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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#1
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143461/do-animal-exhibitors-support-and-follow-recommendations-to-prevent-transmission-of-variant-influenza-at-agricultural-fairs-a-survey-of-animal-exhibitor-households-after-a-variant-influenza-virus-outbreak-in-michigan
#2
R J Stewart, J Rossow, J T Conover, E E Lobelo, S Eckel, K Signs, M G Stobierski, S C Trock, A M Fry, S J Olsen, M Biggerstaff
Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139222/serological-evidence-for-the-co-circulation-of-two-lineages-of-influenza-d-viruses-in-equine-populations-of-the-midwest-united-states
#3
H Nedland, J Wollman, C Sreenivasan, M Quast, A Singrey, L Fawcett, J Christopher-Hennings, E Nelson, R S Kaushik, D Wang, F Li
Influenza D virus (IDV) is a newly described influenza type of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family that was first isolated from diseased swine in 2011 and has subsequently been detected in cattle around the world in 2014. In addition, serological evidence for IDV infection in humans has been recently established. Despite all the progress, the full range of susceptible hosts for this novel virus has yet to be determined, but includes swine, bovine, small ruminants and human. This study was designed to determine if equine is a possible host to this newly emerging influenza virus...
November 14, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115092/hypocomplementemic-urticarial-vasculitis-syndrome-with-membranous-nephropathy-case-report
#4
Su Woong Jung, Yun Young Choi, In Seung Choi, Seulki Kim, Kyung Hwan Jeong, Ran Song, Sang Hoon Lee, Hyung In Yang, Seung Jae Hong, Yeon Ah Lee
Urticarial vasculitis is a rare disorder that principally manifests with recurrent urticarial, sometimes hemorrhagic, skin lesions and/or angioedema. Its clinical presentation is not always limited to cutaneous lesions and it can potentially affect other organs, such as the joints, lungs, kidneys, and eyes. Systemic involvement can either be present at the onset of disease or develop over time. In cases with systemic manifestations, urticarial vasculitis is more likely to be associated with a low complement level...
December 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102115/molecular-epidemiology-of-swine-influenza-a-viruses-in-the-southeastern-united-states-highlights-regional-differences-in-circulating-strains
#5
Constantinos S Kyriakis, Ming Zhang, Stefan Wolf, Les P Jones, Byoung-Shik Shim, Anna H Chocallo, Jarod M Hanson, MingRui Jia, Dong Liu, Ralph A Tripp
Swine influenza A virus (IAV) can cause widespread respiratory disease with high morbidity, low mortality, and have a substantial economic impact to the swine industry. Swine infection may contribute to pandemic IAV given their susceptibility to both avian and human IAVs. Currently, three IAV subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2) circulate in swine in North America frequently combining gene segments from avian or human viruses. This study investigated the prevalence of IAV in commercial swine herds. A total of 1878 oral fluid samples were collected from pigs of all ages from 201 commercial farms located in North Carolina and South Carolina...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102108/increased-virulence-of-a-pb2-ha-mutant-of-an-avian-h9n2-influenza-strain-after-three-passages-in-porcine-differentiated-airway-epithelial-cells
#6
Wei Yang, Ruth L O Lambertz, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Sarah R Leist, Jürgen Stech, Klaus Schughart, Georg Herrler, Nai-Huei Wu, Fandan Meng
We analyzed the adaptation of influenza viruses to growth in differentiated airway epithelial cells of a new host by passaging an avian H9N2 virus three times in porcine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Sequence analysis revealed four mutations: one each in the PB2 and NS1 proteins, and two in the HA protein. In this study, we characterized the PB2 mutation G685R by generating recombinant H9N2 viruses containing the PB2 single mutation alone or in combination with one of the HA mutations (A190V or T212I). When analyzed in porcine cells - a tracheal cell line (NPTr) or PCLS - the PB2-685 mutant did not provide a growth advantage and had no effect on the ciliary activity which is a virulence marker of swine influenza viruses...
November 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091579/protective-efficacy-of-a-virus-vectored-multi-component-vaccine-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-porcine-circovirus-type-2-and-swine-influenza-virus
#7
Debin Tian, Harini Sooryanarain, Shannon R Matzinger, Phil C Gauger, Anbu K Karuppannan, Subbiah Elankumaran, Tanja Opriessnig, Xiang-Jin Meng
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and swine influenza virus (SIV) are three of the most economically important swine pathogens, causing immense economic losses to the global swine industry. Monovalent commercial vaccines against each of the three viruses are routinely used in pig farms worldwide. A trivalent vaccine against all three pathogens would greatly simplify the vaccination programme and reduce the financial burden to the swine industry. In this study, by using an attenuated strain of PRRSV (strain DS722) as a live virus vector, we generated a multi-component vaccine virus, DS722-SIV-PCV2, which expresses the protective antigens from SIV and PCV2...
November 1, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075888/evidence-of-infection-with-avian-human-and-swine-influenza-viruses-in-pigs-in-cairo-egypt
#8
Mokhtar R Gomaa, Ahmed Kandeil, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Mahmoud M Shehata, Pamela P McKenzie, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Ghazi Kayali
The majority of the Egyptian swine population was culled in the aftermath of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, but small-scale growing remains. We sampled pigs from piggeries and an abattoir in Cairo. We found virological evidence of infection with avian H9N2 and H5N1 viruses as well as human pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Serological evidence suggested previous exposure to avian H5N1 and H9N2, human pandemic H1N1, and swine avian-like and human-like viruses. This raises concern about potential reassortment of influenza viruses in pigs and highlights the need for better control and prevention of influenza virus infection in pigs...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068663/portable-gmr-handheld-platform-for-the-detection-of-influenza-a-virus
#9
Kai Wu, Todd Klein, Venkatramana D Krishna, Diqing Su, Andres M Perez, Jian-Ping Wang
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a common respiratory pathogen infecting many hosts including humans, pigs (swine influenza virus or SIV), and birds (avian influenza virus or AIV). Monitoring swine and avian influenza viruses in the wild, farms, and live poultry markets is of great significance for human and veterinary public health. A portable, sensitive, and quantitative immunoassay device will be of high demand especially in the rural and resource-limited areas. We report herein our Z-Lab point-of-care (POC) device for sensitive and specific detection of swine influenza viruses with minimum sample handling and laboratory skill requirements...
October 25, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060087/prediction-of-influenza-a-virus-infections-in-humans-using-an-artificial-neural-network-learning-approach
#10
Charalambos Chrysostomou, Harris Partaourides, Huseyin Seker
The Influenza type A virus can be considered as one of the most severe viruses that can infect multiple species with often fatal consequences to the hosts. The Haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the virus has the potential to be a target for antiviral drug development realised through accurate identification of its sub-types and possible the targeted hosts. In this paper, to accurately predict if an Influenza type A virus has the capability to infect human hosts, by using only the HA gene, is therefore developed and tested...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058649/the-emergence-and-evolution-of-influenza-a-h1%C3%AE-viruses-in-swine-in-canada-and-the-united-states
#11
Martha I Nelson, Marie R Culhane, Nídia S Trovão, Devi P Patnayak, Rebecca A Halpin, Xudong Lin, Meghan H Shilts, Suman R Das, Susan E Detmer
Swine are a key reservoir host for influenza A viruses (IAVs), with the potential to cause global pandemics in humans. Gaps in surveillance in many of the world's largest swine populations impede our understanding of how novel viruses emerge and expand their spatial range in pigs. Although US swine are intensively sampled, little is known about IAV diversity in Canada's population of ~12 million pigs. By sequencing 168 viruses from multiple regions of Canada, our study reveals that IAV diversity has been underestimated in Canadian pigs for many years...
November 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054116/t-cell-epitope-content-comparison-epicc-of-swine-h1-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin
#12
Andres H Gutiérrez, Vicki Rapp-Gabrielson, Frances E Terry, Crystal Loving, Leonard Moise, William D Martin, Anne S De Groot
BACKGROUND: Predicting vaccine efficacy against emerging pathogen strains is a significant problem in human and animal vaccine design. T cell epitope cross-conservation may play an important role in cross-strain vaccine efficacy. While influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers are widely used to predict protective efficacy of one IAV vaccine against new strains, no similar correlate of protection has been identified for T cell epitopes. OBJECTIVE: We developed a computational method (EpiCC) that facilitates pairwise comparison of protein sequences based on an immunological property - T cell epitope content - rather than sequence identity, and evaluated its ability to classify swine IAV strain relatedness to estimate cross-protective potential of a vaccine strain for circulating viruses...
October 20, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046448/in-vitro-neutralization-is-not-predictive-of-prophylactic-efficacy-of-broadly-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibodies-cr6261-and-cr9114-against-lethal-h2-influenza-virus-challenge-in-mice
#13
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Kevin W Bock, Ian N Moore, Wouter Koudstaal, Muniza Rehman, Gerrit Jan Weverling, Jaap Goudsmit, Kanta Subbarao
Influenza viruses of the H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes have caused previous pandemics. H2 influenza viruses represent a pandemic threat due to continued circulation in wild birds and limited immunity in the human population. In the event of a pandemic, anti-viral agents are the mainstay for treatment, but broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) may be a viable alternative for short-term prophylaxis or treatment. The hemagglutinin stem binding bNAbs CR6261 and CR9114 have been shown to protect mice from severe disease following challenge with H1N1 and H5N1, and H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B viruses, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017603/longitudinal-study-of-influenza-a-virus-circulation-in-a-nursery-swine-barn
#14
Juliana B Ferreira, Helena Grgić, Robert Friendship, Greg Wideman, Éva Nagy, Zvonimir Poljak
Commercial production of swine often involves raising animals in large groups through the use of multi-stage production systems. In such systems, pigs can experience different degrees of contact with animals of the same or different ages. Population size and degree of contact can greatly influence transmission of endemic pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). IAV can display high genetic variability, which can further complicate population-level patterns. Yet, the IAV transmission in large multi-site swine production systems has not been well studied...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993601/potency-of-an-inactivated-influenza-vaccine-prepared-from-a-duck-hokkaido-162-2013-h2n1-against-a-challenge-with-a-swine-missouri-2124514-2006-h2n3-in-mice
#15
Mizuho Suzuki, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Takahiro Hiono, Keita Matsuno, Yoshihiro Sakoda
H2N2 influenza virus caused a pandemic starting in 1957 but has not been detected in humans since 1968. Thus, most people are immunologically naive to viruses of the H2 subtype. In contrast, H2 influenza viruses are continually isolated from wild birds, and H2N3 viruses were isolated from pigs in 2006. H2 influenza viruses could cause a pandemic if re-introduced into humans. In the present study, a vaccine against H2 influenza was prepared as an effective control measure against a future human pandemic. A/duck/Hokkaido/162/2013 (H2N1), which showed broad antigenic cross-reactivity, was selected from the candidate H2 influenza viruses recently isolated from wild birds in Asian countries...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974251/control-of-endemic-swine-flu-persistence-in-farrow-to-finish-pig-farms-a-stochastic-metapopulation-modeling-assessment
#16
Charlie Cador, Mathieu Andraud, Lander Willem, Nicolas Rose
Swine influenza viruses (swIAVs) are known to persist endemically in farrow-to-finish pig farms, leading to repeated swine flu outbreaks in successive batches of pigs at a similar age (mostly around 8 weeks of age). This persistence in European swine herds involves swIAVs from European lineages including H1avN1, H1huN2, H3N2, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus and their reassortants. The specific population dynamics of farrow-to-finish pig farms, the immune status of the animals at infection-time, the co-circulation of distinct subtypes leading to consecutive or concomitant infections have been evidenced as factors favouring swIAV persistence within herds...
October 3, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955081/awareness-about-swine-flu-h1n1-influenza-virus-among-the-tertiary-population-of-lahore-pakistan
#17
Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani
The present study was designed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) of the parents of b-thalassaemia children (410) selected from public (73.2%) and private (26.8%) thalassaemia centers of Rawalpindi-Islamabad. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect the data, which was analyzed by using SPSS. Majority of the respondents (70%) were rural young parents with no knowledge of thalassaemia before marriage. However, now 81.2% were aware about this. Majority of the respondents (89%) had the knowledge about premarital screening, 86...
October 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947901/evaluation-of-nxtag-respiratory-pathogen-panel-and-comparison-with-xtag-respiratory-viral-panel-fast-v2-and-film-array-respiratory-panel-for-detecting-respiratory-pathogens-in-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-and-swine-avian-origin-influenza-a-subtypes-in-culture-isolates
#18
K H Chan, K K W To, P T W Li, T L Wong, R Zhang, K K H Chik, G Chan, C C Y Yip, H L Chen, I F N Hung, J F W Chan, K Y Yuen
This study evaluated a new multiplex kit, Luminex NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel, for respiratory pathogens and compared it with xTAG RVP Fast v2 and FilmArray Respiratory Panel using nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and culture isolates of different swine/avian-origin influenza A subtypes (H2N2, H5N1, H7N9, H5N6, and H9N2). NxTAG RPP gave sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 99.6%, PPV of 93.5%, and NPV of 99.7%. NxTAG RPP, xTAG RVP, and FilmArray RP had highly concordant performance among each other for the detection of respiratory pathogens...
2017: Advances in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945819/comparison-of-pneumocystis-nucleic-acid-and-antibody-profiles-and-their-associations-with-other-respiratory-pathogens-in-two-austrian-pig-herds
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Christiane Weissenbacher-Lang, Nora Nedorost, Christian Knecht, Isabel Hennig-Pauka, Mathias Huber, Thomas Voglmayr, Herbert Weissenböck
Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. suis (PCS) nucleic acid and antibody profiles on two Austrian-farrow-to-finish farms were investigated. Furthermore, associations with other respiratory pathogens were evaluated. Respiratory specimen and sera from pigs of five age classes between the 1st week and the 3rd month of life as well as samples from sows were analyzed. On Farm A, PCS infection occurred early in life. The suckling piglets were already infected in the 1st week of life and the pigs remained positive until the 3rd month of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941982/immune-efficacy-of-an-adenoviral-vector-based-swine-influenza-vaccine-against-antigenically-distinct-h1n1-strains-in-mice
#20
Yunpu Wu, Dawei Yang, Bangfeng Xu, Wenhua Liang, Jinyu Sui, Yan Chen, Huanliang Yang, Hualan Chen, Ping Wei, Chuanling Qiao
Avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses are prevalent in pigs and have occasionally crossed the species barrier and infected humans, which highlights the importance of preventing swine influenza. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been tested in human influenza vaccine clinical trials and has exhibited a reliable safety profile. Here, we generated a replication-defective, recombinant adenovirus (designated as rAd5-avH1HA) expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/199/2013, ZJ/199/13)...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Research
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