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Swine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434065/alternative-reverse-genetics-system-for-influenza-viruses-based-on-a-synthesized-swine-45s-rrna-promoter
#1
Kai Wang, Qi Huang, Zhiwei Yang, Kezong Qi, Hongmei Liu, Hongjun Chen
We generated an alternative reverse genetics (RG) system based on a synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter to rescue the H3N2 subtype swine influenza virus. All eight flanking segment cassettes of A/swine/Henan/7/2010 (H3N2) were amplified with ambisense expression elements from RG plasmids. All segments were then recombined with the pHC2014 vector, which contained the synthesized swine 45S rRNA promoter (spol1) and its terminal sequence (t1) in a pcDNA3 backbone. As a result, we obtained a set of RG plasmids carrying the corresponding eight-segment cassettes...
April 22, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415629/a-h1n1-pdm09-influenza-infection-vaccine-inefficiency
#2
Nehemya Friedman, Yaron Drori, Rakefet Pando, Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Hanna Sefty, Ravit Bassal, Yaniv Stein, Tamy Shohat, Ella Mendelson, Musa Hindiyeh, Michal Mandelboim
The last influenza pandemic, caused by the swine A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus, began in North America at 2009. Since then, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended integration of the swine-based virus A/California/07/2009 strain in yearly vaccinations. Yet, infections with A(H1N1)pdm09 have continued in subsequent years. The reasons for this are currently unknown. During the 2015-2016 influenza season, we noted an increased prevalence of A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection in Israel. Our phylogenetic analysis indicated that the circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains belonged to 6B...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414053/inhibition-effects-of-novel-polyketide-compound-ppq-b-against-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-interfering-with-the-cellular-egfr-pathway
#3
Miaomiao Wang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Wang, Yi Wang, Hui Wang, Weiming Zhu
Development of anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs with novel targets and low toxicity is critical for preparedness against influenza outbreaks. In the current study, our results indicated that the novel polyketide compound purpurquinone B (PPQ-B) derived from acid-tolerant fungus Penicillium purpurogenum strain JS03-21 suppressed the replication of IAV in vitro with low toxicity, and may block some stages after virus adsorption. PPQ-B could inhibit H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/34; PR8), H1N1 (A/California/04/2009; Cal09) and H3N2 (A/swine/Minnesota/02719/2009) virus replication in vitro, suggesting that PPQ-B possesses broad-spectrum anti-IAV activities...
April 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413498/dynamic-variations-of-the-peripheral-blood-immune-cell-subpopulation-in-patients-with-critical-h7n9-swine-origin-influenza-a-virus-infection-a-retrospective-small-scale-study
#4
Cheng Chen, Wei Sun, Jun Chen, Jian-An Huang
H7N9 influenza is a recently emerging infection with a high mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to investigate dynamic fluctuations of peripheral blood immune cell subgroups in patients with critical H7N9 infection. Flow cytometry was used to assess the cells in whole blood samples from 9 cases. With regard to the innate immune system, in the majority of patients, the natural killer (NK) cell counts were similar to those of monocytes, which demonstrated a gradual increase in the progression period and an early increase followed by a reduction during recovery...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405463/the-use-of-oral-fluids-to-monitor-key-pathogens-in-porcine-respiratory-disease-complex
#5
Juan Hernandez-Garcia, Nardy Robben, Damien Magnée, Thomas Eley, Ian Dennis, Sara M Kayes, Jill R Thomson, Alexander W Tucker
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of oral fluid (OF) sampling for surveillance of infections in pig populations is already accepted but its value as a tool to support investigations of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) has been less well studied. This study set out to describe detection patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), swine influenza virus type A (SIV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyo) among farms showing differing severity of PRDC...
2017: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400591/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-a-swine-influenza-a-h6n6-virus
#6
Hailiang Sun, Bryan S Kaplan, Minhui Guan, Guihong Zhang, Jianqiang Ye, Li-Ping Long, Sherry Blackmon, Chun-Kai Yang, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Nan Zhao, Jim Cooley, David F Smith, Ming Liao, Carol Cardona, Lei Li, George Peng Wang, Richard Webby, Xiu-Feng Wan
Subtype H6 influenza A viruses (IAVs) are commonly detected in wild birds and domestic poultry and can infect humans. In 2010, a H6N6 virus emerged in southern China, and since then, it has caused sporadic infections among swine. We show that this virus binds to α2,6-linked and α2,3-linked sialic acids. Mutations at residues 222 (alanine to valine) and 228 (glycine to serine) of the virus hemagglutinin (HA) affected its receptor-binding properties. Experiments showed that the virus has limited transmissibility between ferrets through direct contact or through inhalation of infectious aerosolized droplets...
April 12, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393730/fatal-swine-influenza-a-h1n1-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-coinfection-in-a-child
#7
K Jagadishkumar Kalenahalli, N Arun Kumar, K V Ashok Chowdary, M S Sumana
One of the most common causes of death in influenza patients is secondary bacterial pneumonia and the most common pathogens involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenza. To diagnose co infection with bacteria in a H1N1 case can be difficult but should be strongly suspected in a child who present with influenza like illness and lower respiratory tract signs or symptoms. We report coinfection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in swine influenza A H1N1 child who presented with extensive pneumonia and expired within 48 hours...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384328/effect-of-serial-pig-passages-on-the-adaptation-of-an-avian-h9n2-influenza-virus-to-swine
#8
Jose Carlos Mancera Gracia, Silvie Van den Hoecke, Xavier Saelens, Kristien Van Reeth
H9N2 avian influenza viruses are endemic in poultry in Asia and the Middle East. These viruses sporadically cause dead-end infections in pigs and humans raising concerns about their potential to adapt to mammals or reassort with human or swine influenza viruses. We performed ten serial passages with an avian H9N2 virus (A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997) in influenza naïve pigs to assess the potential of this virus to adapt to swine. Virus replication in the entire respiratory tract and nasal virus excretion were examined after each passage and we deep sequenced viral genomic RNA of the parental and passage four H9N2 virus isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368362/sus-scrofa-mir-204-and-mir-4331-negatively-regulate-swine-h1n1-2009-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-targeting-viral-ha-and-ns-respectively
#9
Shishuo Zhang, Ruifang Wang, Huijuan Su, Biaoxiong Wang, Suolang Sizhu, Zhixin Lei, Meilin Jin, Huanchun Chen, Jiyue Cao, Hongbo Zhou
The prevalence of swine pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus (SIV-H1N1/2009) in pigs has the potential to generate novel reassortant viruses, posing a great threat to human health. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven as promising small molecules for regulating influenza A virus replication by directly targeting viral genomic RNA. In this study, we predicted potential Sus scrofa (ssc-, swine) miRNAs targeting the genomic RNA of SIV-H1N1/2009 by RegRNA 2.0, and identified ssc-miR-204 and ssc-miR-4331 to target viral HA and NS respectively through dual-luciferase reporter assays...
April 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366159/-fatal-swine-influenza-a-h1n1-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-coinfection-in-a-child
#10
K Jagadishkumar Kalenahalli, N Arun Kumar, K V Ashok Chowdary, M S Sumana
One of the most common causes of death in influenza patients is secondary bacterial pneumonia and the most common pathogens involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Haemophilus influenza. To diagnose co infection with bacteria in a H1N1 case can be difficult but should be strongly suspected in a child who present with influenza like illness and lower respiratory tract signs or symptoms. We report coinfection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in swine influenza A H1N1 child who presented with extensive pneumonia and expired within 48 hours...
September 2016: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363251/assessment-of-air-sampling-methods-and-size-distribution-of-virus-laden-aerosols-in-outbreaks-in-swine-and-poultry-farms
#11
Carmen Alonso, Peter C Raynor, Sagar Goyal, Bernard A Olson, Anna Alba, Peter R Davies, Montserrat Torremorell
Swine and poultry viruses, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), are economically important pathogens that can spread via aerosols. The reliability of methods for quantifying particle-associated viruses as well as the size distribution of aerosolized particles bearing these viruses under field conditions are not well documented. We compared the performance of 2 size-differentiating air samplers in disease outbreaks that occurred in swine and poultry facilities...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352464/an-overview-of-the-epidemiology-and-emergence-of-influenza-a-infection-in-humans-over-time
#12
Chau Minh Bui, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Dillon Charles Adam, C Raina MacIntyre
In recent years multiple novel influenza A strains have emerged in humans. We reviewed publically available data to summarise epidemiological characteristics of distinct avian influenza viruses known to cause human infection and describe changes over time. Most recently identified zoonotic strains have emerged in China (H7N9, H5N6, H10N8) - these strains have occurred mostly in association with visiting a live bird market. Most zoonotic AIVs and swine influenza variants typically cause mild infections in humans however severe illness and fatalities are associated with zoonotic H5N6, H10N8, H7N9 and H5N1 serotypes, and the H1N1 1918 Spanish Influenza...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335552/virological-surveillance-of-influenza-a-subtypes-isolated-in-2014-from-clinical-outbreaks-in-canadian-swine
#13
Helena Grgić, Jackie Gallant, Zvonimir Poljak
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are respiratory pathogens associated with an acute respiratory disease that occurs year-round in swine production. It is currently one of the most important pathogens in swine populations, with the potential to infect other host species including humans. Ongoing research indicates that the three major subtypes of IAV-H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2-continue to expand in their genetic and antigenic diversity. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of 16 IAVs isolated from different clinical outbreaks in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Saskatchewan in 2014...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325625/-serological-detection-of-brucella-suis-influenza-virus-and-aujeszky-s-disease-virus-in-backyard-and-small-swine-holders-in-argentina
#14
Marina Dibarbora, Javier A Cappuccio, María N Aznar, Fernando A Bessone, Hernán Piscitelli, Ariel J Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Farmers raising less than 100 sows represent more than 99% of swine producers in Argentina, although little is known about their sanitary status and productive characteristics in the country. Sanitary and productive information was obtained. Furthermore, samples for serological studies were taken to detect antibodies against Brucella suis (Bs), Aujeszky's disease virus (AV) and influenza virus (IV) in 68 backyard and small producers with less than 100 sows located in the north, central and south regions of Argentina...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321029/influenza-a-virus-infection-in-japanese-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-leucomystax
#15
Hiroshi Shimoda, Dung VAN Nguyen, Kenzo Yonemitsu, Shohei Minami, Nao Nagata, Nanami Hara, Ryusei Kuwata, Shin Murakami, Yuuji Kodera, Tsutomu Takeda, Yasuhiro Yoshikawa, Taisuke Horimoto, Ken Maeda
Serum samples were collected from 385 wild boars between 2010 and 2013 to examine the seroprevalence of influenza A virus (IAV) in Japan. Antibodies against IAV were identified using a commercial kit in 13 wild boars (3.4%). To identify the serotypes, positive sera were examined by virus-neutralization test using representative serotypes and strains. Three wild boars in Yamaguchi and four in Tochigi showed the highest antibody titers against the pandemic H1N1 2009 virus and classical swine H1N1 virus strains, respectively...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301280/panblok-h1-advax-h1n1-2009pdm-vaccine-insights-into-rapid-development-of-an-delta-inulin-adjuvanted-recombinant-pandemic-influenza-vaccine
#16
Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Harinda Rajapaksha, Dimitar Sajkov, David Gordon, Manon M J Cox, Nikolai Petrovsky
Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm 'swine flu' pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284612/pathogenicity-and-transmission-of-triple-reassortant-h3n2-swine-influenza-a-viruses-is-attenuated-following-turkey-embryo-propagation
#17
Shobana Raghunath, Raghavendra Sumanth Pudupakam, Jagadeeswaran Deventhiran, Rahul Tevatia, Tanya Leroith
Genetic lineages of swine influenza A viruses (SIVs) have recently been established in Turkeys in the United States. To identify molecular determinants that are involved in virulence and transmission of SIVs to Turkeys, we sequentially passaged two triple reassortant H3N2 SIV isolates from Minnesota in ten day old specific-pathogen free (SPF) Turkey embryos and tested them in seven-day old Turkey poults. We found that SIV replication in Turkey embryos led to minimal mutations in and around the receptor binding and antigenic sites of the HA molecule, while other gene segments were unchanged...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284596/kinetics-of-single-and-dual-infection-of-pigs-with-swine-influenza-virus-and-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#18
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Arkadiusz Dors, Krzysztof Kwit, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Ewelina Stasiak, Zygmunt Pejsak
Porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is a common problem in modern pork production worldwide. Pathogens that are amongst other pathogens frequently involved in PRDC etiology are swine influenza virus (SIV) and A. pleuropneumoniae. The effect of dual infection with mentioned pathogens has not been investigated to date. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the kinetics of single and dual infection of pigs with SIV and A. pleuropneumoniae with regard to clinical course, pathogens shedding, lung lesions and early immune response...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282440/h1n1-influenza-viruses-varying-widely-in-hemagglutinin-stability-transmit-efficiently-from-swine-to-swine-and-to-ferrets
#19
Marion Russier, Guohua Yang, Atanaska Marinova-Petkova, Peter Vogel, Bryan S Kaplan, Richard J Webby, Charles J Russell
A pandemic-capable influenza virus requires a hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein that is immunologically unseen by most people and is capable of supporting replication and transmission in humans. HA stabilization has been linked to 2009 pH1N1 pandemic potential in humans and H5N1 airborne transmissibility in the ferret model. Swine have served as an intermediate host for zoonotic influenza viruses, yet the evolutionary pressure exerted by this host on HA stability was unknown. For over 70 contemporary swine H1 and H3 isolates, we measured HA activation pH to range from pH 5...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267619/protection-of-human-influenza-vaccines-against-a-reassortant-swine-influenza-virus-of-pandemic-h1n1-origin-using-a-pig-model
#20
Jirapat Arunorat, Nataya Charoenvisal, Yonlayong Woonwong, Roongtham Kedkovid, Supattra Jittimanee, Panchan Sitthicharoenchai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Pariwat Poolperm, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Since the pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009 (pdmH1N1), many reassortant pdmH1N1 viruses emerged and found circulating in the pig population worldwide. Currently, commercial human subunit vaccines are used commonly to prevent the influenza symptom based on the WHO recommendation. In case of current reassortant swine influenza viruses transmitting from pigs to humans, the efficacy of current human influenza vaccines is of interest. In this study, influenza A negative pigs were vaccinated with selected commercial human subunit vaccines and challenged with rH3N2...
February 28, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
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