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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356327/functions-of-autophagy-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-and-cancer-metastasis
#1
REVIEW
Erin E Mowers, Marina N Sharifi, Kay F MacLeod
Macro-autophagy is an ancient and highly-conserved self-degradative process that plays a homeostatic role in normal cells by eliminating organelles, pathogens and protein aggregates. Autophagy, as it is routinely referred to, also allows cells to maintain metabolic sufficiency and survive under conditions of nutrient stress by recycling the by-products of autophagic degradation, such as fatty acids, amino acids and nucleotides. Tumor cells are more reliant than normal cells on autophagy for survival in part due to their rapid growth rate, altered metabolism and nutrient deprived growth environment...
January 21, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355658/targeting-autophagy-in-gastrointestinal-malignancy-by-using-nanomaterials-as-drug-delivery-systems
#2
G Seeta Rama Raju, E Pavitra, Neha Merchant, Hoomin Lee, Ganji Lakshmi Vara Prasad, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process involving large protein degradation by a ubiquitous autophagosomic signaling pathway, which is essential for cellular homeostasis. It is triggered by environmental factors such as stress, lack of nutrients, inflammation, and eliminating intracellular pathogens. Although the mechanisms underlying autophagy are still unclear, increasing evidence illuminates the magnitude of autophagy in a wide range of physiological processes and human diseases. Simultaneously, research community has focused on the triggering of autophagy by the internalization of engineered nanomaterials, which indicates a new line of revolution in cancer cure...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355591/chaperoning-the-guardian-of-the-genome-the-two-faced-role-of-molecular-chaperones-in-tumor-suppressor-p53-action
#3
REVIEW
Bartosz Wawrzynow, Alicja Zylicz, Maciej Zylicz
Organized networks of heat shock proteins, which possess molecular chaperone activity, protect cells from abrupt environmental changes. Additionally, molecular chaperones are essential during stress-free periods, where they moderate housekeeping functions. During tumorigenesis these chaperone networks are extensively remodeled in such a way that they are advantageous to the transforming cell. Molecular chaperones by buffering critical elements of signaling pathways empower tumor evolution leading to chemoresistance of cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355557/blockage-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-attenuates-nilotinib-induced-cardiotoxicity-by-inhibition-of-the-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-nox4-signaling
#4
Qinghui Yang, Liang Wen, Zenghui Meng, Yanjun Chen
Cardiotoxicity is a critical side-effect of nilotinib during treatment for cancer, such as chronic myeloid leukemia, while the potential signaling mechanisms remain unclear. The role of and the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated in nilotinib-induced cardiac H9C2 injury as a suitable cell model. Our results showed that ER stress was persistently induced in nilotinib-treated cells, evidenced by increase of GRP78, CHOP, ATF4 and XBP1 as well as phospho-PERKThr980...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355527/isovitexin-iv-induces-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-liver-cancer-cells-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#5
Sheng-Xiang Lv, Xiao Qiao
Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and novel chemotherapeutic drugs to suppress liver cancer are urgently required. Isovitexin (IV), a glycosylflavonoid, is extracted from rice hulls of Oryza sativa, and has various biological activities. However, the anti-tumor effect of IV against liver cancer has not yet been demonstrated in vitro or in vivo. In the present study, we showed that IV significantly suppressed the growth of liver cancer cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that IV induced apoptosis by the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by the increase of Bax, cleaved Caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cytoplasm Cyto-c released from mitochondria...
January 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355244/a-game-of-substrates-replication-fork-remodeling-and-its-roles-in-genome-stability-and-chemo-resistance
#6
Julia Sidorova
During the hours that human cells spend in the DNA synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle, they may encounter adversities such as DNA damage or shortage of nucleotides. Under these stresses, replication forks in DNA may experience slowing, stalling, and breakage. Fork remodeling mechanisms, which stabilize slow or stalled replication forks and ensure their ability to continue or resume replication, protect cells from genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Fork remodeling includes DNA strand exchanges that result in annealing of newly synthesized strands (fork reversal), controlled DNA resection, and cleavage of DNA strands...
December 2017: Cell Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354301/celecoxib-induces-cell-death-on-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-through-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#7
Bomi Kim, Jayoung Kim, Yeong Seok Kim
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme induced by various proinflammatory and mitogenic stimuli. Celecoxib is a selective inhibitor of COX-2 that have been shown to affect cell growth and apoptosis. Lung cancer cells expressing COX-2 is able to be a target of celecoxib, this study focuses on investigating that celecoxib induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on lung cancer cells. We investigated whether celecoxib induced apoptosis on non-small cell lung cancer cell line, A549 and H460. The 50 µM of celecoxib increased apoptotic cells and 100 µM of celecoxib significantly induced apoptosis...
December 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353950/a-hybrid-three-scale-model-of-tumor-growth
#8
H L Rocha, R C Almeida, E A B F Lima, A C M Resende, J T Oden, T E Yankeelov
Cancer results from a complex interplay of different biological, chemical, and physical phenomena that span a wide range of time and length scales. Computational modeling may help to unfold the role of multiple evolving factors that exist and interact in the tumor microenvironment. Understanding these complex multiscale interactions is a crucial step towards predicting cancer growth and in developing effective therapies. We integrate different modeling approaches in a multiscale, avascular, hybrid tumor growth model encompassing tissue, cell, and sub-cell scales...
January 2018: Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences: M3AS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353872/atypical-presentation-of-a-rare-disease-eosinophilic-cholangitis-posing-as-a-cancer
#9
Judie Noemie Hoilat, Gilles Jad Hoilat, Saeed AlQahtani, Hussah F Alhussaini, Saleh I Alabbad
BACKGROUND A variety of benign etiologies of biliary stricture may initially be mistaken for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Consequently, many patients undergo surgery for a benign disease that could have been treated medically. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is an uncommon, benign, self-limiting disease that should be considered when approaching a case of obstructive jaundice since it causes biliary stricture formation. Transmural eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree is characteristic of EC. It may initially be indistinguishable from hilar cholangiocarcinoma...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352444/activation-of-the-anti-aging-and-cognition-enhancing-gene-klotho-by-crispr-dcas9-transcriptional-effector-complex
#10
Ci-Di Chen, Ella Zeldich, Yuexuan Li, Andrea Yuste, Carmela R Abraham
Multiple lines of evidence show that the anti-aging and cognition-enhancing protein Klotho fosters neuronal survival, increases the anti-oxidative stress defense, and promotes remyelination of demyelinated axons. Thus, upregulation of the Klotho gene can potentially alleviate the symptoms and/or prevent the progression of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Here we used a CRISPR-dCas9 complex to investigate single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting the Klotho promoter region for efficient transcriptional activation of the Klotho gene...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352404/mechanisms-linking-obesity-and-thyroid-cancer-development-and-progression-in-mouse-models
#11
REVIEW
Won Gu Kim, Sheue-Yann Cheng
Recent compelling epidemiological studies indicate a strong association of obesity with thyroid cancer. Obesity has been shown to promote thyroid cancer progression and exacerbate poor outcome in thyroid cancer patients. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases thyroid cancer risk and facilitates cancer progression are not completely understood. Obesity induces complex pathological changes including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress, adipokines, and inflammatory responses...
January 19, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352271/sex-disparity-in-cancer-roles-of-micrornas-and-related-functional-players
#12
REVIEW
Alessandra Carè, Maria Bellenghi, Paola Matarrese, Lucia Gabriele, Stefano Salvioli, Walter Malorni
A sexual dimorphism at the cellular level has been suggested to play a role in cancer onset and progression. In particular, very recent studies have unraveled striking differences between cells carrying XX or XY chromosomes in terms of response to stressful stimuli, indicating the presence of genetic and epigenetic differences determining sex-specific metabolic or phenotypic traits. Although this field of investigation is still in its infancy, available data suggest a key role of sexual chromosomes in determining cell life or death...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352261/insight-into-the-role-of-pikk-family-members-and-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-in-dnadamage-induced-senescence-and-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-of-colon-cancer-cells
#13
Anna Strzeszewska, Olga Alster, Grażyna Mosieniak, Agata Ciolko, Ewa Sikora
Senescence of cancer cells is an important outcome of treatment of many cancer types. Cell senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest induced by stress conditions, including DNA damage. DNA damage activates DNA damage response (DDR), which involves members of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) superfamily: protein kinases ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. The so-far collected data indicate that ATM, with its downstream targets CHK2, p53, and p21, is the key protein involved in DDR-dependent senescence...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352129/molecular-characterization-of-the-grape-seeds-extract-s-effect-against-chemically-induced-liver-cancer-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-analyses
#14
Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Gehan Hussein Heeba, Hanan Mohamed Elwy, Chandraprabha Murali, Raafat El-Awady, Amr Amin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer property of grape seed extract (GSE) during early stages of developing liver cancer using a two-stage carcinogenic model combining diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-Acetyl Aminofluorene (2-AAF). Administration of GSE at doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day started at the beginning of promotion periods and continued for 14 weeks. GSE dramatically inhibited pre-neoplastic foci formation as well as significantly decreased the number and the area of placental glutathione-S-transferase in livers of DEN-2AAF-treated rats by approximately 4 & 10 fold deductions, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351758/autophagy-promotes-metastasis-and-glycolysis-by-upregulating-mct1-expression-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-pathway-activation-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#15
Qing Fan, Liang Yang, Xiaodong Zhang, Yingbo Ma, Yan Li, Lei Dong, Zhihong Zong, Xiangdong Hua, Dongming Su, Hangyu Li, Jingang Liu
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a dynamic physiological process that can generate energy and nutrients for cell survival during stress. Autophagy can regulate the migration and invasive ability in cancer cells. However, the connection between autophagy and metabolism is unclear. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays an important role in lactic acid transport and H+ clearance in cancer cells, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling can increase cancer cell glycolysis. We investigated whether autophagy promotes glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, accompanied by MCT1 upregulation...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350708/sleep-wake-disturbance-a-systematic-review-of-evidence-based-interventions-for-management-in-patients-with-cancer
#16
Ellyn Matthews, Patricia Carter, Margaretta Page, Grace Dean, Ann Berger
BACKGROUND: New or worsening sleep-wake disturbance (SWD) can occur throughout the cancer trajectory.
. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to critically review available empirical evidence supporting the efficacy of interventions for SWD, highlighting new evidence since the 2006 and 2009 Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) SWD publications.
. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published from 2009-2017 was conducted to identify effective interventions for cancer-related SWD...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350695/prechemotherapy-education-reducing-patient-anxiety-through-nurse-led-teaching-sessions%C3%A2
#17
Emmanuel Apor, Nathan T Connell, Katherine Faricy-Anderson, Peter Barth, Rouba Youssef, Mary Fenton, William M Sikov, Anthony Thomas, Kayla Rosati, Andrew Schumacher, Alise Lombardo, Susan Korber, Humera Khurshid, Howard Safran, Anthony Mega
BACKGROUND: Patients with cancer experience stress surrounding diagnosis and treatment. Many cancer centers employ a nurse-led education session to alleviate patient anxiety and confusion.
. OBJECTIVES: The goal was to evaluate the effect of a nurse-led chemotherapy teaching session on patients' knowledge, anxiety, and preparedness for 
cancer-directed therapy.
. METHODS: After discussing treatment with their oncologist, participants completed a survey assessing their perceived understanding of various treatment topics...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350481/emotion-regulation-and-positive-affect-in-the-context-of-salivary-alpha-amylase-response-to-pain-in-children-with-cancer
#18
Brooke N Jenkins, Douglas A Granger, Ryan J Roemer, Ariana Martinez, Tara K Torres, Michelle A Fortier
BACKGROUND: Children with cancer routinely undergo painful medical procedures invoking strong physiological stress responses. Resilience to this pain may be conferred through resources such as emotion regulation strategies and positive affect. PROCEDURE: This study measured dispositional positive affect in children with cancer (N = 73) and randomly assigned participants to one of three emotion regulation strategy conditions (distraction, reappraisal, or reassurance)...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349780/protective-effect-of-bled-exposed-conditioned-media-on-cell-injury
#19
Phil-Sun Oh, Eun-Mi Kim, Minjoo Kim, In Sun Kim, Yeon-Hee Han, SeokTae Lim, Myung-Hee Sohn, Myoung-Hwan Ko, Hwan-Jeong Jeong
Previous studies have reported that 450 nm blue light emitting diode (BLED) induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated pathway in cancer cells and reduces the early stage tumor growth. The present study was performed to determine the effects of BLED-irradiated cell metabolites on cell injury. Our results showed that conditioned medium (CM) from cells irradiated with low-dose BLED (LCM) inhibited apoptosis and increased cell survival. Cell protection-related proteins were identified in cell metabolites of CM and LCM using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF analysis...
January 19, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349707/piperazine-clubbed-with-2-azetidinone-derivatives-suppresses-proliferation-migration-and-induces-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-cancer-hela-cells-through-oxidative-stress-mediated-intrinsic-mitochondrial-pathway
#20
Rashmin Khanam, Raj Kumar, Iram Iqbal Hejazi, Syed Shahabuddin, Ramovatar Meena, Vikrant Jayant, Prabhat Kumar, Abdul Roouf Bhat, Fareeda Athar
Piperazine scaffolds or 2-azetidinone pharmacophores have been reported to show anti-cancer activities and apoptosis induction in different types of cancer cells. However, the mechanistic studies involve in induction of apoptosis addressing these two moieties for human cervical cancer cells remain uncertain. The present study emphasizes on the anti-proliferating properties and mechanism involved in induction of apoptosis for these structurally related azoles derivatives in HeLa cancer cells. 1-Phenylpiperazine clubbed with 2-azetidione derivatives (5a-5h) were synthesized, characterized using various spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their in-vitro anti-proliferative activities and induction of apoptosis...
January 18, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
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