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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#1
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325625/-serological-detection-of-brucella-suis-influenza-virus-and-aujeszky-s-disease-virus-in-backyard-and-small-swine-holders-in-argentina
#2
Marina Dibarbora, Javier A Cappuccio, María N Aznar, Fernando A Bessone, Hernán Piscitelli, Ariel J Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321029/influenza-a-virus-infection-in-japanese-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-leucomystax
#3
Hiroshi Shimoda, Dung VAN Nguyen, Kenzo Yonemitsu, Shohei Minami, Nao Nagata, Nanami Hara, Ryusei Kuwata, Shin Murakami, Yuuji Kodera, Tsutomu Takeda, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Taisuke Horimoto, Ken Maeda
Serum samples were collected from 385 wild boars between 2010 and 2013 to examine the seroprevalence of influenza A virus (IAV) in Japan. Antibodies against IAV were identified using a commercial kit in 13 wild boars (3.4%). To identify the serotypes, positive sera were examined by virus-neutralization test using representative serotypes and strains. Three wild boars in Yamaguchi and four in Tochigi showed the highest antibody titers against the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus and classical swine H1N1 virus strains, respectively...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301280/panblok-h1-advax-h1n1-2009pdm-vaccine-insights-into-rapid-development-of-an-delta-inulin-adjuvanted-recombinant-pandemic-influenza-vaccine
#4
Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Harinda Rajapaksha, Dimitar Sajkov, David Gordon, Manon M J Cox, Nikolai Petrovsky
Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm 'swine flu' pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284612/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-triple-reassortant-h3n2-swine-influenza-a-viruses-is-attenuated-following-turkey-embryo-propagation
#5
Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran, Rahul Tevatia, Tanya Leroith
Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284596/kinetics-of-single-and-dual-infection-of-pigs-with-swine-influenza-virus-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#6
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282440/h1n1-influenza-viruses-varying-widely-in-hemagglutinin-stability-transmit-efficiently-from-swine-to-swine-and-to-ferrets
#7
Marion Russier, Guohua Yang, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Peter Vogel, Bryan S Kaplan, Richard J Webby, Charles J Russell
A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267619/protection-of-human-influenza-vaccines-against-a-reassortant-swine-influenza-virus-of-pandemic-h1n1-origin-using-a-pig-model
#8
Jirapat Arunorat, Nataya Charoenvisal, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Supattra Jittimanee, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Pariwat Poolperm, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2...
February 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262619/kaempferol-ameliorates-h9n2-swine-influenza-virus-induced-acute-lung-injury-by-inactivation-of-tlr4-myd88-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-mapk-signaling-pathways
#9
Ruihua Zhang, Xia Ai, Yongjie Duan, Man Xue, Wenxiao He, Cunlian Wang, Tong Xu, Mingju Xu, Baojian Liu, Chunhong Li, Zhijun Wang, Ruihong Zhang, Guohua Wang, Shufei Tian, Huifeng Liu
Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment...
March 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252630/-pharmacoepidemiological-study-of-the-course-of-influenza-and-other-acute-respiratory-viral-infections-in-risk-groups
#10
V A Bulgakova, A A Poromov, A I Grekova, N Yu Pshenichnaya, E P Selkova, N I Lvov, I A Leneva, I V Shestakova, V V Maleev
AIM: To identify risk factors (RFs) for the development of bacterial complications and the prolonged course of influenza and other acute respiratory viral infections (ARVIs) among inpatients treated in Russian healthcare facilities in the post-pandemic period; to determine the clinical presentation of the disease (flu-like syndrome) in risk-group people and to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral therapy with arbidol (umifenovir). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigators retrospectively analyzed randomly selected medical records of inpatients with influenza and other ARVI in 88 hospitals from 50 regions of the Russian Federation: those of 3532 and 1755 patients in the 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 seasons, respectively, by applying parametric and nonparametric statistical methods...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245096/triple-reassortant-influenza-a-virus-with-h3-of-human-seasonal-origin-na-of-swine-origin-and-internal-a-h1n1-pandemic-2009-genes-is-established-in-danish-pigs
#11
Jesper Schak Schak Krog, Charlotte Kristiane Hjulsager, Michael Albin Larsen, Lars Erik Larsen
The present report describe a triple-reassortant influenza A virus with a HA that resembles H3 of human seasonal influenza from 2004/2005, N2 from influenza A virus already established in swine and the internal gene cassette from A(H1N1)pdm09, has spread in Danish pig herds. The virus has been detected in several Danish pig herds during the last two-three years and may possess a challenge for human as well as animal health.
February 28, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242003/factors-affecting-induction-of-peripheral-ifn-%C3%AE-recall-response-to-influenza-a-virus-vaccination-in-pigs
#12
Zahra F Olson, Matthew R Sandbulte, Carine Kunzler Souza, Daniel R Perez, Amy L Vincent, Crystal L Loving
While T cell contribution to IAV immunity is appreciated, data comparing methods to evaluate IFN-γ production by IAV-specific T cells elicited following vaccination is limited. To understand the differential immunogenicity between live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) and whole-inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines in relation to induction of peripheral T cell responses, ELISpot and ELISA were used to assess IFN-γ production by peripheral lymphocytes following antigen restimulation. Following restimulation, peripheral blood lymphocytes from WIV-vaccinated pigs had a greater quantity of IFN-γ secreting cells (SC) and IFN-γ secreted compared to LAIV vaccinated and non-vaccinated (NV) pigs...
March 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237236/influenza-a-virus-in-swine-breeding-herds-combination-of-vaccination-and-biosecurity-practices-can-reduce-likelihood-of-endemic-piglet-reservoir
#13
L A White, M Torremorell, M E Craft
Recent modelling and empirical work on influenza A virus (IAV) suggests that piglets play an important role as an endemic reservoir. The objective of this study is to test intervention strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of IAV in piglets and ideally, preventing piglets from becoming exposed in the first place. These interventions include biosecurity measures, vaccination, and management options that swine producers may employ individually or jointly to control IAV in their herds. We have developed a stochastic Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Vaccinated (SEIRV) model that reflects the spatial organization of a standard breeding herd and accounts for the different production classes of pigs therein...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237230/estimation-of-the-transmission-parameters-for-swine-influenza-and-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-viruses-in-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-under-natural-conditions
#14
Emanuela Pileri, Gerard E Martín-Valls, Ivan Díaz, Alberto Allepuz, Meritxell Simon-Grifé, Ariadna García-Saenz, Jordi Casal, Enric Mateu
In the present study, the transmission parameters of swine influenza virus (SIV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) have been calculated using the basic reproductive rate (R) parameter in two commercial pig farms (F1 and F2). In order to do this, a serological (PRRSV genotype 1 and SIV) and virological (SIV) follow-up of a batch of animals was carried out weekly from 3 weeks of age until the age of slaughter on each farm. Results of the analysis for SIV and PRRSV showed different transmission profiles depending on the farm, the pathogen, and time of transmission...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223682/environmental-surfaces-used-in-entry-day-corralling-likely-contribute-to-the-spread-of-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-at-agricultural-fairs
#15
Sarah E Lauterbach, Michele M Zentkovich, Sarah W Nelson, Jacqueline M Nolting, Andrew S Bowman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206909/a-highly-pathogenic-avian-derived-influenza-virus-h5n1-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1-internal-genes-demonstrates-increased-replication-and-transmission-in-pigs
#16
Eugenio J Abente, Pravina Kitikoon, Kelly M Lager, Phillip C Gauger, Tavis K Anderson, Amy L Vincent
This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 lineage influenza A virus that was isolated from a human, A/Iraq/755/06. We also examined surface gene reassortant viruses composed of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/Iraq/755/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, A/New York/18/2009 (2Iraq/06 : 6NY/09 H5N1), and haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/New York/18/2009 with the internal genes of A/Iraq/755/06 (2NY/09 : 6Iraq/06 H1N1)...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183395/swine-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-siv-infection-requiring-extracorporeal-life-support-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-with-indirect-exposure-to-pigs-italy-october-2016
#17
Francesca Rovida, Antonio Piralla, Federico Capra Marzani, Ana Moreno, Giulia Campanini, Francesco Mojoli, Marco Pozzi, Alessia Girello, Chiara Chiapponi, Fausto Vezzoli, Paola Prati, Elena Percivalle, Anna Pavan, Maria Gramegna, Giorgio Antonio Iotti, Fausto Baldanti
We describe a case of severe swine influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in an immunocompetent middle-aged man in October 2016 in Italy who had only indirect exposure to pigs. The patient developed a severe acute distress respiratory syndrome which was successfully supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and treated with antiviral therapy. The sole risk factor for influenza was a body mass index > 30 kg/m(2). After a month of hospitalisation, the patient was discharged in good health.
February 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181421/complete-genome-sequence-of-a-novel-influenza-a-h1n2-virus-circulating-in-swine-from-central-bajio-region-mexico
#18
J I Sánchez-Betancourt, J B Cervantes-Torres, M Saavedra-Montañez, R A Segura-Velázquez
The aim of this study was to perform the complete genome sequence of a swine influenza A H1N2 virus strain isolated from a pig in Guanajuato, México (A/swine/Mexico/GtoDMZC01/2014) and to report its seroprevalence in 86 counties at the Central Bajio zone. To understand the evolutionary dynamics of the isolate, we undertook a phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments. These data revealed that the isolated virus is a reassortant H1N2 subtype, as its genes are derived from human (HA, NP, PA) and swine (M, NA, PB1, PB2 and NS) influenza viruses...
February 8, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153610/development-and-evaluation-of-a-new-real-time-rt-pcr-assay-for-detection-of-proposed-influenza-d-virus
#19
Silvia Faccini, Aurora De Mattia, Chiara Chiapponi, Ilaria Barbieri, Maria Beatrice Boniotti, Carlo Rosignoli, Giuliana Franzini, Ana Moreno, Emanuela Foni, Arrigo Daniele Nigrelli
The occurrence of virus belonging to the putative genus Influenzavirus D, has been demonstrated all-around the world arousing interest within the scientific community. Most of the published virological surveys are based on the first described Real-Time PCR method, designed on the PB1 gene of the first isolate. The necessity of extending investigation to different animal species and geographic areas, requires a continuous update of molecular tests, considering newly sequenced strains. Moreover, the availability of an alternative assay, is essential either to confirm data, or for ensuring the detection of the widest number of strains...
May 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148793/mutations-during-the-adaptation-of-h9n2-avian-influenza-virus-to-the-respiratory-epithelium-of-pigs-enhance-the-sialic-acid-binding-activity-and-the-virulence-in-mice
#20
W Yang, D Punyadarsaniya, R L O Lambertz, D C C Lee, C H Liang, D Höper, S R Leist, A Hernández-Cáceres, J Stech, M Beer, C Y Wu, C H Wong, K Schughart, F Meng, G Herrler
The natural reservoir for influenza viruses is waterfowl from where they succeeded to cross the barrier to different mammalian species. We analyzed the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to a mammalian host by passaging an H9N2 strain three times in differentiated swine airway epithelial cells. Using precision-cut slices from the porcine lung to passage the parental virus, isolates from each of the three passages (P1-P3) were characterized by assessing growth curves and ciliostatic effects. The only difference noted was an increased growth kinetics of the P3 virus...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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