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Canine Influenza

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324680/phylogenetic-analysis-and-characterization-of-a-sporadic-isolate-of-equine-influenza-a-h3n8-from-an-unvaccinated-horse-in-2015
#1
Chithra C Sreenivasan, Sunayana S Jandhyala, Sisi Luo, Ben M Hause, Milton Thomas, David E B Knudsen, Pamela Leslie-Steen, Travis Clement, Stephanie E Reedy, Thomas M Chambers, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Eric Nelson, Dan Wang, Radhey S Kaushik, Feng Li
Equine influenza, caused by the H3N8 subtype, is a highly contagious respiratory disease affecting equid populations worldwide and has led to serious epidemics and transboundary pandemics. This study describes the phylogenetic characterization and replication kinetics of recently-isolated H3N8 virus from a nasal swab obtained from a sporadic case of natural infection in an unvaccinated horse from Montana, USA. The nasal swab tested positive for equine influenza by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
January 11, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299435/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-peganum-harmala-l-seeds-extract-against-influenza-a-virus
#3
Mohammad-Taghi Moradi, Ali Karimi, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Soleiman Kheiri, Ali Torabi
Objective: Influenza A virus infections are still a major health problem and the choices available for the control and treatment of the disease are limited. This research evaluated in vitro and in vivo antiviral effects of Peganum harmala L. seeds (PHS) extract against influenza A virus. Materials and Methods: In this research, in vitro anti-influenza A virus activity of the extract was assessed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In order to evaluate anti-influenza activity of PHS extract in vivo, BALB/c mice were infected with 5LD50 of mouse-adapted influenza virus (H1N1; PR8) and received 200 mg/kg/day of PHS extract or 20 mg/kg/day oseltamivir...
November 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286446/measuring-influenza-neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-a-h3n2-viruses-in-human-sera-by-microneutralization-assays-using-mdck-siat1-cells
#4
F Liaini Gross, Yaohui Bai, Stacie Jefferson, Crystal Holiday, Min Z Levine
Neutralizing antibodies against hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza viruses are considered the main immune mechanism that correlates with protection for influenza infections. Microneutralization (MN) assays are often used to measure neutralizing antibody responses in human sera after influenza vaccination or infection. Madine Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells are the commonly used cell substrate for MN assays. However, currently circulating 3C.2a and 3C.3a A(H3N2) influenza viruses have acquired altered receptor binding specificity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286299/evolution-and-virulence-of-influenza-a-virus-protein-pb1-f2
#5
REVIEW
Ram P Kamal, Irina V Alymova, Ian A York
PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. This can at least partially be explained by the presence of multiple PB1-F2 sequence variants, including premature stop codons that lead to the expression of truncated PB1-F2 proteins of different lengths and specific virulence-associated residues that enhance susceptibility to bacterial superinfection...
December 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228675/evaluation-of-protective-efficacy-of-three-novel-h3n2-canine-influenza-vaccines
#6
Liqing Tu, Pei Zhou, Lutao Li, Xiuzhen Li, Renjun Hu, Kun Jia, Lingshuang Sun, Ziguo Yuan, Shoujun Li
Canine influenza virus (CIV) has the potential risk to spread in different areas and dog types. Thus, there is a growing need to develop an effective vaccine to control CIV disease. Here, we developed three vaccine candidates: 1) a recombinant pVAX1 vector expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (pVAX1-HA); 2) a live attenuated canine adenovirus type 2 expressing H3N2 CIV hemagglutinin (rCAV2-HA); and 3) an inactivated H3N2 CIV (A/canine/Guangdong/01/2006 (H3N2)). Mice received an initial intramuscular immunization that followed two booster injections at 2 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv)...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189713/low-prevalence-of-enzootic-equine-influenza-virus-among-horses-in-mongolia
#7
Alexandra Sack, Ulziimaa Daramragchaa, Maitsetseg Chuluunbaatar, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, Boldbaatar Bazartseren, Nyamdorj Tsogbadrakh, Gregory C Gray
Horses are critically important for Mongolian herders' livelihoods, providing transportation and food products, and playing important cultural roles. Equine influenza virus (EIV) epizootics have been frequent among Mongolia's horses, with five occurring since 1970. We sought to estimate the prevalence for EIV infection among horses and Bactrian camels with influenza-like illness between national epizootics. In 2016-2017, active surveillance for EIV was periodically performed in four aimags (provinces). Nasal swabs were collected from 680 horses and 131 camels...
November 30, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186842/cfa-mir-143-promotes-apoptosis-via-the-p53-pathway-in-canine-influenza-virus-h3n2-infected-cells
#8
Pei Zhou, Liqing Tu, Xi Lin, Xiangqi Hao, Qingxu Zheng, Weijie Zeng, Xin Zhang, Yun Zheng, Lifang Wang, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs regulate multiple aspects of the host response to viral infection. This study verified that the expression of cfa-miR-143 was upregulated in vivo and in vitro by canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 infection. To understand the role of cfa-miR-143 in CIV-infected cells, the target gene of cfa-miR-143 was identified and assessed for correlations with proteins involved in the apoptosis pathway. A dual luciferase reporter assay showed that cfa-miR-143 targets insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (Igfbp5)...
November 25, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173585/european-surveillance-of-emerging-pathogens-associated-with-canine-infectious-respiratory-disease
#9
Judy A Mitchell, Jacqueline M Cardwell, Heather Leach, Caray A Walker, Sophie Le Poder, Nicola Decaro, Miklos Rusvai, Herman Egberink, Peter Rottier, Mireia Fernandez, Eirini Fragkiadaki, Shelly Shields, Joe Brownlie
Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127947/the-first-external-quality-assessment-of-isolation-and-identification-of-influenza-viruses-in-cell-culture-in-the-asia-pacific-region-2016
#10
Patrick C Reading, Vivian K Leung, Iwona Buettner, Leah Gillespie, Yi-Mo Deng, Robert Shaw, Natalie Spirason, Angela Todd, Aparna Singh Shah, Frank Konings, Ian G Barr
BACKGROUND: The isolation and propagation of influenza viruses from clinical specimens are essential tools for comprehensive virologic surveillance. Influenza viruses must be amplified in cell culture for detailed antigenic analysis and for phenotypic assays assessing susceptibility to antiviral drugs or for other assays. OBJECTIVES: To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA) of proficiency for isolation and identification of influenza viruses using cell culture techniques among National Influenza Centres (NICs) in the World Health Organisation (WHO) South East Asia and Western Pacific Regions...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118117/a-y161f-hemagglutinin-substitution-increases-thermostability-and-improves-yields-of-2009-h1n1-influenza-a-virus-in-cells
#11
Feng Wen, Lei Li, Nan Zhao, Meng-Jung Chiang, Hang Xie, Jim Cooley, Richard Webby, Peng George Wang, Xiu-Feng Wan
Vaccination is the primary strategy for influenza prevention and control. Yet egg-based vaccines, the predominant production platform, have several disadvantages including the emergence of viral antigenic variants that can be induced during egg passage. These limitations have prompted development of cell-based vaccines which themselves are not without issue. Most importantly, vaccine seed viruses often do not grow efficiently in mammalian cell lines. Here we aimed to identify novel high-yield signatures for influenza viruses in continuous Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Vero cells...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104227/inter-species-host-gene-expression-differences-in-response-to-human-and-avian-influenza-a-virus-strains
#12
Biruhalem Taye, Dawn Yeo, Raphael Tze Chuen Lee, Boon Huan Tan, Richard J Sugrue, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are a source of sporadic human infections and could also contribute to future pandemic outbreaks but little is known about inter-species differences in the host responses to these viruses. Here, we studied host gene expression signatures of cell lines from three species (human, chicken, and canine) in response to six different viruses (H1N1/WSN, H5N2/F59, H5N2/F118, H5N2/F189, H5N3 and H9N2). Comprehensive microarray probe set re-annotation and ortholog mapping of the host genes was necessary to allow comparison over extended functionally annotated gene sets and orthologous pathways...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093096/microrna-based-attenuation-of-influenza-virus-across-susceptible-hosts
#13
Barbara M Waring, Louisa E Sjaastad, Jessica K Fiege, Elizabeth J Fay, Ismarc Reyes, Branden Moriarity, Ryan A Langlois
Influenza A virus drives significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock. Annual circulation of the virus in livestock and waterfowl contributes to severe economic disruption and increases the risk of zoonotic transmission of novel strains into the human population where there is no preexisting immunity. Seasonal vaccinations in humans help prevent infection and can reduce symptoms when infection does occur. However, current vaccination regimens available for livestock are limited in part due to safety concerns regarding reassortment/recombination with circulating strains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080615/antiviral-activity-of-five-asian-medicinal-pant-crude-extracts-against-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus
#14
Benjaporn Sornpet, Teerapong Potha, Yingmanee Tragoolpua, Kidsadagon Pringproa
OBJECTIVE: To study the antiviral properties of the five Asian medicinal plants against in vitro infection by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). METHODS: Crude extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (C. longa), Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Kaempferia parviflora (K. parviflora), and Psidium guajava obtained by both water and ethanol extractions were investigated for their cytotoxicity in the Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Thereafter, they were investigated in vitro for antiviral activity and cytokine response upon H5N1 virus infection...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074428/identification-and-function-analysis-of-canine-stimulator-of-interferon-gene-sting
#15
Yuxiang Zhang, Mengyan Zhu, Gairu Li, Jie Liu, Xiaofeng Zhai, Ruyi Wang, Junyan Zhang, Gang Xing, Jinyan Gu, Liping Yan, Jing Lei, Haifeng Sun, Zhiyu Shi, Fei Liu, Boli Hu, Shuo Su, Jiyong Zhou
Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) plays an important role in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated activation of type I IFN responses. In this study, we identified and cloned canine STING gene. Full-length STING encodes a 375 amino acid product that shares the highest similarity with feline STING. Highest levels of mRNA of canine STING were detected in the spleen and lungs while the lowest levels in the heart and muscle. Analysis of its cellular localization showed that STING is localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017603/longitudinal-study-of-influenza-a-virus-circulation-in-a-nursery-swine-barn
#16
Juliana B Ferreira, Helena Grgić, Robert Friendship, Greg Wideman, Éva Nagy, Zvonimir Poljak
Commercial production of swine often involves raising animals in large groups through the use of multi-stage production systems. In such systems, pigs can experience different degrees of contact with animals of the same or different ages. Population size and degree of contact can greatly influence transmission of endemic pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). IAV can display high genetic variability, which can further complicate population-level patterns. Yet, the IAV transmission in large multi-site swine production systems has not been well studied...
October 10, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934454/assessment-of-molecular-antigenic-and-pathological-features-of-canine-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-that-emerged-in-the-united-states
#17
Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Natosha Simpson, Hua Yang, Hannah M Creager, Joyce Jones, Paul Carney, Jessica A Belser, Genyan Yang, Jessie Chang, Hui Zeng, Sharmi Thor, Yunho Jang, Mary Lea Killian, Melinda Jenkins-Moore, Alicia Janas-Martindale, Edward Dubovi, David E Wentworth, James Stevens, Terrence M Tumpey, C Todd Davis, Taronna R Maines
Background: A single subtype of canine influenza virus (CIV), A(H3N8), was circulating in the United States until a new subtype, A(H3N2), was detected in Illinois in spring 2015. Since then, this CIV has caused thousands of infections in dogs in multiple states. Methods: In this study, genetic and antigenic properties of the new CIV were evaluated. In addition, structural and glycan array binding features of the recombinant hemagglutinin were determined. Replication kinetics in human airway cells and pathogenesis and transmissibility in animal models were also assessed...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859269/optimized-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-recombinant-vaccine-strains-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#18
Jin-Wook Jang, Chung-Young Lee, Il-Hwan Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Seong-Su Yuk, Ji-Ho Lee, Chang-Seon Song, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon
A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8)-derived recombinant viruses have been used for seasonal flu vaccines; however, they are insufficient for vaccines against some human-fatal H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (HPAIV) due to low productivity. Additionally, the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) protein, an important mammalian-pathogenicity determinant, of PR8 possesses several mammalian-pathogenic mutations. We previously reported two avian PB2 genes (01310 and 0028) related to efficient replication in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and nonpathogenicity in BALB/c mice...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858604/spread-of-canine-influenza-a-h3n2-virus-united-states
#19
Ian E H Voorhees, Amy L Glaser, Kathy Toohey-Kurth, Sandra Newbury, Benjamin D Dalziel, Edward J Dubovi, Keith Poulsen, Christian Leutenegger, Katriina J E Willgert, Laura Brisbane-Cohen, Jill Richardson-Lopez, Edward C Holmes, Colin R Parrish
A canine influenza A(H3N2) virus emerged in the United States in February-March 2015, causing respiratory disease in dogs. The virus had previously been circulating among dogs in Asia, where it originated through the transfer of an avian-origin influenza virus around 2005 and continues to circulate. Sequence analysis suggests the US outbreak was initiated by a single introduction, in Chicago, of an H3N2 canine influenza virus circulating among dogs in South Korea in 2015. Despite local control measures, the virus has continued circulating among dogs in and around Chicago and has spread to several other areas of the country, particularly Georgia and North Carolina, although these secondary outbreaks appear to have ended within a few months...
December 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835506/the-k186e-amino-acid-substitution-in-the-canine-influenza-virus-h3n8-ns1-protein-restores-its-ability-to-inhibit-host-gene-expression
#20
Aitor Nogales, Caroline Chauché, Marta L DeDiego, David J Topham, Colin R Parrish, Pablo R Murcia, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Canine influenza viruses (CIVs) are the causative agents of canine influenza, a contagious respiratory disease in dogs, and include the equine-origin H3N8 and the avian-origin H3N2 viruses. Influenza A virus (IAV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor essential for counteracting the innate immune response. Here, we evaluated the ability of H3N8 CIV NS1 to inhibit host innate immune responses. We found that H3N8 CIV NS1 was able to efficiently counteract interferon (IFN) responses but was unable to block general gene expression in human or canine cells...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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