to prevent vertical HIV transmission has been successful in increasingly achieving a goal of HIV-free survival for infants born to WLHIV...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867401/perinatal-hiv-infection-or-exposure-is-associated-with-low-n-acetylaspartate-and-glutamate-in-basal-ganglia-at-age-9-but-not-7-years
#3
Frances C Robertson, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Els Dobbels, Francesca Little, Barbara Laughton, André J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Abnormalities of the basal ganglia are frequently seen in HIV-infected (HIV+) children despite antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation during childhood. Assessment of metabolites associated with neuronal integrity or with glial proliferation can present a sensitive description of metabolic events underlying basal ganglia structural changes. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to examine differences in creatine, choline, N -acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate, and myo-inositol between HIV+ children and HIV-unexposed controls, as well as between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and HIV-unexposed controls at age 7 and at age 9...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794831/neurodevelopment-of-breastfed-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-hiv-unexposed-children-in-south-africa-a-prospective-cohort
#4
Stanzi le Roux, Kirsten Donald, Kirsty Brittain, Tamsin K Phillips, Allison Zerbe, Kelly K Nguyen, Andrea Strandvik, Max Kroon, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
OBJECTIVES: To assess neurodevelopment of breastfed HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and breastfed HIV-unexposed (HU) children in the context of universal maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Prospective study with antenatal enrolment and follow-up of breastfeeding HEU and HU mother-infant pairs through 12-18 months postpartum. SETTING: Peri-urban community, Cape Town, South Africa. SUBJECTS: HEU (n = 215) and HU (n = 306) children...
May 22, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771780/biomarkers-of-aging-in-hiv-infected-children-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Stephanie Shiau, Renate Strehlau, Jing Shen, Avy Violari, Faeezah Patel, Afaaf Liberty, Marc Foca, Shuang Wang, Mary Beth Terry, Michael T Yin, Ashraf Coovadia, Elaine J Abrams, Stephen M Arpadi, Louise Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Data on accelerated aging in HIV-infected children are limited. In this study we assess two biomarkers of aging - telomere length and DNA methylation (DNAm) age - in a cohort of early-treated HIV-infected children and compare these aging biomarkers to HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children. SETTING: Cross-sectional study of 120 HIV-infected, 33 HEU, and 25 HUU children enrolled in a cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762690/intestinal-integrity-biomarkers-in-early-antiretroviral-treated-perinatally-hiv-1-infected-infants
#6
Wei Li A Koay, Jane C Lindsey, Priyanka Uprety, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Adriana Weinberg, Myron J Levin, Deborah Persaud
Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) and zonulin), were compared in early antiretroviral-treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV+; n=56) African infants and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU; n=53) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV+ infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at three months of age were not different from those in HEU infants, and largely not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased, and became significantly higher in HIV+ compared to HEU infants by five months of age despite ART-suppression...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752892/high-vertical-hiv-transmission-rate-in-the-midwest-region-of-brazil
#7
Vanessa Terezinha Gubert de Matos, Fabiani de Morais Batista, Naiara Valera Versage, Clarice Souza Pinto, Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira, Érica Freire de Vasconcelos Pereira, Roberta Barbeta Dos Rios de Matos, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini Dal Fabbro, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: To estimate vertical HIV transmission rate in a capital city of the Midwest region of Brazil and describe the factors related to transmission. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study based on the analysis of secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN). The analysis considered all HIV-infected pregnant women with delivery in Campo Grande-MS in the years 2007-2013 and their HIV-exposed infants. RESULTS: A total of 218 births of 176 HIV-infected pregnant women were identified during the study period, of which 187 infants were exposed and uninfected, 19 seroconverted, and 12 were still inconclusive in July 2015...
May 9, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750766/infectious-morbidity-mortality-and-nutrition-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-formula-fed-infants-results-from-the-hptn-040-pactg-1043-trial
#8
Nava Yeganeh, D Heather Watts, Jiahong Xu, Tara Kerin, Esau C Joao, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Gerhard Theron, Glenda Gray, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Valdilea Veloso, Margaret Camarca, Lynne Mofenson, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants are a growing population with potentially poor health outcomes. We evaluated morbidity and mortality in HEU formula-fed infants enrolled in the NICHD HPTN 040/PACTG 1043 trial. METHODS: Infectious morbidity, mortality, and undernutrition were evaluated within a cohort of 1,000 HEU infants enrolled between 4/2004 and 4/2010 in Brazil (N=766) and South Africa (N=234) as part of the NICHD/HPTN 040 trial of three different antiretroviral regimens to decrease intrapartum HIV vertical transmission...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746376/neruodevelopmental-outcomes-in-pre-school-children-living-with-hiv-1-subtypes-a-and-d-in-uganda
#9
Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Alla Sikorskii, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Deborah Persaud, Carrie Ziemniak, Noeline Nakasujja, Robert Opoka, Michael Boivin
BACKGROUND: HIV is a neuropathogenic virus that may result in detrimental neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes early in life. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of HIV-1 subtype on neurodevelopment of Ugandan pre-school children. METHODS: Neurodevelopment of 87 HIV-1 infected and 221 HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) Ugandan children aged 1.8 to 4.9 years was assessed using four scales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL), two scales of the Color Object Association Test (COAT), and one score of the Early Childhood Vigilance Test (ECVT)...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732363/human-milk-oligosaccharides-and-associations-with-immune-mediated-disease-and-infection-in-childhood-a-systematic-review
#10
Alice M Doherty, Caroline J Lodge, Shyamali C Dharmage, Xin Dai, Lars Bode, Adrian J Lowe
Complex sugars found in breastmilk, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), may assist in early-life immune programming and prevention against infectious diseases. This study aimed to systematically review the associations between maternal levels of HMOs and development of immune-mediated or infectious diseases in the offspring. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched (last search on 22 February 2018) according to a predetermined search strategy. Original studies published in English examining the effect of HMOs on immune-mediated and infectious disease were eligible for inclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722482/five-year-neurodevelopment-outcomes-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-on-early-limited-or-deferred-continuous-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
Barbara Laughton, Morna Cornell, Martin Kidd, Priscilla Estelle Springer, Els Françoise Marie-Thérèse Dobbels, Anita Janse Van Rensburg, Kennedy Otwombe, Abdel Babiker, Diana M Gibb, Avy Violari, Mariana Kruger, Mark Fredric Cotton
INTRODUCTION: Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ≤12 weeks of age with CD4 ≥25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W)...
May 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703241/human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-hiv-1-mediated-neuroinflammation-dysregulates-neurogranin-and-induces-synaptodendritic-injury
#12
Debjani Guha, Marc C E Wagner, Velpandi Ayyavoo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common outcome of a majority of HIV-1-infected subjects and is associated with synaptodendritic damage. Neurogranin (Ng), a postsynaptic protein, and calmodulin (CaM) are two important players of synaptic integrity/functions. The biological role of Ng in the context of HAND is unknown. METHODS: We compared the expression of Ng in frontal cortex (FC) tissues from control and HIV-1-positive subjects with and without HAND by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and qRT-PCR...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692311/sulfamethoxazole-levels-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-ugandan-children
#13
Jingo Kasule, Erin E Gabriel, Aggrey Anok, Jillian Neal, Richard T Eastman, Scott Penzak, Kevin Newell, David Serwadda, Patrick E Duffy, Steven J Reynolds, Charlotte V Hobbs
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, exposed (HUE) children variably reduces clinical malaria burden despite antifolate resistance, but data regarding achieved serum levels and adherence are lacking. Serum samples from 70 HUE children aged 3-12 months from Rakai, Uganda, enrolled in an observational study were assayed for random SMX levels using a colorimetric assay. Adherence with TMP-SMX prophylaxis data (yes/no) was also collected. Of 148 visits with concurrent SMX levels available, 56% had self-reported adherence with TMP-SMX therapy...
June 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672222/macrophage-derived-extracellular-vesicles-mediates-smooth-muscle-hyperplasia-role-of-altered-mirna-cargo-in-response-to-hiv-infection-and-substance-abuse
#15
Himanshu Sharma, Mahendran Chinnappan, Stuti Agarwal, Pranjali Dalvi, Sumedha Gunewardena, Amy O'Brien-Ladner, Navneet K Dhillon
Our previous studies consistently demonstrate enhanced pulmonary vascular remodeling in HIV-infected intravenous drug users, and in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques or HIV-transgenic rats exposed to opioids or cocaine. Although we reported an associated increase in perivascular inflammation, the exact role of inflammatory cells in the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling remains unknown. In this study, HIV-infected and cocaine (H+C)-treated human monocyte derived macrophages released a higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs), compared to HIV-infected or uninfected cocaine-treated macrophages, with a significant increase in the particle size range to 100-150 nm...
April 19, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667336/optimal-breastfeeding-durations-for-hiv-exposed-infants-the-impact-of-maternal-art-use-infant-mortality-and-replacement-feeding-risk
#16
Divya Mallampati, Rachel L MacLean, Roger Shapiro, Francois Dabis, Barbara Engelsmann, Kenneth A Freedberg, Valeriane Leroy, Shahin Lockman, Rochelle Walensky, Nigel Rollins, Andrea Ciaranello
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, the WHO recommended women living with HIV breastfeed for 12 months while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to balance breastfeeding benefits against HIV transmission risks. To inform the 2016 WHO guidelines, we updated prior research on the impact of breastfeeding duration on HIV-free infant survival (HFS) by incorporating maternal ART duration, infant/child mortality and mother-to-child transmission data. METHODS: Using the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC)-Infant model, we simulated the impact of breastfeeding duration on 24-month HFS among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666343/interleukin-gene-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-hiv-1-infection-a-meta-analysis
#17
Chrissa G Tsiara, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Niki L Dimou, Katerina G Pantavou, Pantelis G Bagos, Benedicta Mensah, Michael Talias, Georgia G Braliou, Dimitra Paraskeva, Stefanos Bonovas, Angelos Hatzakis
Some subjects are repeatedly exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet they remain uninfected. This suggests the existence of host-resistance mechanisms. The current study synthesizes the evidence regarding the association between interleukin (IL) gene polymorphisms and HIV susceptibility. Medline, Scopus and the Web of Science databases were systematically searched, and a meta-analysis of case-control studies was conducted. Univariate and bivariate methods were used. The literature search identified 42 eligible studies involving 15,727 subjects...
March 2018: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663621/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-young-children-born-to-hiv-positive-mothers-in-rural-yunnan-china
#18
Jie Wu, Jing Li, Yan Li, Kek Khee Loo, Haixia Yang, Qiong Wang, Rufei Duan, Xia Xiao, Xiaoxiao Song, Siwei Yang, Lin Sun
BACKGROUND: Children born to HIV-infected mothers are at risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Little is known about neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants and toddlers who were born to HIV-positive mothers but were not themselves infected by HIV, especially in poor rural areas. This study was conducted to compare developmental outcomes between young children who were HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) and their HIV-unexposed and uninfected (HUU) peers in rural Yunnan, China. METHODS: A total of 250 HEU children aged 6-36 months and 250 HUU children matched on age, gender and residency were recruited from rural Yunnan, China...
April 16, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625591/neurodevelopmental-assessment-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-and-early-treated-hiv-infected-children-study-protocol
#19
Renate Strehlau, Tamryn van Aswegen, Joanne Potterton
OBJECTIVE: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of children at risk of not achieving their developmental potential, attributable largely to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic coupled with negative environmental factors. Childhood developmental stimulation programmes can mitigate adverse outcomes. METHODS: Neonates testing HIV positive at birth will be initiated on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and receive an age-appropriate stimulation program, updated at 3 monthly intervals through the first year of life...
April 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620934/factors-associated-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#20
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana R Amaral, Laura Freimanis, Donald Robert Harris, Christiana Smith, George Siberry
To identify factors that predispose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) to higher incidence of severe infections, hospitalization, and death in the first 6-24 months of life compared with HEUs with and without lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 6 months of life. Nested case-control study of 107 LRTI+ infants enrolled in the International Site Development Initiative (NISDI) Perinatal and Longitudinal Study in Latin American Countries (LILAC) studies with and 140 LRTI- in the first 6 months, matched by date and place of birth...
April 23, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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