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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918148/influenza-a-virus-surveillance-in-the-invasive-american-mink-neovison-vison-from-freshwater-ecosystems-northern-spain
#1
H Gholipour, N Busquets, X Fernández-Aguilar, A Sánchez, M P Ribas, G De Pedro, P Lizarraga, O Alarcia-Alejos, C Temiño, O Cabezón
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902762/presenting-influenza-a-m2e-antigen-on-recombinant-spores-of-bacillus-subtilis
#2
Tomasz Łęga, Paulina Weiher, Michał Obuchowski, Dawid Nidzworski
Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#3
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888742/serological-evidence-for-high-prevalence-of-influenza-d-viruses-in-cattle-nebraska-united-states-2003-2004
#4
Junrong Luo, Lucas Ferguson, David R Smith, Amelia R Woolums, William B Epperson, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza D virus (IDV), a new member of the influenza virus family, was first reported in 2011 in swine in Oklahoma, USA, and then soon found in cattle across North America and Eurasia. Earlier studies suggested cattle serve as natural reservoir for IDV. The goal of this study is to perform a retrospective study looking at sera collected from Nebraska beef herds in 2003-2004 and 2014 for evidence of IDV antibodies. Results showed that all 40 randomly selected farms (2003-2004) we tested contained IDV seropositive adult animals and that approximately 98% of newborn calves (2014) had high levels of maternal antibodies against IDV...
November 23, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874827/weighing-serological-evidence-of-human-exposure-to-animal-influenza-viruses-a-literature-review
#5
Reina Saapke Sikkema, Gudrun Stephanie Freidl, Erwin de Bruin, Marion Koopmans
Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles...
November 3, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862363/a-comprehensive-microbiological-safety-approach-for-agarose-encapsulated-porcine-islets-intended-for-clinical-trials
#6
Lawrence S Gazda, James Collins, Archie Lovatt, Robert W Holdcraft, Merribeth J Morin, Daniel Galbraith, Melanie Graham, Melissa A Laramore, Christine Maclean, John Black, Euan W Milne, Douglas G Marthaler, Horatiu V Vinerean, Michelle M Michalak, Deborah Hoffer, Steven Richter, Richard D Hall, Barry H Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. In this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for clinical trials...
November 11, 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860313/origin-distribution-and-potential-risk-factors-associated-with-influenza-a-virus-in-swine-in-two-production-systems-in-guatemala
#7
Ana S Gonzalez-Reiche, Ana L Ramírez, María L Müller, David Orellana, Silvia M Sosa, Pablo Ola, Jorge Paniagua, Lucía Ortíz, Jorge Hernandez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Daniel R Perez
BACKGROUND: Guatemala is the country with the largest swine production in Central America; however, evidence of influenza A virus (IAV) in pigs has not been clearly delineated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we analyzed the presence and spatial distribution of IAV in commercial and backyard swine populations. METHODS: Samples from two nation-wide surveys conducted in 2010 and 2011 were tested using virological (rRT-PCR and virus isolation) and serological (ELISA and Hemagglutination Inhibition) assays to detect IAV...
November 12, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852224/novel-approach-for-identification-of-influenza-virus-host-range-and-zoonotic-transmissible-sequences-by-determination-of-host-related-associative-positions-in-viral-genome-segments
#8
Fatemeh Kargarfard, Ashkan Sami, Manijeh Mohammadi-Dehcheshmeh, Esmaeil Ebrahimie
BACKGROUND: Recent (2013 and 2009) zoonotic transmission of avian or porcine influenza to humans highlights an increase in host range by evading species barriers. Gene reassortment or antigenic shift between viruses from two or more hosts can generate a new life-threatening virus when the new shuffled virus is no longer recognized by antibodies existing within human populations. There is no large scale study to help understand the underlying mechanisms of host transmission. Furthermore, there is no clear understanding of how different segments of the influenza genome contribute in the final determination of host range...
November 16, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847354/an-amino-acid-in-the-stalk-domain-of-n1-neuraminidase-is-critical-for-enzymatic-activity
#9
Mark Zanin, Susu Duan, Sook-San Wong, Gyanendra Kumar, Pradyumna Baviskar, Emily Collin, Charles Russell, Subrata Barman, Benjamin Hause, Richard Webby
: Neuraminidase (NA) is a sialidase expressed on the surface of influenza A viruses that releases progeny viruses from the surface of infected cells and prevents viruses becoming trapped in mucus. It is a homo-tetramer with each monomer consisting of a transmembrane region, a stalk and a globular head with sialidase activity. We recently characterized two swine viruses of the pandemic H1N1 lineage; A/swine/Virginia/1814-1/2012 (pH1N1low-1) and A/swine/Virginia/1814-2/2012 (pH1N1low-2) with almost undetectable NA enzymatic activity compared to the highly homologous A/swine/Pennsylvania/2436/2012 (pH1N1-1) and A/swine/Minnesota/2499/2012 (pH1N1-2) viruses...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828989/predicted-enhanced-human-propensity-of-current-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-from-china
#10
Veljko Veljkovic, Nevena Veljkovic, Slobodan Paessler, Marco Goeijenbier, Vladimir Perovic, Sanja Glisic, Claude P Muller
Influenza A virus (IAV) subtypes against which little or no pre-existing immunity exists in humans represent a serious threat to global public health. Monitoring of IAV in animal hosts is essential for early and rapid detection of potential pandemic IAV strains to prevent their spread. Recently, the increased pandemic potential of the avian-like swine H1N1 IAV A/swine/Guangdong/104/2013 has been suggested. The virus is infectious in humans and the general population seems to lack neutralizing antibodies against this virus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827462/ecological-dynamics-of-influenza-a-viruses-cross-species-transmission-and-global-migration
#11
Hongguang Ren, Yuan Jin, Mingda Hu, Jing Zhou, Ting Song, Zhisong Huang, Beiping Li, Kaiwu Li, Wei Zhou, Hongmei Dai, Weifeng Shi, Junjie Yue, Long Liang
A comprehensive study of cross-species transmission and inter-regional migration would provide insights into the global ecology of influenza A viruses (IAVs). To this end, we assembled 17,241 non-redundant IAV whole-genome sequences with complete epidemiological information. We hierarchically divided the movements of IAVs into the cross-species transmission in each region and the inter-regional migration driven by each host species. We then systematically identified the potential cross-species transmission and inter-regional migration events...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821546/are-people-living-near-modern-swine-production-facilities-at-increased-risk-of-influenza-virus-infection
#12
Paul M Lantos, Kate Hoffman, Michael Höhle, Benjamin Anderson, Gregory C Gray
BACKGROUND:  Swine can harbor influenza viruses that are pathogenic to humans. Previous studies support an increased risk of human influenza cases among individuals with swine contact. North Carolina has the second-largest swine industry in the United States. METHODS:  We investigated the spatiotemporal association between influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) and licensed swine operations from 2008 to 2012 in North Carolina. We determined the week in which ILI cases peaked and statistically estimated their week of onset...
November 6, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807237/influenza-overcomes-cellular-blocks-to-productively-replicate-impacting-macrophage-function
#13
Shauna A Marvin, Marion Russier, C Theodore Huerta, Charles J Russell, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
: Whether influenza replication in macrophages is productive or abortive has been a topic of debate. Utilizing a panel of 28 distinct human, avian and swine influenza viruses, we found that only a small subset can overcome cellular blocks to productively replicate in murine and primary human macrophages. Murine macrophages have two cellular blocks; the first block is during viral entry where virions with relatively acid-stable hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are rendered incapable of pH-induced triggering for membrane fusion resulting in lysomal degradation...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807224/amino-acids-in-hemagglutinin-antigenic-site-b-determine-antigenic-and-receptor-binding-differences-between-a-h3n2-v-and-ancestral-seasonal-h3n2-influenza-viruses
#14
Xiaoquan Wang, Natalia A Ilyushina, Vladimir Y Lugovtsev, Nicolai V Bovin, Laura K Couzens, Jin Gao, Raymond P Donnelly, Maryna C Eichelberger, Hongquan Wan
: Influenza A H3N2 variant [A(H3N2)v] viruses, which have caused human infections in the US in recent years, originated from human seasonal H3N2 viruses that were introduced into North American swine in the mid-1990s, but are antigenically distinct from both the ancestral and current circulating H3N2 strains. A reference A(H3N2)v virus, A/Minnesota/11/2010 (MN/10), and a seasonal H3N2 strain, A/Beijing/32/1992 (BJ/92), were chosen to determine the molecular basis for the antigenic difference between A(H3N2)v and the ancestral viruses...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799877/genetic-characteristics-and-immunogenicity-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-virus-isolate-from-pig-in-korea
#15
Hyoung Joon Moon, Jin Sik Oh, Woonsung Na, Minjoo Yeom, Sang Yoon Han, Sung Jae Kim, Bong Kyun Park, Dae Sub Song, Bo Kyu Kang
A pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus strain was isolated from a pig farm in Korea in December 2009. The strain was propagated in and isolated from both the Madin-Darby canine kidney cell line and embryonated eggs. The partial and complete sequences of the strain were identical to those of A/California/04/2009, with >99% sequence similarity in the HA, NA, M, NS, NP, PA, PB1, and PB2 genes. The isolated strain was inactivated and used to prepare a swine influenza vaccine. This trial vaccine, containing the new isolate that has high sequence similarity with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, resulted in seroconversion in Guinea pigs and piglets...
October 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796330/an-extract-from-taxodium-distichum-targets-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase-related-activities-of-influenza-virus-in-vitro
#16
Chung-Fan Hsieh, Yu-Li Chen, Chwan-Fwu Lin, Jin-Yuan Ho, Chun-Hsun Huang, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Pei-Wen Hsieh, Jim-Tong Horng
Influenza virus remains an emerging virus and causes pandemics with high levels of fatality. After screening different plant extracts with potential anti-influenza activity, a water extract of Taxodium distichum stems (TDSWex) showed excellent activity against influenza viruses. The EC50 of TDSWex was 0.051 ± 0.024 mg/mL against influenza virus A/WSN/33. TDSWex had excellent antiviral efficacy against various strains of human influenza A and B viruses, particularly oseltamivir-resistant clinical isolates and a swine-origin influenza strain...
October 31, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795418/vietnamese-influenza-a-viruses-of-swine-between-2010-and-2015-multiple-introductions-of-a-h1n1-pdm09-viruses-into-the-pig-population-and-diversifying-genetic-constellations-of-enzootic-iav-s
#17
Nobuhiro Takemae, Michiyo Harada, Phuong Thanh Nguyen, Tung Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Thanh Long To, Tho Dang Nguyen, Vu Phong Pham, Vu Tri Le, Hoa Thi Do, Hung Van Vo, Quang Vinh Tin Le, Tan Minh Tran, Thanh Duy Nguyen, Phuong Duy Thai, Dang Hoang Nguyen, Anh Quynh Thi Le, Diep Thi Nguyen, Yuko Uchida, Takehiko Saito
: Active surveillance of influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) involving 262 farms and 10 slaughterhouses in seven provinces in northern and southern Vietnam from 2010 to 2015 yielded 388 isolates from 32 farms; these viruses were classified into H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtypes. Whole-genome sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates represented 15 genotypes, according to genetic constellation of the eight segments. All of the H1N1 viruses were entirely A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, whereas all of the H1N2 and H3N2 viruses were reassortants among 5 distinct ancestral viruses: H1 and H3 triple-reassortant (TR) IAV-S that originated from North America and pre-2009 human seasonal H1, human seasonal H3N2, and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790597/knowledge-and-awareness-regarding-swine-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-infection-among-dental-professionals-in-india-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Prabh Roohan Pannu, Tarun Nanda, Gagandeep Arora, Amanpreet Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Swine flu or Influenza A (H1N1) flu is the most recent of the pandemic disease that has affected the world's population. We, as health care providers should feel responsible for reducing the transmission of influenza. AIM: To conduct a systematic review of observational studies and to assess dental professionals' knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu among dental professionals...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787493/outbreak-of-influenza-a-h3n2-variant-virus-infections-among-persons-attending-agricultural-fairs-housing-infected-swine-michigan-and-ohio-july-august-2016
#19
Rebekah S Schicker, John Rossow, Seth Eckel, Nicolas Fisher, Sally Bidol, Lilith Tatham, Janice Matthews-Greer, Kevin Sohner, Andrew S Bowman, James Avrill, Tony Forshey, Lenee Blanton, C Todd Davis, John Schiltz, Susan Skorupski, LaShondra Berman, Yunho Jang, Joseph S Bresee, Stephen Lindstrom, Susan C Trock, David Wentworth, Alicia M Fry, Sietske de Fijter, Kimberly Signs, Mary DiOrio, Sonja J Olsen, Matthew Biggerstaff
On August 3, 2016, the Ohio Department of Health Laboratory reported to CDC that a respiratory specimen collected on July 28 from a male aged 13 years who attended an agricultural fair in Ohio during July 22-29, 2016, and subsequently developed a respiratory illness, tested positive by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for influenza A(H3N2) variant* (H3N2v). The respiratory specimen was collected as part of routine influenza surveillance activities. The next day, CDC was notified of a child aged 9 years who was a swine exhibitor at an agricultural fair in Michigan who became ill on July 29, 2016, and tested positive for H3N2v virus at the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services Laboratory...
October 28, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771067/circulation-of-multiple-genotypes-of-h1n2-viruses-in-a-swine-farm-in-italy-over-a-two-month-period
#20
Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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