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Canine Influenza

R-K Seong, J-A Kim, O S Shin
Wogonin, a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has attracted increasing scientific attention in recent years because of its potent anti-tumor activity. Its role during viral infection has largely been unexplored. Wogonin treatment effectively suppressed both influenza A and B virus replication in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells and human lung epithelial (A549) cells. In contrast, wogonin treatment following influenza A virus infection led to up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral signaling...
2018: Acta Virologica
In-Won Lee, Young-Il Kim, Gyo-Jin Lim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Se Mi Kim, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Suk Song, Young-Ki Choi
Recent canine influenza outbreaks have raised concerns about the generation of pathogenic variants that may pose a threat to public health. Here, we examine avian-like H3N2 canine influenza viruses (CIVs) isolated from 2009 to 2013 in South Korea from dogs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses are closely related to strains previously isolated from dogs in Korea and China. However, molecular characterization demonstrated non-synonymous mutations between the canine viruses, particularly in the putative H3 antigenic sites, NA stalk regions, and in the internal genes of the 2012-2013 isolates compared with the 2009 isolate...
March 7, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Mohammed Kawser Hossain, Subbroto Kumar Saha, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Jung-Hyun Kim, Kyeongseok Kim, Gwang-Mo Yang, Hye Yeon Choi, Ssang-Goo Cho
Influenza virus remains a major health concern worldwide, and there have been continuous efforts to develop effective antivirals despite the use of annual vaccination programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-influenza activity of Bax inhibitor-1 ( BI-1 ). Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells expressing wild type BI-1 and a non-functional BI-1 mutant, BI-1 ∆C (with the C-terminal 14 amino acids deleted) were prepared and infected with A/PR/8/34 influenza virus. BI-1 overexpression led to the suppression of virus-induced cell death and virus production compared to control Mock or BI-1 ∆C overexpression...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kennedy Mwacalimba, Annette Litster
Since March 2015, canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 has caused widespread outbreaks in dogs across the USA. The effects of local H3N2 outbreaks on veterinary practices were investigated using an online interface and followed with phone calls to respondents when necessary. An outbreak was defined as confirmed diagnosis of H3N2 by either PCR or serology in at least four dogs. Of 30 practices invited to participate, five met the entry criteria: at least one documented H3N2 outbreak in the previous 12 months, a predominantly (≥70%) small animal caseload, and adequate financial records to complete the survey...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jin Jung Kwon, Won-Suk Choi, Ju Hwan Jeong, Eun-Ha Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Sun-Woo Yoon, Jungwon Hwang, Richard J Webby, Elena A Govorkova, Young Ki Choi, Yun Hee Baek, Min-Suk Song
The resistance of influenza viruses to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs; i.e. oseltamivir, zanamivir, peramivir and laninamivir) can be associated with several NA substitutions, with differing effects on viral fitness. To identify novel molecular markers conferring multi-NAI resistance, the NA gene of oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y, N1 numbering) 2009 pandemic influenza [A(H1N1)pdm09] virus was enriched with random mutations. This randomly mutated viral library was propagated in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells under zanamivir pressure and gave rise to additional changes within NA, including an I436N substitution located outside the NA enzyme active site...
March 2018: Journal of General Virology
Niloofar Khalili, Ali Karimi, Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Hedayatollah Shirzad
CONTEXT: The influenza A virus (IAV) causes severe respiratory disease that remains a leading reason for morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have indicated that influenza complications in addition to viral replication are due to overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, a new compound is needed to be used with current antiviral drugs to modulate overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in IAV infection. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of celastrol on mRNA expression and concentration levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) that are induced by influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1; PR8) in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells...
March 1, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Ramona Trebbien, Claus Bohn Christiansen, Thea Kølsen Fischer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antiviral treatment of influenza virus infections can lead to drug resistance of virus. This study investigates a selection of mutations in the full genome of H3N2 influenza A virus isolated from a patient in treatment with oseltamivir. STUDY DESIGN: Respiratory samples from a patient were collected before, during, and after antiviral treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the influenza virus by next generation sequencing, and low-frequency-variant analysis was performed...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Ramesh Prasad Pandey, Dae Hee Kim, Jinsuk Woo, Jaeyoung Song, Sang Ho Jang, Joon Bae Kim, Kwang Myun Cheong, Jin Sik Oh, Jae Kyung Sohng
Two sialylated human milk oligosaccharides (SHMOs) 3'-sialyllactose (3'-SL) and 6'-sialyllactose (6'-SL) were accessed for their possible antiviral activity against six different subtypes of thirteen avian influenza (AI) viruses in vitro. 3'-SL exhibited promising antiviral activity against almost all subtypes of tested AI viruses in hemagglutination inhibition assay, whereas 6'-SL showed activity against few selected H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 subtype strains. 3'-SL has minimum inhibitory concentration values of 15...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chun-Yeung Lo, Olive Tin-Wai Li, Wen-Ping Tang, Chun Hu, Guo Xin Wang, Jacky Chi-Ki Ngo, David Chi-Cheong Wan, Leo Lit-Man Poon, Pang-Chui Shaw
Currently, many strains of influenza A virus have developed resistance against anti-influenza drugs, and it is essential to find new chemicals to combat this virus. The influenza polymerase with three proteins, PA, PB1 and PB2, is a crucial component of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Here, we report the identification of a hit compound 221 by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) direct binding screening on the C-terminal of PA (PAC). Compound 221 can subdue influenza RNP activities and attenuate influenza virus replication...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christina E Mair, Ulrike Grienke, Anke Wilhelm, Ernst Urban, Martin Zehl, Michaela Schmidtke, Judith M Rollinger
In an in vitro cytopathic effect inhibition assay with the H3N2 influenza virus A/Hong Kong/68 (HK/68), the bark extract of Burkea africana was found to be a promising antiviral lead with an IC50 value of 5.5 μg/mL without noteworthy cytotoxicity in Madin Darby canine kidney cells. After several chromatographic steps, triterpene saponins of the lupane and oleanane types were identified as the bioactive principles. In total, eight new triterpene saponins (1-8) with four so far undescribed aglycone structures were isolated and characterized via HRESIMS, GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Soleiman Kheiri, Ali Torabi
Objective: Influenza A virus infections are still a major health problem and the choices available for the control and treatment of the disease are limited. This research evaluated in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of Peganum harmala L. seeds (PHS) extract against influenza A virus. Materials and Methods: In this research, in vitro anti-influenza A virus activity of the extract was assessed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In order to evaluate anti-influenza activity of PHS extract in vivo, BALB/c mice were infected with 5LD50 of mouse-adapted influenza virus (H1N1; PR8) and received 200 mg/kg/day of PHS extract or 20 mg/kg/day oseltamivir...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
F Liaini Gross, Yaohui Bai, Stacie Jefferson, Crystal Holiday, Min Z Levine
Neutralizing antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses are considered the main immune mechanism that correlates with protection for influenza infections. Microneutralization (MN) assays are often used to measure neutralizing antibody responses in human sera after influenza vaccination or infection. Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are the commonly used cell substrate for MN assays. However, currently circulating 3C.2a and 3C.3a A(H3N2) influenza viruses have acquired altered receptor binding specificity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ram P Kamal, Irina V Alymova, Ian A York
PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. This can at least partially be explained by the presence of multiple PB1-F2 sequence variants, including premature stop codons that lead to the expression of truncated PB1-F2 proteins of different lengths and specific virulence-associated residues that enhance susceptibility to bacterial superinfection...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Liqing Tu, Pei Zhou, Lutao Li, Xiuzhen Li, Renjun Hu, Kun Jia, Lingshuang Sun, Ziguo Yuan, Shoujun Li
Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
Alexandra Sack, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetseg Chuluunbaatar, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Nyamdorj Tsogbadrakh, Gregory C Gray
Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders' livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV) epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia's horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016-2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces). Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens
Pei Zhou, Liqing Tu, Xi Lin, Xiangqi Hao, Qingxu Zheng, Weijie Zeng, Xin Zhang, Yun Zheng, Lifang Wang, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs regulate multiple aspects of the host response to viral infection. This study verified that the expression of cfa-miR-143 was upregulated in vivo and in vitro by canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 infection. To understand the role of cfa-miR-143 in CIV-infected cells, the target gene of cfa-miR-143 was identified and assessed for correlations with proteins involved in the apoptosis pathway. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that cfa-miR-143 targets insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5)...
November 25, 2017: Viruses
Judy A Mitchell, Jacqueline M Cardwell, Heather Leach, Caray A Walker, Sophie Le Poder, Nicola Decaro, Miklos Rusvai, Herman Egberink, Peter Rottier, Mireia Fernandez, Eirini Fragkiadaki, Shelly Shields, Joe Brownlie
Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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