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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820376/influenza-a-h3n2-virus-in-swine-at-agricultural-fairs-and-transmission-to-humans-michigan-and-ohio-usa-2016
#1
Andrew S Bowman, Rasna R Walia, Jacqueline M Nolting, Amy L Vincent, Mary Lea Killian, Michele M Zentkovich, Joshua N Lorbach, Sarah E Lauterbach, Tavis K Anderson, C Todd Davis, Natosha Zanders, Joyce Jones, Yunho Jang, Brian Lynch, Marisela R Rodriguez, Lenee Blanton, Stephen E Lindstrom, David E Wentworth, John Schiltz, James J Averill, Tony Forshey
In 2016, a total of 18 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) virus occurred after exposure to influenza-infected swine at 7 agricultural fairs. Sixteen of these cases were the result of infection by a reassorted virus with increasing prevalence among US swine containing a hemagglutinin gene from 2010-11 human seasonal H3N2 strains.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814518/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-at-position-225-in-ha-alters-the-transmissibility-of-eurasian-avian-like-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Zeng Wang, Huanliang Yang, Yan Chen, Shiyu Tao, Liling Liu, Huihui Kong, Shujie Ma, Fei Meng, Yasuo Suzuki, Chuanling Qiao, Hualan Chen
Efficient transmission from human to human is the prerequisite for an influenza virus to cause a pandemic; however, the molecular determinants of influenza virus transmission are still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the molecular basis for transmission of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EAH1N1) swine influenza viruses by comparing two viruses that are genetically similar but differ in their transmissibility in guinea pigs: the A/swine/Guangxi/18/2011 virus (GX/18) is highly transmissible by respiratory droplet in guinea pigs, whereas the A/swine/Heilongjiang/27/2012 virus (HLJ/27) does not transmit in this animal model...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810835/secondary-organizing-pneumonia-following-viral-pneumonia-caused-by-severe-influenza-b-a-case-report-and-literature-reviews
#3
Nobuhiro Asai, Toyoharu Yokoi, Naoya Nishiyama, Yusuke Koizumi, Daisuke Sakanashi, Hideo Kato, Mao Hagihara, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND: Some reported that organizing pneumonia (OP) may occur after influenza A infections including swine-origin influenza A (H1N1). However, OP associated with influenza B infection has never been reported. We report the first case of secondary OP associated with viral pneumonia caused by influenza B. CASE PRESENTATION: A 23-year old woman was diagnosed as viral pneumonia caused by type B influenza. Despite of antiviral therapy, abnormal chest shadows were not improved...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794452/the-anti-influenza-m2e-antibody-response-is-promoted-by-xcr1-targeting-in-pig-skin
#4
Charlotte Deloizy, Even Fossum, Christophe Barnier-Quer, Céline Urien, Tiphany Chrun, Audrey Duval, Maelle Codjovi, Edwige Bouguyon, Pauline Maisonnasse, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Céline Barc, Olivier Boulesteix, Jérémy Pezant, Christophe Chevalier, Nicolas Collin, Marc Dalod, Bjarne Bogen, Nicolas Bertho, Isabelle Schwartz-Cornil
XCR1 is selectively expressed on a conventional dendritic cell subset, the cDC1 subset, through phylogenetically distant species. The outcome of antigen-targeting to XCR1 may therefore be similar across species, permitting the translation of results from experimental models to human and veterinary applications. Here we evaluated in pigs the immunogenicity of bivalent protein structures made of XCL1 fused to the external portion of the influenza virus M2 proton pump, which is conserved through strains and a candidate for universal influenza vaccines...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791803/genetic-analysis-of-human-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses-isolated-in-northern-italy-during-2010-2015
#5
C Chiapponi, E Ebranati, E Pariani, S Faccini, A Luppi, L Baioni, R Manfredi, V Carta, M Merenda, P Affanni, M E Colucci, L Veronesi, G Zehender, E Foni
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in Northern Italy between 2010 and 2015, to monitor the genetic exchange between human and swine IAVs. No cases of human infection with swine strains were noticed, but direct infections of swine with H1N1pdm09 strains were detected...
August 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768203/avian-to-human-receptor-binding-adaptation-by-influenza-a-virus-hemagglutinin-h4
#6
Hao Song, Jianxun Qi, Haixia Xiao, Yuhai Bi, Wei Zhang, Ying Xu, Fei Wang, Yi Shi, George F Gao
Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have caused a global concern to public health since the first novel LPAIV H7N9 outbreak occurred. The receptor-binding properties of the viral hemagglutinin are one key factor for efficient transmission and infection in humans. Recent evidence shows that H4 subtype viruses have been widely circulating in domestic poultry and human asymptomatic infections might have occurred. Here, we evaluated the receptor-binding properties of two representative isolates, avian H4N6 (containing Q226 and G228) and swine H4N6 (containing L226 and S228), and found that the avian isolate preferentially binds to avian receptors, whereas the swine isolate preferentially binds to human receptors...
August 1, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758634/the-genomic-evolution-of-h1-influenza-a-viruses-from-swine-detected-in-the-united-states-between-2009-and-2016
#7
Shibo Gao, Tavis K Anderson, Rasna R Walia, Karin S Dorman, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Amy L Vincent
Transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) from humans to swine occurs with relative frequency and is a critical contributor to swine IAV diversity. Subsequent to the introduction of these human seasonal lineages, there is often reassortment with endemic viruses and antigenic drift. To address whether particular genome constellations contributed to viral persistence following the introduction of the 2009 H1N1 human pandemic virus to swine in the USA, we collated and analysed 616 whole genomes of swine H1 isolates...
July 31, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757046/rapid-acquisition-adaptive-amino-acid-substitutions-involved-in-the-virulence-enhancement-of-an-h1n2-avian-influenza-virus-in-mice
#8
Zhijun Yu, Weiyang Sun, Xinghai Zhang, Kaihui Cheng, Chuqi Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Yuwei Gao
Although H1N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) only infect birds, documented cases of swine infection with H1N2 influenza viruses suggest this subtype AIV may pose a potential threat to mammals. Here, we generated mouse-adapted variants of a H1N2 AIV to identify adaptive changes that increased virulence in mammals. MLD50 of the variants were reduced >1000-fold compared to the parental virus. Variants displayed enhanced replication in vitro and in vivo, and replicate in extrapulmonary organs. These data show that enhanced replication capacity and expanded tissue tropism may increase the virulence of H1N2 AIV in mice...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757015/dual-infections-of-cd163-expressing-nptr-epithelial-cells-with-influenza-a-virus-and-prrsv
#9
Chantale Provost, Glenn Hamonic, Carl A Gagnon, François Meurens
In the pig, respiratory co-infections involving various pathogens are far more frequent than single infections. Amongst respiratory viruses, swine influenza type A virus (swIAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are frequently associated. Previously, we performed co-infections with swIAV and PRRSV in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) and precision cut lung slices (PCLS). With these two approaches it was practically impossible to have co-infections of the same cells as the main target cell of swIAV is the epithelial cell while the main target of PRRSV is the PAM...
August 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751109/polymorphism-and-peptide-binding-specificities-of-porcine-major-histocompatibility-complex-mhc-class-i-molecules
#10
Shuhua Fan, Yongli Wang, Song Wang, Xian Wang, Yanan Wu, Zibin Li, Nianzhi Zhang, Chun Xia
The swine lymphocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is a highly polymorphic gene superfamily that plays an important role in swine anti-viral immune responses. However, an understanding of the highly variable sites and peptide-binding specificities of SLA I molecule is limited. In this study, a total of 27 SLA I alleles were identified from 3 Tibetan wild boars and 3 Heishan pigs. The phylogenetic relationship between the Tibetan wild boar and other breeds was analyzed using bioinformatics methods, and the highly variable sites were noted in the three dimensional structures of SLA I...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733290/us-feral-swine-were-exposed-to-both-avian-and-swine-influenza-a-viruses
#11
Brigitte E Martin, Hailiang Sun, Margaret Carrel, Fred L Cunningham, John A Baroch, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Sean G Young, Brandon Schmit, Jacqueline M Nolting, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Mark W Lutman, Kerri Pedersen, Kelly Lager, Andrew S Bowman, Richard D Slemons, David R Smith, Thomas DeLiberto, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine can cause sporadic infections and pandemic outbreaks among humans, but how avian IAV emerges in swine is still unclear. Unlike domestic swine, feral swine are free ranging and have many opportunities for IAV exposure through contacts with various habitats and animals, including migratory waterfowl, a natural reservoir for IAVs. During 2010--2013, 8,239 serum samples were collected from feral swine across 35 US states and tested against 45 contemporary antigenic variants of avian, swine, and human IAVs; of these, 406 (4...
July 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729956/predicting-the-host-of-influenza-viruses-based-on-the-word-vector
#12
Beibei Xu, Zhiying Tan, Kenli Li, Taijiao Jiang, Yousong Peng
Newly emerging influenza viruses continue to threaten public health. A rapid determination of the host range of newly discovered influenza viruses would assist in early assessment of their risk. Here, we attempted to predict the host of influenza viruses using the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier based on the word vector, a new representation and feature extraction method for biological sequences. The results show that the length of the word within the word vector, the sequence type (DNA or protein) and the species from which the sequences were derived for generating the word vector all influence the performance of models in predicting the host of influenza viruses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716554/calcium-phosphate-nanoparticle-capnp-for-dose-sparing-of-inactivated-whole-virus-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-2009-vaccine-in-mice
#13
Tülin Morçӧl, Brett L Hurst, E Bart Tarbet
The emergence of pandemic influenza strains, particularly the reemergence of the swine-derived influenza A (H1N1) in 2009, is reaffirmation that influenza viruses are very adaptable and influenza remains as a significant global public health treat. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of adjuvants is an attractive approach to improve vaccine efficacy and allow dose-sparing during an influenza emergency. In this study, we utilized CaPtivate Pharmaceutical's proprietary calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNP) vaccine adjuvant and delivery platform to formulate an inactivated whole virus influenza A/CA/04/2009 (H1N1pdm) vaccine as a potential dose-sparing strategy...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688454/reassortment-process-after-co-infection-of-pigs-with-avian-h1n1-and-swine-h3n2-influenza-viruses
#14
Kinga Urbaniak, Iwona Markowska-Daniel, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Kwit, Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Barbara Frącek, Zygmunt Pejsak
BACKGROUND: The influenza A virus is highly variable, which, to some degree, is caused by the reassortment of viral genetic material. This process plays a major role in the generation of novel influenza virus strains that can emerge in a new host population. Due to the susceptibility of pigs to infections with avian, swine and human influenza viruses, they are considered intermediate hosts for the adaptation of the avian influenza virus to humans. In order to test the reassortment process in pigs, they were co-infected with H3N2 A/swine/Gent/172/2008 (Gent/08) and H1N1 A/duck/Italy/1447/2005 (Italy/05) and co-housed with a group of naïve piglets...
July 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688206/absence-of-clinical-disease-and-contact-transmission-of-north-american-clade-2-3-4-4-h5nx-hpai-in-experimentally-infected-pigs
#15
Bryan S Kaplan, Mia Kim Torchetti, Kelly M Lager, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
BACKGROUND: In the fall of 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 was introduced into North America by migrating waterfowl from Asia where, through reassortment, novel HPAI H5N2 and H5N1 viruses emerged. OBJECTIVES: Assess the susceptibility of pigs to North American HPAI clade 2.3.4.4 H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8. METHODS: Pigs and trachea explants were inoculated with a representative panel of clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses from North America...
July 8, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686494/antibodies-to-various-zoonotic-pathogens-detected-in-feral-swine-sus-scrofa-at-abattoirs-in-texas-usa
#16
Kerri Pedersen, Nathan E Bauer, Sandra Rodgers, Luis R Bazan, Brian T Mesenbrink, Thomas Gidlewski
The zoonotic risk posed to employees by slaughtering feral swine (Sus scrofa) at two abattoirs in Texas was assessed by testing feral swine serum samples for exposure to influenza A virus, Leptospira, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii. Blood was collected from a total of 376 feral swine between the two facilities during six separate collection periods in 2015. Antibodies to one or more serovars of Leptospira were identified in 48.9% of feral swine tested, with Bratislava and Pomona as the most commonly detected serovars, and antibodies to influenza A virus were detected in 14...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659482/complete-genome-sequencing-of-influenza-a-viruses-within-swine-farrow-to-wean-farms-reveals-the-emergence-persistence-and-subsidence-of-diverse-viral-genotypes
#17
Andres Diaz, Douglas Marthaler, Marie Culhane, Srinand Sreevatsan, Moh Alkhamis, Montserrat Torremorell
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are endemic in swine and represent a public health risk. However, there is limited information on the genetic diversity of swine IAVs within farrow-to-wean farms, which is where most pigs are born. In this longitudinal study, we sampled 5 farrow-to-wean farms during a year and collected 4,190 individual nasal swabs from three distinct pig subpopulations. 207 (4.9%) samples tested PCR positive for IAV, and 124 IAVs were isolated. We sequenced the complete genome of 123 IAV isolates, and found 31 H1N1, 26 H1N2, 63 H3N2 and 3 mixed IAVs...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647517/proteomics-to-study-macrophage-response-to-viral-infection
#18
Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Viral infections are a major burden to human and animal health. Immune response against viruses consists of innate and adaptive immunity which are both critical for the eradication of the viral infection. The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Proper innate immune response is required for the activation of adaptive, humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Macrophages are innate immune cells which have a central role in detecting viral infections including influenza A and human immunodeficiency viruses...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646559/pandemic-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-infection-associated-with-respiratory-signs-in-sloth-bears-melursus-ursinus
#19
N C Boedeker, M I Nelson, M L Killian, M K Torchetti, T Barthel, S Murray
In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1 infection in sloth bears. To understand the sloth bear virus within the global context of pH1N1, phylogenetic trees were inferred including full-length sequences from available non-human, non-swine hosts, representing four families in the order Carnivora and one order of birds...
June 23, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637754/functional-evolution-of-influenza-ns1-protein-in-currently-circulating-human-2009-pandemic-h1n1-viruses
#20
Amelia M Clark, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist, but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here, we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
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