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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100299/pathogenicity-of-modified-bat-influenza-virus-with-different-m-genes-and-its-reassortment-potential-with-swine-influenza-a-virus
#1
Jianmei Yang, Jinhwa Lee, Jingjiao Ma, Yuekun Lang, Jerome Nietfeld, Yuhao Li, Michael Duff, Yonghai Li, Yuju Yang, Haixia Liu, Bin Zhou, David E Wentworth, Juergen A Richt, Zejun Li, Wenjun Ma
In our previous studies the reassortant virus containing only the PR8 H1N1 matrix (M) gene in the background of the modified bat influenza Bat09:mH1mN1 virus could be generated. However, whether M genes from other origins can be rescued in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus and whether the resulting novel reassortant virus is virulent remain unknown. Herein, two reassortant viruses were generated in the background of the Bat09:mH1mN1 virus containing either a North American or a Eurasian swine influenza virus M gene...
January 18, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098524/swine-influenza-virus-h1n2-characterization-and-transmission-in-ferrets-chile
#2
Nicolás Bravo-Vasquez, Erik A Karlsson, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Victoria Meliopoulos, Bryan Kaplan, Shauna Marvin, Valerie Cortez, Pamela Freiden, Melinda A Beck, Christopher Hamilton-West, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Phylogenetic analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene (HA) has suggested that commercial pigs in Chile harbor unique human seasonal H1-like influenza viruses, but further information, including characterization of these viruses, was unavailable. We isolated influenza virus (H1N2) from a swine in a backyard production farm in Central Chile and demonstrated that the HA gene was identical to that in a previous report. Its HA and neuraminidase genes were most similar to human H1 and N2 viruses from the early 1990s and internal segments were similar to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077698/detection-of-antigenic-variants-of-swine-subtype-h3-influenza-a-viruses-from-clinical-samples
#3
Brigitte E Martin, Andrew S Bowman, Lei Li, Jacqueline M Nolting, David R Smith, Larry A Hanson, Xiu-Feng Wan
A large population of genetically and antigenically diverse influenza A viruses (IAVs) are circulating among the swine population, playing an important role in influenza ecology. Swine IAVs not only cause outbreaks among swine, but they can also be transmitted to humans, causing sporadic infections and even pandemic outbreaks. Antigenic characterization of swine IAVs are key to understanding the natural history of these viruses in swine and to selecting strains for effective vaccines. However, influenza outbreaks generally spread rapidly among swine, and the conventional methods for antigenic characterization require virus propagation, a time-consuming process that can significantly reduce the effectiveness of vaccination programs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057521/biodegradable-nanoparticle-delivery-of-inactivated-swine-influenza-virus-vaccine-provides-heterologous-cell-mediated-immune-response-in-pigs
#4
Santosh Dhakal, Jagadish Hiremath, Kathryn Bondra, Yashavanth S Lakshmanappa, Duan-Liang Shyu, Kang Ouyang, Kyung-Il Kang, Basavaraj Binjawadagi, Jonathan Goodman, Kairat Tabynov, Steven Krakowka, Balaji Narasimhan, Chang-Won Lee, Gourapura J Renukaradhya
Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is one of the important zoonotic pathogens. Current flu vaccines have failed to provide cross-protection against evolving viruses in the field. Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) is a biodegradable FDA approved polymer and widely used in drug and vaccine delivery. In this study, inactivated SwIV H1N2 antigens (KAg) encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-KAg) were prepared, which were spherical in shape with 200 to 300nm diameter, and induced maturation of antigen presenting cells in vitro...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044192/porcine-mast-cells-infected-with-h1n1-influenza-virus-release-histamine-and-inflammatory-cytokines-and-chemokines
#5
In Hong Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Sang Heui Seo
Mast cells reside in many tissues, including the lungs, and might play a role in enhancing influenza virus infections in animals. In this study, we cultured porcine mast cells from porcine bone marrow cells with IL-3 and stem cell factor to study the infectivity and activation of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin. Porcine mast cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus, without the subsequent production of infectious viruses but were activated, as indicated by the release of histamines...
January 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008819/effects-of-pb1-f2-on-the-pathogenicity-of-h1n1-swine-influenza-virus-in-mice-and-pigs
#6
Jinhwa Lee, Jamie Henningson, Jingjiao Ma, Michael Duff, Yuekun Lang, Yonghi Li, Yuhao Li, Abdou Nagy, Sunyoung Sunwoo, Bhupinder Bawa, Jianmei Yang, Dingping Bai, Juergen A Richt, Wenjun Ma
Although several studies have exploited effects of PB1-F2 in swine influenza viruses, its contribution to the pathogenicity of swine influenza viruses remains unclear. Herein, we investigated effects of PB1-F2 on the pathogenicity of influenza virus using a virulent H1N1 A/swine/Kansas/77778/2007 (KS07) virus, which expresses a full-length PB1-F2, in mice and pigs. Using reverse genetics, we generated the wild type KS07 (KS07_WT), a PB1-F2 knockout mutant (KS07_K/O) and its N66S variant (KS07_N66S). KS07_K/O showed similar pathogenicity in mice as the KS07_WT, whereas KS07_N66S displayed enhanced virulence when compared to the other two viruses...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997573/genetic-characterization-of-circulating-2015-a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-viruses-from-eastern-india
#7
Anupam Mukherjee, Mukti Kant Nayak, Shanta Dutta, Samiran Panda, Biswa Ranjan Satpathi, Mamta Chawla-Sarkar
In 2015, the swine derived A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strain outbreak became widespread throughout the different states of India. The reported cases and deaths in 2015 surpassed the previous years with more than 39000 laboratory confirmed cases and a death toll of more than 2500 people. There are relatively limited complete genetic sequences available for this virus from Asian countries. In this study, we describe the full genome analysis of influenza 2015 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses isolated from West Bengal between January through December 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984103/generation-and-characterization-of-new-monoclonal-antibodies-against-swine-origin-2009-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-and-evaluation-of-their-prophylactic-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Sheng-Fan Wang, Sung-Pin Tseng, El-Wui Loh, Wen-Hung Wang, Ming-Chun Li, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Wan-Chi Tsai, Yuan-Ming Lee, Huan-Yuan Chen, Fu-Tong Liu, Yi-Ming Arthur Chen, Jason C Huang
In 2009, a swine-origin influenza A virus - A(H1N1)pdm09 - emerged and has became a pandemic strain circulating worldwide. The hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is a potential target for the development of anti-viral therapeutic agents. Here, we generated mAbs by immunization of baculovirus-insect expressing trimeric recombinant HA of the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain. Results indicated that the mAbs recognized two novel neutralizing and protective epitopes-"STAS" and "FRSK" which located near Cb and Ca1 antigenic regions respectively and were conserved in almost 2009-2016 influenza H1N1 stains...
October 27, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981236/a-phylogeny-based-global-nomenclature-system-and-automated-annotation-tool-for-h1-hemagglutinin-genes-from-swine-influenza-a-viruses
#9
Tavis K Anderson, Catherine A Macken, Nicola S Lewis, Richard H Scheuermann, Kristien Van Reeth, Ian H Brown, Sabrina L Swenson, Gaëlle Simon, Takehiko Saito, Yohannes Berhane, Janice Ciacci-Zanella, Ariel Pereda, C Todd Davis, Ruben O Donis, Richard J Webby, Amy L Vincent
The H1 subtype of influenza A viruses (IAVs) has been circulating in swine since the 1918 human influenza pandemic. Over time, and aided by further introductions from nonswine hosts, swine H1 viruses have diversified into three genetic lineages. Due to limited global data, these H1 lineages were named based on colloquial context, leading to a proliferation of inconsistent regional naming conventions. In this study, we propose rigorous phylogenetic criteria to establish a globally consistent nomenclature of swine H1 virus hemagglutinin (HA) evolution...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959778/a-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1-internal-genes-demonstrates-increased-replication-and-transmission-in-pigs
#10
Eugenio J Abente, Pravina Kitikoon, Kelly M Lager, Phillip C Gauger, Tavis K Anderson, Amy Vincent
This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 lineage influenza A virus (IAV) that was isolated from a human, A/Iraq/755/06. We also examined surface gene reassortant viruses comprised of the HA and NA from A/Iraq/755/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, A/New York/18/2009 (2Iraq/06:6NY/09 H5N1), and HA and NA from A/New York/18/2009 with the internal genes of A/Iraq/755/06 (2NY/09:6Iraq/06 H1N1)...
December 9, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934581/severe-acute-respiratory-infection-caused-by-swine-influenza-virus-in-a-child-necessitating-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-the-netherlands-october-2016
#11
Pieter L A Fraaij, Enno D Wildschut, Robert J Houmes, Corien M Swaan, Christian J Hoebe, H C C de Jonge, Paulien Tolsma, Isme de Kleer, Suzan D Pas, Bas B Oude Munnink, My V T Phan, Theo M Bestebroer, R Shanty Roosenhoff, Jeroen J A van Kampen, Matthew Cotten, Nancy Beerens, Ron A M Fouchier, Johannes H van den Kerkhof, Aura Timen, Marion P Koopmans
In October 2016, a severe infection with swine influenza A(H1N1) virus of the Eurasian avian lineage occurred in a child with a previous history of eczema in the Netherlands, following contact to pigs. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and required life support through extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After start of oseltamivir treatment and removal of mucus plugs, the patient fully recovered. Monitoring of more than 80 close unprotected contacts revealed no secondary cases.
December 1, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928015/reassortment-between-swine-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-in-the-united-states-resulted-in-influenza-a-viruses-with-diverse-genetic-constellations-with-variable-virulence-in-pigs
#12
Daniela S Rajão, Rasna Walia, Brian Campbell, Phillip C Gauger, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Mary Lea Killian, Amy L Vincent
: Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A virus (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole genome phylogenetic analysis of 496 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the U...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927254/informal-networks-in-disaster-medicine
#13
Fadl Bdeir, John W Crawford, Liaquat Hossain
OBJECTIVE: Our study of informal networks aimed to explore information-sharing environments for the management of disaster medicine and public health preparedness. Understanding interagency coordination in preparing for and responding to extreme events such as disease outbreaks is central to reducing risks and coordination costs. METHODS: We evaluated the pattern of information flow for actors involved in disaster medicine through social network analysis. Social network analysis of agencies can serve as a basis for the effective design and reconstruction of disaster medicine response coordination structures...
December 8, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923501/influenza-a-virus-vaccines-for-swine
#14
Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez, Daniela Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Eugenio J Abente, Rasna R Walia, Nicola S Lewis
Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918148/influenza-a-virus-surveillance-in-the-invasive-american-mink-neovison-vison-from-freshwater-ecosystems-northern-spain
#15
H Gholipour, N Busquets, X Fernández-Aguilar, A Sánchez, M P Ribas, G De Pedro, P Lizarraga, O Alarcia-Alejos, C Temiño, O Cabezón
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are negative-sense, single-stranded and segmented RNA viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family that may cause acute respiratory disease in a wide range of birds and mammals. Susceptibility of several species within the family Mustelidae to IAVs has been reported as a result of natural or experimental infections. The objectives of this study were to assess whether free-ranging American mink populations from Northern Spain were infected with IAV and try to define the role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV...
December 5, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902762/presenting-influenza-a-m2e-antigen-on-recombinant-spores-of-bacillus-subtilis
#16
Tomasz Łęga, Paulina Weiher, Michał Obuchowski, Dawid Nidzworski
Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897246/rapid-control-of-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-by-targeting-nkt-cells
#17
Bianca L Artiaga, Guan Yang, Tarun E Hutchinson, Julia C Loeb, Jürgen A Richt, John A Lednicky, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, John P Driver
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV) are a major cause of respiratory disease in pigs and humans. Currently approved anti-influenza therapies directly target the virus, but these approaches are losing effectiveness as new viral strains quickly develop drug resistance. To over come this challenge, there is an urgent need for more effective antiviral drugs. Here we tested the anti-influenza efficacy of the invariant natural killer T (NKT) cell superagonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), which stimulates a wide array of anti-viral immune responses...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888742/serological-evidence-for-high-prevalence-of-influenza-d-viruses-in-cattle-nebraska-united-states-2003-2004
#18
Junrong Luo, Lucas Ferguson, David R Smith, Amelia R Woolums, William B Epperson, Xiu-Feng Wan
Influenza D virus (IDV), a new member of the influenza virus family, was first reported in 2011 in swine in Oklahoma, USA, and then soon found in cattle across North America and Eurasia. Earlier studies suggested cattle serve as natural reservoir for IDV. The goal of this study is to perform a retrospective study looking at sera collected from Nebraska beef herds in 2003-2004 and 2014 for evidence of IDV antibodies. Results showed that all 40 randomly selected farms (2003-2004) we tested contained IDV seropositive adult animals and that approximately 98% of newborn calves (2014) had high levels of maternal antibodies against IDV...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874827/weighing-serological-evidence-of-human-exposure-to-animal-influenza-viruses-a-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Reina Saapke Sikkema, Gudrun Stephanie Freidl, Erwin de Bruin, Marion Koopmans
Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles...
November 3, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862363/a-comprehensive-microbiological-safety-approach-for-agarose-encapsulated-porcine-islets-intended-for-clinical-trials
#20
Lawrence S Gazda, James Collins, Archie Lovatt, Robert W Holdcraft, Merribeth J Morin, Daniel Galbraith, Melanie Graham, Melissa A Laramore, Christine Maclean, John Black, Euan W Milne, Douglas G Marthaler, Horatiu V Vinerean, Michelle M Michalak, Deborah Hoffer, Steven Richter, Richard D Hall, Barry H Smith
BACKGROUND: The use of porcine islets to replace insulin-producing islet β-cells, destroyed during the diabetogenic disease process, presents distinct challenges if this option is to become a therapeutic reality for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. These challenges include a thorough evaluation of the microbiological safety of the islets. In this study, we describe a robust porcine islet-screening program that provides a high level of confidence in the microbiological safety of porcine islets suitable for clinical trials...
November 2016: Xenotransplantation
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