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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350168/influenza-d-virus-in-cattle-ireland
#1
Orla Flynn, Clare Gallagher, Jean Mooney, Claire Irvine, Mariette Ducatez, Ben Hause, Guy McGrath, Eoin Ryan
We detected influenza D virus in 18 nasal swab samples from cattle in Ireland that were clinically diagnosed with respiratory disease. Specimens were obtained from archived samples received for routine diagnosis during 2014-2016. Sequencing showed that viruses from Ireland clustered with virus sequences obtained in Europe within the D/swine/OK/1334/2011 clade.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339427/pandemic-paradox-early-life-h2n2-pandemic-influenza-infection-enhanced-susceptibility-to-death-during-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic
#3
Alain Gagnon, Enrique Acosta, Stacey Hallman, Robert Bourbeau, Lisa Y Dillon, Nadine Ouellette, David J D Earn, D Ann Herring, Kris Inwood, Joaquin Madrenas, Matthew S Miller
Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immunity. For example, during the 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic, those exposed to H1N1 viruses that circulated between 1918 and the 1940s were at a decreased risk for mortality as a result of their previous immunity...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324680/phylogenetic-analysis-and-characterization-of-a-sporadic-isolate-of-equine-influenza-a-h3n8-from-an-unvaccinated-horse-in-2015
#4
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321324/influenza-c-and-d-viruses-package-eight-organized-ribonucleoprotein-complexes
#5
Sumiho Nakatsu, Shin Murakami, Keiko Shindo, Taisuke Horimoto, Hiroshi Sagara, Takeshi Noda, Yoshihiro Kawaoka
Influenza A and B viruses have eight-segmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes, whereas influenza C and D viruses have seven-segmented genomes. Each genomic RNA segment exists in the form of a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) in association with nucleoproteins and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in virions. Influenza D virus was recently isolated from swine and cattle, but its morphology is not fully studied. Here, we examined the morphological characteristics of D/bovine/Yamagata/10710/2016 (D/Yamagata) and C/Ann Arbor/50 (C/AA), focusing on RNPs packaged within the virions...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316958/molecular-subtyping-of-european-swine-influenza-viruses-and-scaling-to-high-throughput-analysis
#6
Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Cédric Woudstra, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Timm C Harder, Patrick Fach, Séverine Hervé, Gaëlle Simon
BACKGROUND: Swine influenza is a respiratory infection of pigs that may have a significant economic impact in affected herds and pose a threat to the human population since swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are zoonotic pathogens. Due to the increasing genetic diversity of swIAVs and because novel reassortants or variants may become enzootic or have zoonotic implications, surveillance is strongly encouraged. Therefore, diagnostic tests and advanced technologies able to identify the circulating strains rapidly are critically important...
January 10, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286299/evolution-and-virulence-of-influenza-a-virus-protein-pb1-f2
#7
REVIEW
Ram P Kamal, Irina V Alymova, Ian A York
PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. This can at least partially be explained by the presence of multiple PB1-F2 sequence variants, including premature stop codons that lead to the expression of truncated PB1-F2 proteins of different lengths and specific virulence-associated residues that enhance susceptibility to bacterial superinfection...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280974/harnessing-invariant-nkt-cells-to-improve-influenza-vaccines-a-pig-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Guan Yang, Jürgen A Richt, John P Driver
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an "innate-like" T cell lineage that recognize glycolipid rather than peptide antigens by their semi-invariant T cell receptors. Because iNKT cells can stimulate an extensive array of immune responses, there is considerable interest in targeting these cells to enhance human vaccines against a wide range of microbial pathogens. However, long overlooked is the potential to harness iNKT cell antigens as vaccine adjuvants for domestic animal species that express the iNKT cell-CD1d system...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276514/cross-protective-efficacy-of-influenza-virus-m2e-containing-virus-like-particles-is-superior-to-hemagglutinin-vaccines-and-variable-depending-on-the-genetic-backgrounds-of-mice
#9
Yu-Jin Kim, Young-Tae Lee, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Eun-Ju Ko, Jae-Min Song, Sang-Moo Kang
Influenza virus M2 extracellular domain (M2e) has been a target for developing cross-protective vaccines. However, the efficacy and immune correlates of M2e vaccination are poorly understood in the different host genetic backgrounds in comparison with influenza vaccines. We previously reported the cross-protective efficacy of virus-like particle (M2e5x VLP) vaccines containing heterologous tandem M2e repeats (M2e5x) derived from human, swine, and avian influenza viruses. In this study to gain better understanding of cross-protective influenza vaccines, we compared immunogenicity and efficacy of M2e5x VLP, H5 hemagglutinin VLP (HA VLP), and inactivated H3N2 virus (H3N2i) in wild-type strains of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and CD4 and CD8 knockout (KO) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274732/corrigendum-to-molecular-epidemiology-of-swine-influenza-a-viruses-in-the-southeastern-united-states-highlights-regional-differences-in-circulating-strains-vet-microbiol-211-2017-174-179
#10
Constantinos S Kyriakis, Ming Zhang, Stefan Wolf, Les P Jones, Byoung-Shik Shim, Anna H Chocallo, Jarod M Hanson, MingRui Jia, Dong Liu, Ralph A Tripp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250437/heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-with-h3n2-influenza-viruses-of-swine-favors-cross-clade-antibody-responses-and-protection
#11
Kristien Van Reeth, José Carlos Mancera Gracia, Ivan Trus, Lieve Sys, Gerwin Claes, Han Versnaeyen, Eric Cox, Florian Krammer, Yu Qiu
The emergence of multiple novel lineages of H1 and H3 influenza A viruses in swine has confounded control by inactivated vaccines. Because of substantial genetic and geographic heterogeneity among circulating swine influenza viruses, one vaccine strain per subtype cannot be efficacious against all of the current lineages. We have performed vaccination-challenge studies in pigs to examine whether priming and booster vaccinations with antigenically distinct H3N2 swine influenza viruses could broaden antibody responses and protection...
2017: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249314/protective-effect-of-a-polyvalent-influenza-dna-vaccine-in-pigs
#12
Ingrid Karlsson, Marie Borggren, Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne, Ramona Trebbien, James A Williams, Enric Vidal, Júlia Vergara-Alert, David Solanes Foz, Ayub Darji, Marta Sisteré-Oró, Joaquim Segalés, Jens Nielsen, Anders Fomsgaard
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine herds represents a major problem for the swine industry and poses a constant threat for the emergence of novel pandemic viruses and the development of more effective influenza vaccines for pigs is desired. By optimizing the vector backbone and using a needle-free delivery method, we have recently demonstrated a polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine that induces a broad immune response, including both humoral and cellular immunity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the protection of our polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine approach in a pig challenge study...
January 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236357/live-attenuated-influenza-virus-vaccine-reduces-virus-shedding-of-newborn-piglets-in-the-presence-of-maternal-antibody
#13
Marika Genzow, Christa Goodell, Troy J Kaiser, Wesley Johnson, Marc Eichmeyer
BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) causes an acute respiratory disease of swine which results in great economic losses in pig production. Major control strategies include the use of killed vaccines (KV) in breeding females to confer passive immunity to their offspring. A bivalent H1N1 and H3N2 NS1-truncated live attenuated IAV-S vaccine has recently become available, which showed promising results in young pigs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an intranasal vaccination of newborn pigs with or without maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on virus shedding (via nasal swabs tested by virus isolation)...
December 13, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202835/coinfection-modulates-inflammatory-responses-clinical-outcome-and-pathogen-load-of-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-and-haemophilus-parasuis-infections-in-pigs
#14
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Zygmunt Pejsak
BACKGROUND: Respiratory co-infections are important factor affecting the profitability of pigs production. Swine influenza virus (SIV) may predispose to secondary infection. Haemophilus parasuis (Hps) can be a primary pathogen or be associated with other pathogens such as SIV. To date, little is known about the effect of coinfection with SIV and Hps on the disease severity and inflammatory response and the role of Hps in the induction of pneumonia in the absence of other respiratory pathogens...
December 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180817/virus-replicon-particle-vaccines-expressing-nucleoprotein-of-influenza-a-virus-mediate-enhanced-inflammatory-responses-in-pigs
#15
Meret E Ricklin, Sylvie Python, Nathalie J Vielle, Daniel Brechbühl, Beatrice Zumkehr, Horst Posthaus, Gert Zimmer, Nicolas Ruggli, Artur Summerfield
Studies in the mouse model indicate that the nucleoprotein of influenza A virus represents an interesting vaccine antigen being well conserved across subtypes of influenza virus but still able to induce protective immune responses. Here we show that immunizations of pigs with vesicular stomatitis virus- and classical swine fever virus-derived replicon (VRP) particles expressing the nucleoprotein (NP) of H1N1 A/swine/Belzig/2/01 induced potent antibody and T-cell responses against influenza A virus. In contrast to a conventional whole inactivated virus vaccine, the VRP vaccines induced both NP-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses, including interferon-γ and tumor-necrosis-factor dual-secreting cell...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175013/the-pb2-k627e-mutation-attenuates-h3n2-swine-influenza-virus-in-cultured-cells-and-in-mice
#16
Xiao-Qian Gong, Bao-Yang Ruan, Xiao-Min Liu, Peng Zhang, Xiu-Hui Wang, Qi Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Wu Tong, Yan-Jun Zhou, Guo-Xin Li, Hao Zheng, Guang-Zhi Tong, Hai Yu
PB2-627K is an important amino acid that determines the virulence of some influenza A viruses. However, it has not been experimentally investigated in the H3N2 swine influenza virus. To explore the potential role of PB2-K627E substitution in H3N2 swine influenza virus, the growth properties and pathogenicity between H3N2 swine influenza virus and its PB2-K627E mutant were compared. For the first time, our results showed that PB2-K627E mutation attenuates H3N2 swine influenza virus in mammalian cells and in mice, suggesting that PB2-627K is required for viral replication and pathogenicity of H3N2 swine influenza virus...
November 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166978/molecular-detection-of-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-viruses-with-m-genes-from-human-pandemic-strains-among-nigerian-pigs-2013-2015-implications-and-associated-risk-factors
#17
O A Adeola, B O Olugasa, B O Emikpe
In the post-pandemic period, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus has been detected in swine populations in different parts of the world. This study was conducted to determine the presence and spatial patterns of this human pandemic virus among Nigerian pigs and identify associated risk factors. Using a two-stage stratified random sampling method, nasal swab specimens were obtained from pigs in Ibadan, Nigeria during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 influenza seasons, and the virus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
December 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164401/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-an-h5n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-china-in-2015
#18
Haibo Wu, Fan Yang, Rufeng Lu, Lihua Xu, Fumin Liu, Xiuming Peng, Nanping Wu
In 2015, an H5N1 influenza virus was isolated from a pig in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China. This strain was characterized by whole-genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all segments from this strain belonged to clade 2.3.2 and that it had received its genes from poultry influenza viruses in China. A Glu627Lys mutation associated with pathogenicity was observed in the PB2 protein. This strain was moderately pathogenic in mice and was able to replicate without prior adaptation...
November 21, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150910/educating-youth-swine-exhibitors-on-influenza-a-virus-transmission-at-agricultural-fairs
#19
J M Nolting, J Midla, M S Whittington, S D Scheer, A S Bowman
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major zoonotic pathogen that threatens global public health. Novel strains of influenza A viruses pose a significant risk to public health due to their pandemic potential, and transmission of influenza A viruses from animals to humans is an important mechanism in the generation and introduction of IAVs that threaten human health. The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to develop real-life training scenarios to better inform swine exhibitors of the risks they may encounter when influenza A viruses are present in swine...
November 17, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143461/do-animal-exhibitors-support-and-follow-recommendations-to-prevent-transmission-of-variant-influenza-at-agricultural-fairs-a-survey-of-animal-exhibitor-households-after-a-variant-influenza-virus-outbreak-in-michigan
#20
R J Stewart, J Rossow, J T Conover, E E Lobelo, S Eckel, K Signs, M G Stobierski, S C Trock, A M Fry, S J Olsen, M Biggerstaff
Influenza A viruses circulate in swine and can spread rapidly among swine when housed in close proximity, such as at agricultural fairs. Youth who have close and prolonged contact with influenza-infected swine at agricultural fairs may be at increased risk of acquiring influenza virus infection from swine. Animal and human health officials have issued written measures to minimize influenza transmission at agricultural exhibitions; however, there is little information on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of these measures among animal exhibitors...
November 16, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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