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Swine Influenza

Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro
In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic H1N1 (A(H1N1)pdm09) lineage. To control infection, a vaccination program using vaccines against the A(H1N1)pdm09, human-like H1N2 (H1huN2), human-like H3N2 (H3N2), and H1avN1 viruses was implemented in sows in November 2013...
November 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Wenfei Zhu, Hong Zhang, Xingyu Xiang, Lili Zhong, Lei Yang, Junfeng Guo, Yiran Xie, Fangcai Li, Zhihong Deng, Hong Feng, Yiwei Huang, Shixiong Hu, Xin Xu, Xiaohui Zou, Xiaodan Li, Tian Bai, Yongkun Chen, Zi Li, Junhua Li, Yuelong Shu
In 2015, a novel influenza A(H1N1) virus was isolated from a boy in China who had severe pneumonia. The virus was a genetic reassortant of Eurasian avian-like influenza A(H1N1) (EA-H1N1) virus. The hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix genes of the reassortant virus were highly similar to genes in EA-H1N1 swine influenza viruses, the polybasic 1 and 2, polymerase acidic, and nucleoprotein genes originated from influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus, and the nonstructural protein gene derived from classical swine influenza A(H1N1) (CS H1N1) virus...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Johanneke D Hemmink, Sophie B Morgan, Mario Aramouni, Helen Everett, Francisco J Salguero, Laetitia Canini, Emily Porter, Margo Chase-Topping, Katy Beck, Ronan Mac Loughlin, B Veronica Carr, Ian H Brown, Mick Bailey, Mark Woolhouse, Sharon M Brookes, Bryan Charleston, Elma Tchilian
Influenza virus infection in pigs is a major farming problem, causing considerable economic loss and posing a zoonotic threat. In addition the pig is an excellent model for understanding immunity to influenza viruses as this is a natural host pathogen system. Experimentally, influenza virus is delivered to pigs intra-nasally, by intra-tracheal instillation or by aerosol, but there is little data comparing the outcome of different methods. We evaluated the shedding pattern, cytokine responses in nasal swabs and immune responses following delivery of low or high dose swine influenza pdmH1N1 virus to the respiratory tract of pigs intra-nasally or by aerosol and compared them to those induced in naturally infected contact pigs...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Research
Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
Louisa L Y Chan, Christine T H Bui, Chris K P Mok, Mandy M T Ng, John M Nicholls, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W Chan, Renee W Y Chan
Novel avian H7N9 virus emerged in China in 2013 resulting in a case fatality rate of around 39% and continues to pose zoonotic and pandemic risk. Amino acid substitutions in PB2 protein were shown to influence the pathogenicity and transmissibility of H7N9 following experimental infection of ferrets and mice. In this study, we evaluated the role of amino acid substitution PB2-627K or compensatory changes at PB2-591K and PB2-701N, on the tropism and replication competence of H7N9 viruses for human and swine respiratory tracts using ex vivo organ explant cultures...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maheswata Sahoo, Lingaraja Jena, Surya Narayan Rath, Satish Kumar
The influenza A (H1N1) virus, also known as swine flu is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality since 2009. There is a need to explore novel anti-viral drugs for overcoming the epidemics. Traditionally, different plant extracts of garlic, ginger, kalmegh, ajwain, green tea, turmeric, menthe, tulsi, etc. have been used as hopeful source of prevention and treatment of human influenza. The H1N1 virus contains an important glycoprotein, known as neuraminidase (NA) that is mainly responsible for initiation of viral infection and is essential for the life cycle of H1N1...
September 2016: Genomics & Informatics
Pallavi Vij, Deepti Sharma, C P Meena, Sanket Singh, Javed Sayyed
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
N Bravo-Vasquez, F Di Pillo, A Lazo, P Jiménez-Bluhm, S Schultz-Cherry, C Hamilton-West
In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting...
October 6, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nobuhiro Takemae, Yugo Shobugawa, Phuong Thanh Nguyen, Tung Nguyen, Tien Ngoc Nguyen, Thanh Long To, Phuong Duy Thai, Tho Dang Nguyen, Duy Thanh Nguyen, Dung Kim Nguyen, Hoa Thi Do, Thi Quynh Anh Le, Phan Truong Hua, Hung Van Vo, Diep Thi Nguyen, Dang Hoang Nguyen, Yuko Uchida, Reiko Saito, Takehiko Saito
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses of swine (IAV-S) cause acute and subclinical respiratory disease. To increase our understanding of the etiology of the subclinical form and thus help prevent the persistence of IAV-S in pig populations, we conducted active virologic surveillance in Vietnam, the second-largest pig-producing country in Asia, from February 2010 to December 2013. RESULTS: From a total of 7034 nasal swabs collected from clinically healthy pigs at 250 farms and 10 slaughterhouses, we isolated 172 IAV-S from swine at the weaning and early-fattening stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Xilong Kang, Yun Yang, Yang Jiao, Hongqin Song, Li Song, Dan Xiong, Lili Wu, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
In 2009, a novel pandemic swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus caused a public emergency of international concern. Vaccination is the primary strategy for the control of influenza epidemics. However, the poor immunopotency of many vaccine antigens is a major barrier to the development of effective vaccines against influenza. Flagellin, a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) ligand, has been used as an adjuvant to enhance the immunopotency of vaccines in preclinical studies. Here, we developed a recombinant candidate vaccine, HA1-2-fljB, in which the globular head of the hemagglutinin (HA) antigen (residues 62-284) from H1N1 virus was fused genetically to the N-terminus of Salmonella typhimurium fljB...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Martha I Nelson, Karla M Stucker, Seth A Schobel, Nídia S Trovão, Suman R Das, Vivien G Dugan, Sarah W Nelson, Srinand Sreevatsan, Mary L Killian, Jacqueline M Nolting, David E Wentworth, Andrew S Bowman
: The swine-human interface created at agricultural fairs, along with the generation of and maintenance of influenza A virus diversity in exhibition swine, presents an ongoing threat to public health. Nucleotide sequences of influenza A virus isolates collected from exhibition swine in Ohio (n=262) and Indiana (n=103) during 2009-2013 were used to investigate viral evolution and movement within this niche sector of the swine industry. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were employed to identify introductions of influenza A virus to exhibition swine and study viral population dynamics...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Isabella Donatelli, Maria R Castrucci, Maria A De Marco, Mauro Delogu, Robert G Webster
Since the 1990s, the threat of influenza viruses to veterinary and human public health has increased. This coincides with the larger global populations of poultry, pigs, and people and with changing ecological factors. These factors include the redistribution of the human population to cities, rapid mass transportation of people and infectious agents, increased global land use, climate change, and possible changes in viral ecology that perpetuate highly pathogenic influenza viruses in the aquatic bird reservoir...
September 28, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Peng Yang, Chunna Ma, Shujuan Cui, Daitao Zhang, Weixian Shi, Yang Pan, Ying Sun, Guilan Lu, Xiaomin Peng, Jiachen Zhao, Yimeng Liu, Quanyi Wang
Although several studies have reported seroprevalences of antibody against avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among poultry workers in southern China, results have varied and data in northern China are scarce. To understand risks of H7N9 and H5N1 virus infections in northern China, a serological cohort study was conducted. Poultry workers, swine workers and the general population in Beijing, China, were evaluated through three surveys in November 2013, April 2014 and April 2015. The highest seroprevalence to H7N9 virus among poultry workers was recorded in the April 2014 and April 2015 surveys (0...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Charlie Cador, Nicolas Rose, Lander Willem, Mathieu Andraud
Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence...
2016: PloS One
Shang-Yi Lin, Yen-Hsu Chen, Po-Liang Lu, Ying-Ming Tsai, Tun-Chieh Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Henrique Meiroz de Souza Almeida, Gabriel Yuri Storino, Daniele Araújo Pereira, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Luis Antonio Mathias, Hélio José Montassier, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
Swine influenza (SI) is a seasonal infectious disease highly important to the world pig industry. Loss of daily weight gain, increased costs for the prevention and treatment of secondary infections are the main economic losses associated with the presence of this disease. However, some epidemiological features of SI remain quite unclear. This study focused on assessing the prevalence of swine influenza virus (SIV) infection in intensive and extensive pig herds and associating risk factors. A set of 601 blood samples of five intensive farrow-to-finish farms and 361 blood samples from 56 extensive farms were analyzed using an indirect ELISA kit CIVTEST SUIS INFLUENZA®, Hipra (Amer, Spain), in order to detect anti-SIV antibodies...
September 16, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Hung-Hsun Yen, Helen M S Davies
BACKGROUND: Pigs are the natural hosts of many zoonotic pathogens such as influenza viruses and Staphylococcus aureus and thus have advantages over non-natural hosts when studying these zoonotic diseases. In addition, pulmonary infections are a key issue in the pig industry, for example: porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Exploration of the pathogenesis of swine pulmonary infections, in particular at the onset of disease, will provide valuable information for the development of vaccines against these diseases...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Carmen Alonso, Peter C Raynor, Peter R Davies, Robert B Morrison, Montserrat Torremorell
Influenza A virus (IAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and Staphylococcus aureus are important swine pathogens capable of being transmitted via aerosols. The electrostatic particle ionization system (EPI) consists of a conductive line that emits negative ions that charge particles electrically resulting in the settling of airborne particles onto surfaces and potentially decreasing the risk of pathogen dissemination. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the EPI system on the quantity and viability of IAV, PRRSV, PEDV and S...
2016: Aerobiologia
Thomas P Fabrizio, Yilun Sun, Sun-Woo Yoon, Trushar Jeevan, Daniel Dlugolenski, Ralph A Tripp, Li Tang, Richard J Webby
: Influenza A(H1N1) viruses entered the US swine population following the 1918 pandemic and remained genetically stable for roughly 80 years. In 1998, there was an outbreak of influenza-like illness among swine caused by A(H3N2) viruses containing the triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) cassette. Following the TRIG cassette emergence, numerous reassortant viruses were isolated in nature suggesting the TRIG virus had an enhanced ability to reassort compared to the classical swine virus...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Virology
Charlene Ranadheera, Mable W Hagan, Anders Leung, Brad Collignon, Todd Cutts, Steven Theriault, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, Darwyn Kobasa
: During the first wave of the 2009 pandemic, caused by a H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) of swine origin, antivirals were the only form of therapeutic available to control the proliferation of disease until the conventional strain-matched vaccine was produced. Oseltamivir is an antiviral that inhibits the sialidase activity of the viral neuraminidase (NA) protein and was shown to be effective against pH1N1 viruses in ferrets. Furthermore, it was used in humans to treat infections during the pandemic and is still used for current infections without reported complication or exacerbation of illness...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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