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Swine Influenza

Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Joyce Jones, Xiangjie Sun, Yunho Jang, Sharmi Thor, Jessica A Belser, Natosha Zanders, Hannah M Creager, Callie Ridenour, Li Wang, Thomas J Stark, Rebecca Garten, Li-Mei Chen, John Barnes, Terrence M Tumpey, David E Wentworth, Taronna R Maines, C Todd Davis
Influenza A(H1) viruses circulating in swine represent an emerging virus threat as zoonotic infections occur sporadically following exposure to swine. A fatal infection caused by an H1N1 variant (H1N1v) virus was detected in a patient with reported exposure to swine and who presented with pneumonia, respiratory failure, and cardiac arrest. To understand the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the virus, genome sequence analysis, antigenic characterization, and ferret pathogenesis and transmissibility experiments were performed...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Céline Deblanc, Séverine Hervé, Stéphane Gorin, Charlie Cador, Mathieu Andraud, Stéphane Quéguiner, Nicolas Barbier, Frédéric Paboeuf, Nicolas Rose, Gaëlle Simon
Maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) reduce piglet susceptibility to swine influenza A virus, but interfere with post-infectious immune responses, raising questions about protection after waning of passive immunity. We therefore analysed the impact of different levels of residual MDA on virus excretion and immune responses in piglets born to vaccinated sows (MDA+) and infected with H1N1 at 5, 7 or 11 weeks of age, in comparison to piglets born to unvaccinated sows (MDA-). Subsequent protection against a second homologous infection occurring 4 weeks after the primo-infection was also investigated...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
N Takemae, P T Nguyen, V T Le, T N Nguyen, T L To, T D Nguyen, V P Pham, H V Vo, Q V T Le, H T Do, D T Nguyen, Y Uchida, T Saito
Three subtypes-H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2-of influenza A viruses of swine (IAVs-S) are currently endemic in swine worldwide, but there is considerable genotypic diversity among each subtype and limited geographical distribution. Through IAVs-S monitoring in Vietnam, two H1N2 influenza A viruses were isolated from healthy pigs in Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province, Southern Vietnam, on 2 December 2016. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses revealed that their HA and NA genes were derived from those of European avian-like H1N2 IAVs-S that contained avian-origin H1 and human-like N2 genes, and were particularly closely related to those of IAVs-S circulating in the Netherlands, Germany or Denmark...
March 6, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Mengkai Cai, Junming Huang, Dexin Bu, Zhiqing Yu, Xinliang Fu, Chihai Ji, Pei Zhou, Guihong Zhang
Swine are the main host of the H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIV), however, H1N1 can also infect humans and occasionally cause serious respiratory disease. To trace the evolution of the SIV in Guangdong, China, we performed an epidemic investigation during the period of 2016-2017. Nine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from swine nasal swabs. Antigenic analysis revealed that these viruses belonged to two distinct antigenic groups, represented by A/Swine/Guangdong/101/2016 and A/Swine/Guangdong/52/2017. Additionally, three genotypes, known as GD52/17-like, GD493/17-like and GD101/16-like, were identified by phylogenetic analysis...
February 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Aneth S Canale, Sergey V Venev, Troy W Whitfield, Daniel R Caffrey, Wayne A Marasco, Celia A Schiffer, Timothy F Kowalik, Jeffrey D Jensen, Robert W Finberg, Konstantin B Zeldovich, Jennifer P Wang, Daniel N A Bolon
The fitness effects of synonymous mutations can provide insights into biological and evolutionary mechanisms. We analyzed the experimental fitness effects of all single nucleotide mutations, including synonymous substitutions, at the beginning of the influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene. Many synonymous substitutions were deleterious in both bulk competition and for individually isolated clones. Investigating protein and RNA levels of a subset of individually expressed HA variants revealed that multiple biochemical properties contribute to the observed experimental fitness effects...
February 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Jie Zhou, Jianjian Wei, Ka-Tim Choy, Sin Fun Sia, Dewi K Rowlands, Dan Yu, Chung-Yi Wu, William G Lindsley, Benjamin J Cowling, James McDevitt, Malik Peiris, Yuguo Li, Hui-Ling Yen
Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1...
February 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elise A Lamont, Erin Poulin, Srinand Sreevatsan, Maxim C-J Cheeran
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is a prevalent respiratory pathogen in pigs that has deleterious consequences to animal and human health. Pigs represent an important reservoir for influenza and potential mixing vessel for novel gene reassortments. Despite the central role of pigs in recent influenza outbreaks, much remains unknown about the impact of swine immunity on IAV-S transmission, pathogenesis, and evolution. An incomplete understanding of interactions between the porcine immune system and IAV-S has hindered development of new diagnostic tools and vaccines...
January 12, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Royford Magiri, Ken Lai, Alyssa Chaffey, Yan Zhou, Hyun-Mi Pyo, Volker Gerdts, Heather L Wilson, George Mutwiri
Swine influenza virus is endemic worldwide and it is responsible for significant economic losses to the swine industry. A vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective immune response to prevent this infection is highly sought. Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)-phosphazene (PCEP) has demonstrated adjuvant activity when formulated as part of multiple vaccines in mice and pigs. In this study we examined the magnitude and type of immune response induced in pigs vaccinated via the intramuscular or intradermal routes with inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) H1N1 vaccine formulated with PCEP...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
Sofie Eg Jørgensen, Mette Christiansen, Laura Barrett Ryø, Hans Henrik Gad, Jakob Gjedsted, Peter Staeheli, Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen, Merete Storgaard, Rune Hartmann, Trine Hyrup Mogensen
Influenza virus infection causes worldwide seasonal epidemics. Although influenza usually is a mild disease, a minority of patients experience very severe fulminating disease courses. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for type I interferon (IFN) in antiviral responses during influenza. However, IFN regulatory factor (IRF)7 deficiency is so far the only genetic cause of severe influenza described in humans. In this study we present a patient with severe influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 infection during the 2009 Swine Flu pandemic...
February 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Daniela S Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Pravina Kitikoon, Jered Stratton, Nicola S Lewis, Amy L Vincent
Several lineages of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulate in North American pigs. Genetic diversity is further increased by transmission of IAV between swine and humans and subsequent evolution. Here, we characterized the genetic and antigenic evolution of contemporary swine H1N1 and H1N2 viruses representing clusters H1-α (1A.1), H1-β (1A.2), H1pdm (1A.3.3.2), H1-γ (1A.3.3.3), H1-δ1 (1B.2.2), and H1-δ2 (1B.2.1) currently circulating in pigs in the United States. The δ1-viruses diversified into two new genetic clades, H1-δ1a (1B...
February 13, 2018: Virology
Mai-Juan Ma, Guo-Lin Wang, Benjamin D Anderson, Zhen-Qiang Bi, Bing Lu, Xian-Jun Wang, Chuang-Xin Wang, Shan-Hui Chen, Yan-Hua Qian, Shao-Xia Song, Min Li, John A Lednicky, Teng Zhao, Meng-Na Wu, Wu-Chun Cao, Gregory C Gray
Background: Our understanding of influenza A virus transmission between humans and pigs is limited. Methods: Beginning in 2015, we used a One Health approach and serial sampling to prospectively study 299 swine workers and 100 controls, their 9000 pigs, and 6 pig farm environments in China for influenza A viruses (IAVs) using molecular, culture, and immunological techniques. Study participants were closely monitored for influenza-like illness (ILI) events. Results: Upon enrollment, swine workers had higher serum neutralizing antibody titers against swine H1N1 and higher nasal wash total immunoglobulin A (IgA) and specific IgA titers against swine H1N1 and H3N2 viruses...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sung J Yoo, Taeyong Kwon, Young S Lyoo
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are genetically diverse and variable pathogens that share various hosts including human, swine, and domestic poultry. Interspecies and intercontinental viral spreads make the ecology of IAV more complex. Beside endemic IAV infections, human has been exposed to pandemic and zoonotic threats from avian and swine influenza viruses. Animal health also has been threatened by high pathogenic avian influenza viruses (in domestic poultry) and reverse zoonosis (in swine). Considering its dynamic interplay between species, prevention and control against IAV should be conducted effectively in both humans and animal sectors...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Hong-Su Park, GuanQun Liu, Sathya N Thulasi Raman, Shelby L Landreth, Qiang Liu, Yan Zhou
The inflammasome represents a molecular platform for the innate immune regulation and controls the pro-inflammatory cytokine production. NLRP3 inflammasome is comprised of NLRP3, ASC and pro-caspase-1. When NLRP3 inflammasome is activated, it causes ASC speck formation and caspase-1 activation, resulting in the maturation of IL-1β. NLRP3 inflammasome is regulated at multiple levels, with one level being post-translational modification. Interestingly, ubiquitination of ASC has been reported to be indispensable for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tanja Opriessnig, Phillip C Gauger, Priscilla F Gerber, Alessandra M M G Castro, Huigang Shen, Lita Murphy, Paul Digard, Patrick G Halbur, Ming Xia, Xi Jiang, Ming Tan
Swine influenza A viruses (IAV-S) found in North American pigs are diverse and the lack of cross-protection among heterologous strains is a concern. The objective of this study was to compare a commercial inactivated A/H1N1/pdm09 (pH1N1) vaccine and two novel subunit vaccines, using IAV M2 ectodomain (M2e) epitopes as antigens, in a growing pig model. Thirty-nine 2-week-old IAV negative pigs were randomly assigned to five groups and rooms. At 3 weeks of age and again at 5 weeks of age, pigs were vaccinated intranasally with an experimental subunit particle vaccine (NvParticle/M2e) or a subunit complex-based vaccine (NvComplex/M2e) or intramuscularly with a commercial inactivated vaccine (Inact/pH1N1)...
2018: PloS One
Mahesh Khatri, Levi Arthur Richardson, Tea Meulia
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) mediate their immunoregulatory and tissue repair functions by secreting paracrine factors, including extracellular vesicles (EVs). In several animal models of human diseases, MSC-EVs mimic the beneficial effects of MSCs. Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of acute respiratory illness resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. Influenza viruses constantly evolve, thus generating drug-resistant strains and rendering current vaccines less effective against the newly generated strains...
January 29, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Irina Tutykhina, Ilias Esmagambetov, Alexander Bagaev, Alexey Pichugin, Andrey Lysenko, Dmitry Shcherbinin, Elena Sedova, Denis Logunov, Maxim Shmarov, Ravshan Ataullakhanov, Boris Naroditsky, Alexander Gintsburg
To avoid outbreaks of influenza virus epidemics and pandemics among human populations, modern medicine requires the development of new universal vaccines that are able to provide protection from a wide range of influenza A virus strains. In the course of development of a universal vaccine, it is necessary to consider that immunity must be generated even against viruses from different hosts because new human epidemic virus strains have their origins in viruses of birds and other animals. We have enriched conserved viral proteins-nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 2 (M2)-by B and T-cell epitopes not only human origin but also swine and avian origin...
2018: PloS One
Anna Malmsten, Ulf Magnusson, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, David González-Barrio, Anne-Marie Dalin
The wild boar ( Sus scrofa) population has increased markedly during the last three decades in Sweden and in other parts of Europe. This population growth may lead to increased contact between the wild boar and the domestic pig ( Sus scrofa scrofa), increasing the risk of transmission of pathogens. The objective of our study was to estimate the seroprevalence of selective pathogens, known to be shared between wild boars and domestic pigs in Europe, in three wild boar populations in Sweden. In total, 286 hunter-harvested female wild boars were included in this study...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Bryan S Kaplan, Carine K Souza, Phillip C Gauger, Charles B Stauft, J Robert Coleman, Steffen Mueller, Amy L Vincent
Influenza A virus (IAV) in swine constitutes a major economic burden for producers as well as a potential threat to public health. Whole inactivated virus vaccines (WIV) are the predominant countermeasure employed to control IAV in swine herds in the United States despite the superior protection, and diminished adverse effects, induced by live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV). A major hurdle for the development of LAIV exists in achieving the proper level of attenuation while maintaining immunogenicity...
January 20, 2018: Vaccine
Orla Flynn, Clare Gallagher, Jean Mooney, Claire Irvine, Mariette Ducatez, Ben Hause, Guy McGrath, Eoin Ryan
We detected influenza D virus in 18 nasal swab samples from cattle in Ireland that were clinically diagnosed with respiratory disease. Specimens were obtained from archived samples received for routine diagnosis during 2014-2016. Sequencing showed that viruses from Ireland clustered with virus sequences obtained in Europe within the D/swine/OK/1334/2011 clade.
February 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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