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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916759/influenza-d-in-italy-towards-a-better-understanding-of-an-emerging-viral-infection-in-swine
#1
Emanuela Foni, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Irene Zanni, Marianna Merenda, Carlo Rosignoli, Constantinos S Kyriakis, Mario Vittorio Luini, Maria Lucia Mandola, Luca Bolzoni, Arrigo Daniele Nigrelli, Silvia Faccini
Influenza D virus (IDV), a new member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, was first reported in 2011 in swine in Oklahoma, and consequently found in cattle across North America and Eurasia. To investigate the circulation of IDV among pigs in Italy, in the period between June 2015 and May 2016, biomolecular and virological tests were performed on 845 clinical samples collected from 448 pig farms affected by respiratory distress located in the Po Valley. Serological tests were conducted on 3698 swine sera, including archive sera collected in 2009, as well as samples collected in 2015 from the same region...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904995/distribution-of-o-acetylated-sialic-acids-among-target-host-tissues-for-influenza-virus
#2
Brian R Wasik, Karen N Barnard, Robert J Ossiboff, Zahra Khedri, Kurtis H Feng, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Daniel R Perez, Ajit Varki, Colin R Parrish
Sialic acids (Sias) are important glycans displayed on the cells and tissues of many different animals and are frequent targets for binding and modification by pathogens, including influenza viruses. Influenza virus hemagglutinins bind Sias during the infection of their normal hosts, while the encoded neuraminidases and/or esterases remove or modify the Sia to allow virion release or to prevent rebinding. Sias naturally occur in a variety of modified forms, and modified Sias can alter influenza virus host tropisms through their altered interactions with the viral glycoproteins...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893917/phenol-soluble-modulin-peptides-contribute-to-influenza-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#3
Dominik Alexander Bloes, Emanuel Haasbach, Carmen Hartmayer, Tobias Hertlein, Karin Klingel, Dorothee Kretschmer, Oliver Planz, Andreas Peschel
Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are often followed by secondary bacterial lung infection, which is a major reason for severe, often fatal pneumonia. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300 cause particularly severe and difficult-to-treat cases of IAV-associated pneumonia. CA-MRSA are known to produce extraordinarily high amounts of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides, important cytotoxins and proinflammatory molecules contributing to several types of S...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885709/prenylation-of-viral-proteins-by-enzymes-of-the-host-virus-driven-rationale-for-therapy-with-statins-and-ft-ggt1-inhibitors
#4
REVIEW
Ekaterina S Marakasova, Birgit Eisenhaber, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Frank Eisenhaber, Ancha Baranova
Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria...
September 8, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883131/genome-sequence-of-an-unusual-reassortant-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-isolated-from-a-pig-in-russia-2016
#5
Ivan Sobolev, Olga Kurskaya, Tatyana Murashkina, Sergey Leonov, Kirill Sharshov, Marsel Kabilov, Tatyana Alikina, Natalia Tolstykh, Vladimir Gorodov, Alexander Alekseev, Alexander Shestopalov
We report here the genome sequence of the influenza A virus strain A/swine/Siberia/1sw/2016, isolated from a swine in Russia. On the basis of sequence analysis, A/swine/Siberia/1sw/2016 is characterized by unusual surface glycoproteins phylogenetically distinct from those of swine A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus.
September 7, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859895/construction-and-comparison-of-different-source-neuraminidase-candidate-vaccine-strains-for-human-infection-with-eurasian-avian-like-influenza-h1n1-virus
#6
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Jianfang Zhou, Zi Li, Heng Zhang, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
Human infections with Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses have been reported in China in past years. One case resulted in death and others were mild case. In 2016, the World Health Organization recommended the use of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus to construct the first candidate vaccine strain for Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses. Previous reports showed that the neuraminidase of A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) might improve the viral yield of reassortant viruses. Therefore, we constructed two reassortant candidate vaccine viruses of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) by reverse genetic technology, with (6+2) and (7+1) gene constitution, respectively...
August 28, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858723/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-inhibits-tlr4-signaling-through-the-67-kda-laminin-receptor-and-effectively-alleviates-acute-lung-injury-induced-by-h9n2-swine-influenza-virus
#7
Ming-Ju Xu, Bao-Jian Liu, Cun-Lian Wang, Guo-Hua Wang, Yong Tian, Shao-Hua Wang, Jun Li, Pei-Yao Li, Rui-Hua Zhang, Dong Wei, Shu-Fei Tian, Tong Xu
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was found to inhibit the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway involved in influenza virus pathogenesis. Here, the effect of EGCG on TLR4 in an H9N2 virus-induced acute lung injury mouse model was investigated. BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with A/Swine/Hebei/108/2002 (H9N2) virus or noninfectious allantoic fluid, and treated with EGCG and E5564 or normal saline orally for 5 consecutive days. PMVECs were treated with EGCG or anti-67kDa laminin receptor (LR). Lung physiopathology, inflammation, oxidative stress, viral replication, and TLR4/NF-κB/Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) pathway in lung tissue and/or PMVECs were investigated...
August 28, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857695/movement-patterns-of-exhibition-swine-and-associations-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-with-swine-management-practices
#8
Nola Bliss, Jason W Stull, Steven J Moeller, Päivi J Rajala-Schultz, Andrew S Bowman
OBJECTIVE To identify the geographic distribution of exhibition swine in the Midwestern United States, characterize management practices used for exhibition swine, and identify associations between those practices and influenza A virus (IAV) detection in exhibition swine arriving at county or state agricultural fairs. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 480 swine exhibitors and 641 exhibition swine. PROCEDURES Inventories of swine exhibited at fairs in 6 selected Midwestern states during 2013 and of the total swine population (including commercial swine) in these regions in 2012 were obtained and mapped...
September 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852568/etiology-of-acute-respiratory-disease-in-fattening-pigs-in-finland
#9
Minna Haimi-Hakala, Outi Hälli, Tapio Laurila, Mirja Raunio-Saarnisto, Tiina Nokireki, Taina Laine, Suvi Nykäsenoja, Kirsti Pelkola, Joaquim Segales, Marina Sibila, Claudio Oliviero, Olli Peltoniemi, Sinikka Pelkonen, Mari Heinonen
BACKGROUND: The objective of our study was to clinically and etiologically investigate acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in Finland. Our study also aimed to evaluate the clinical use of various methods in diagnosing respiratory infections under field conditions and to describe the antimicrobial resistance profile of the main bacterial pathogen(s) found during the study. METHODS: A total of 20 case herds having finishing pigs showing acute respiratory symptoms and eight control herds showing no clinical signs suggesting of respiratory problems were enrolled in the study...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846898/pathogenicity-testing-of-influenza-candidate-vaccine-viruses-in-the-ferret-model
#10
Jessica A Belser, Adam Johnson, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Claudia Pappas, Melissa B Pearce, Wen-Pin Tzeng, M Jaber Hossain, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Li-Mei Chen, David E Wentworth, Jacqueline M Katz, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey
The development of influenza candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) for pre-pandemic vaccine production represents a critical step in pandemic preparedness. The multiple subtypes and clades of avian or swine origin influenza viruses circulating world-wide at any one time necessitates the continuous generation of CVVs to provide an advanced starting point should a novel zoonotic virus cross the species barrier and cause a pandemic. Furthermore, the evolution and diversity of novel influenza viruses that cause zoonotic infections requires ongoing monitoring and surveillance, and, when a lack of antigenic match between circulating viruses and available CVVs is identified, the production of new CVVs...
August 25, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841443/detection-and-characterization-of-an-h4n6-avian-lineage-influenza-a-virus-in-pigs-in-the-midwestern-united-states
#11
Eugenio J Abente, Phillip C Gauger, Rasna R Walia, Daniela S Rajao, Jianqiang Zhang, Karen M Harmon, Mary Lea Killian, Amy L Vincent
H4Nx viruses were reported in swine in Canada and China, but had not been recognized in swine in the USA. In late 2015, an avian-origin H4N6 influenza A virus was isolated from pigs in the United States during a routine diagnostic investigation of clinical respiratory disease in the herd. Serological analysis from additional pigs at the farm and other pigs within the swine production system indicated that the virus did not efficiently transmit from pig-to-pig and the mode of transmission to swine could not be determined...
August 22, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820376/influenza-a-h3n2-virus-in-swine-at-agricultural-fairs-and-transmission-to-humans-michigan-and-ohio-usa-2016
#12
Andrew S Bowman, Rasna R Walia, Jacqueline M Nolting, Amy L Vincent, Mary Lea Killian, Michele M Zentkovich, Joshua N Lorbach, Sarah E Lauterbach, Tavis K Anderson, C Todd Davis, Natosha Zanders, Joyce Jones, Yunho Jang, Brian Lynch, Marisela R Rodriguez, Lenee Blanton, Stephen E Lindstrom, David E Wentworth, John Schiltz, James J Averill, Tony Forshey
In 2016, a total of 18 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) virus occurred after exposure to influenza-infected swine at 7 agricultural fairs. Sixteen of these cases were the result of infection by a reassorted virus with increasing prevalence among US swine containing a hemagglutinin gene from 2010-11 human seasonal H3N2 strains.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814518/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-at-position-225-in-ha-alters-the-transmissibility-of-eurasian-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Zeng Wang, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Shiyu Tao, Liling Liu, Huihui Kong, Shujie Ma, Fei Meng, Yasuo Suzuki, Chuanling Qiao, Hualan Chen
Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810835/secondary-organizing-pneumonia-following-viral-pneumonia-caused-by-severe-influenza-b-a-case-report-and-literature-reviews
#14
Nobuhiro Asai, Toyoharu Yokoi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Some reported that organizing pneumonia (OP) may occur after influenza A infections including swine-origin influenza A (H1N1). However, OP associated with influenza B infection has never been reported. We report the first case of secondary OP associated with viral pneumonia caused by influenza B. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year old woman was diagnosed as viral pneumonia caused by type B influenza. Despite of antiviral therapy, abnormal chest shadows were not improved...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794452/the-anti-influenza-m2e-antibody-response-is-promoted-by-xcr1-targeting-in-pig-skin
#15
Charlotte Deloizy, Even Fossum, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Céline Urien, Tiphany Chrun, Audrey Duval, Maelle Codjovi, Edwige Bouguyon, Pauline Maisonnasse, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Céline Barc, Olivier Boulesteix, Jérémy Pezant, Christophe Chevalier, Nicolas Collin, Marc Dalod, Bjarne Bogen, Nicolas Bertho, Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil
XCR1 is selectively expressed on a conventional dendritic cell subset, the cDC1 subset, through phylogenetically distant species. The outcome of antigen-targeting to XCR1 may therefore be similar across species, permitting the translation of results from experimental models to human and veterinary applications. Here we evaluated in pigs the immunogenicity of bivalent protein structures made of XCL1 fused to the external portion of the influenza virus M2 proton pump, which is conserved through strains and a candidate for universal influenza vaccines...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791803/genetic-analysis-of-human-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-northern-italy-during-2010-2015
#16
C Chiapponi, E Ebranati, E Pariani, S Faccini, A Luppi, L Baioni, R Manfredi, V Carta, M Merenda, P Affanni, M E Colucci, L Veronesi, G Zehender, E Foni
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected...
August 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768203/avian-to-human-receptor-binding-adaptation-by-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-h4
#17
Hao Song, Jianxun Qi, Haixia Xiao, Yuhai Bi, Wei Zhang, Ying Xu, Fei Wang, Yi Shi, George F Gao
Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have caused a global concern to public health since the first novel LPAIV H7N9 outbreak occurred. The receptor-binding properties of the viral hemagglutinin are one key factor for efficient transmission and infection in humans. Recent evidence shows that H4 subtype viruses have been widely circulating in domestic poultry and human asymptomatic infections might have occurred. Here, we evaluated the receptor-binding properties of two representative isolates, avian H4N6 (containing Q226 and G228) and swine H4N6 (containing L226 and S228), and found that the avian isolate preferentially binds to avian receptors, whereas the swine isolate preferentially binds to human receptors...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758634/the-genomic-evolution-of-h1-influenza-a-viruses-from-swine-detected-in-the-united-states-between-2009-and-2016
#18
Shibo Gao, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna R Walia, Karin S Dorman, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Amy L Vincent
Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analysed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates...
August 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757046/rapid-acquisition-adaptive-amino-acid-substitutions-involved-in-the-virulence-enhancement-of-an-h1n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#19
Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
Although H1N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) only infect birds, documented cases of swine infection with H1N2 influenza viruses suggest this subtype AIV may pose a potential threat to mammals. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H1N2 AIV to identify adaptive changes that increased virulence in mammals. MLD50 of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. Variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and replicate in extrapulmonary organs. These data show that enhanced replication capacity and expanded tissue tropism may increase the virulence of H1N2 AIV in mice...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757015/dual-infections-of-cd163-expressing-nptr-epithelial-cells-with-influenza-a-virus-and-prrsv
#20
Chantale Provost, Glenn Hamonic, Carl A Gagnon, François Meurens
In the pig, respiratory co-infections involving various pathogens are far more frequent than single infections. Amongst respiratory viruses, swine influenza type A virus (swIAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are frequently associated. Previously, we performed co-infections with swIAV and PRRSV in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). With these two approaches it was practically impossible to have co-infections of the same cells as the main target cell of swIAV is the epithelial cell while the main target of PRRSV is the PAM...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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