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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646756/protein-functionalization-of-zno-nanostructure-exhibits-selective-and-enhanced-toxicity-to-breast-cancer-cells-through-oxidative-stress-based-cell-death-mechanism
#1
Sailendra Mahanta, S Prathap, Deependra Kumar Ban, Subhankar Paul
Zinc oxide nanostructure (ZnONS) was chemically synthesized and functionalized (FZnONSBLA) with a small protein bovine α-lactalbumin (BLA) by chemical cross-linking methods. Both nano-structures were characterized using various techniques such as electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, photo-luminescence and X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy and DLS analysis revealed their (ZnONS and FZnONSBLA) average size of 200nm and 450nm, respectively. When cytotoxicity of both the nanostructures were assessed in breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDAMB231 by MTT assay and PI/Annexin V staining (FACS), FZnONSBLA demonstrated higher cell death than ZnONS primarily due to generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646136/recurrent-background-mutations-in-whi2-impair-proteostasis-and-degradation-of-misfolded-cytosolic-proteins-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Sophie A Comyn, Stéphane Flibotte, Thibault Mayor
Proteostasis promotes viability at both the cellular and organism levels by maintaining a functional proteome. This requires an intricate protein quality control (PQC) network that mediates protein folding by molecular chaperones and removes terminally misfolded proteins via the ubiquitin proteasome system and autophagy. How changes within the PQC network can perturb proteostasis and shift the balance between protein folding and proteolysis remain poorly understood. However, given that proteostasis is altered in a number of conditions such as cancer and ageing, it is critical that we identify the factors that mediate PQC and understand the interplay between members of the proteostatic network...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646091/stress-specific-p38-map-kinase-activation-is-sufficient-to-drive-egf-receptor-endocytosis-but-not-nuclear-translocation
#3
Alejandra Tomas, Sylwia Jones, Simon O Vaughan, Daniel Hochhauser, Clare E Futter
P38 MAP kinase-dependent EGF receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is induced by stress. Ligand and stresses like X-rays, reportedly promote nuclear traffic of endocytosed EGFR for regulation of gene transcription and DNA repair. We fail to detect EGFR endocytosis or nuclear transport following X-ray treatment of HeLa or head and neck cancer cells, despite extensive DNA damage induction. Apparent nuclear staining with EGFR extracellular domain antibody remained present despite reduced/absent EGFR expression and so did not represent nuclear EGFR...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645572/longitudinal-associations-between-mental-health-conditions-and-overactive-bladder-in-women-veterans
#4
Catherine S Bradley, Ingrid E Nygaard, Stephen L Hillis, James C Torner, Anne G Sadler
BACKGROUND: One in five recently deployed U.S. women veterans report overactive bladder symptoms. Mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety commonly co-occur in women with overactive bladder, but temporal relationships between these outcomes have not been well-studied, and the mechanism behind this association is unknown. The Women Veterans Urinary Health Study, a nationwide longitudinal study in recently deployed women veterans, was designed to better understand relationships between overactive bladder and mental health conditions...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644886/complex-i-inhibition-augments-dichloroacetate-cytotoxicity-through-enhancing-oxidative-stress-in-vm-m3-glioblastoma-cells
#5
Nathan P Ward, Angela M Poff, Andrew P Koutnik, Dominic P D'Agostino
The robust glycolytic metabolism of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has proven them susceptible to increases in oxidative metabolism induced by the pyruvate mimetic dichloroacetate (DCA). Recent reports demonstrate that the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhances the damaging oxidative stress associated with DCA treatment in cancer cells. We sought to elucidate the role of metformin's reported activity as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor in the enhancement of DCA cytotoxicity in VM-M3 GBM cells. Metformin potentiated DCA-induced superoxide production, which was required for enhanced cytotoxicity towards VM-M3 cells observed with the combination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644383/use-of-ultrasonication-technology-for-the-increased-production-of-plant-secondary-metabolites
#6
REVIEW
Md Mohidul Hasan, Tufail Bashir, Hanhong Bae
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) provide taste, color, odor, and resistance to plants, and they are also used to treat cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Synthesis of PSMs in plants is stimulated in response to different forms of external stress. Use of ultrasonication (US) to clean or decontaminate fruits and vegetables leads to physical stress that finally results in the accumulation of PSMs. US can stimulate accumulation of taxol, ginsenoside saponins, shikonin, and resveratrol, e.g., up to 319-fold increase of resveratrol synthesis has been observed in grape due to US...
June 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644070/particulate-matter-disrupts-human-lung-endothelial-cell-barrier-integrity-via-rho-dependent-pathways
#7
Ting Wang, Yuka Shimizu, Xiaomin Wu, Gabriel T Kelly, Xiaoyan Xu, Lichun Wang, Zhongqing Qian, Yin Chen, Joe G N Garcia
Increased exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases and cancer. We and others have shown that PM induces lung microvascular barrier dysfunction which potentially enhances the systemic toxicity of PM. However, the mechanisms by which PM disrupts vascular endothelial integrity remain incompletely explored. We hypothesize that PM induces endothelial cell (EC) cytoskeleton rearrangement via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways to facilitate vascular hyperpermeability...
June 23, 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643177/targeting-dna-repair-and-replication-stress-in-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Junko Murai
Approximately half of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancers incur alterations in genes of homologous recombination (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, Fanconi anemia genes), and the rest incur alterations in other DNA repair pathways at high frequencies. Such cancer-specific gene alterations can confer selective sensitivity to DNA damaging agents such as cisplatin and carboplatin, topotecan, etoposide, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine. Originally presumed to inhibit DNA repair, PARP inhibitors that have recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer also act as DNA damaging agents by inducing PARP-DNA complexes...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642863/friends-enemies-endogenous-retroviruses-are-major-transcriptional-regulators-of-human-dna
#9
REVIEW
Anton A Buzdin, Vladimir Prassolov, Andrew V Garazha
Endogenous retroviruses are mobile genetic elements hardly distinguishable from infectious, or "exogenous," retroviruses at the time of insertion in the host DNA. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are not rare. They gave rise to multiple families of closely related mobile elements that occupy ~8% of the human genome. Together, they shape genomic regulatory landscape by providing at least ~320,000 human transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) located on ~110,000 individual HERV elements. The HERVs host as many as 155,000 mapped DNaseI hypersensitivity sites, which denote loci active in the regulation of gene expression or chromatin structure...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642213/development-of-a-web-based-intervention-for-addressing-distress-in-caregivers-of-patients-receiving-stem-cell-transplants-formative-evaluation-with-stakeholder-interviews-and-focus-groups
#10
Nicole Amoyal Pensak, Tanisha Joshi, Teresa Simoneau, Kristin Kilbourn, Alaina Carr, Jean Kutner, Mark L Laudenslager
BACKGROUND: Caregivers of cancer patients experience significant burden and distress including depression and anxiety. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of an eight session, in-person, one-on-one stress management intervention to reduce distress in caregivers of patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCT). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to adapt and enhance the in-person caregiver stress management intervention to a mobilized website (eg, tablet, smartphone, or computer-based) for self-delivery in order to enhance dissemination to caregiver populations most in need...
June 22, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642035/improving-the-efficacy-of-hormone-therapy-in-breast-cancer-the-role-ofcholesterol-metabolism-in-serm-mediated-autophagy-cell-differentiation-and-death
#11
REVIEW
Julie Leignadier, Florence Dalenc, Marc Poirot, Sandrine Silvente-Poirot
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common female cancers in the world, with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive BC the most frequent subtype. Tamoxifen (Tam) is an effective drug that competitively binds to the ER and is routinely used for the treatment of ER-positive BC. However, a number of ER-positive BC do not respond to Tam treatment and acquired resistance is often observed, constituting a major challenge for extending patient life expectancy. The mechanisms responsible for these treatment failures remain unclear, indicating the requirement for other targets and better predictors for patient response to Tam...
June 19, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641518/grp78-influences-chemoresistance-and-prognosis-in-cancer
#12
Jenifer B Gifford, Reginald Hill
Resistance to therapy is a major hindrance to patient survival in cancer, underscoring a critical need to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance. Research has demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a significant role in allowing cells to survive conditions that would normally elicit cell death. Specifically, elevated expression of GRP78, the master regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), has been shown to induce chemoresistance and serves as a indictor of poor prognosis in patients...
June 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641226/evaluation-of-trace-element-concentration-in-cancerous-and-non-cancerous-tissues-of-human-stomach
#13
Shadi Kohzadi, Farshad Sheikhesmaili, Ramesh Rahehagh, Baran Parhizkar, Ebrahim Ghaderi, Hozan Loqmani, Behzad Shahmoradi, Ebrahim Mohammadi, Afshin Maleki
Gastric cancer has a high mortality rate in west of Iran. Various environmental elements are proposed as cancer risk factors including trace elements. Trace elements can induce initiation or progression of carcinogenesis via oxidative stress and DNA injury. The aim of this study was to measure and compare some trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Fe, As, Mg, Ni, Cd and Cr) in gastric cancer tissues and normal tissues. For this purpose, 35 patients with gastric cancer and 30 without any cancer were biopsied...
June 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640972/understanding-adaptogenic-activity-specificity-of-the-pharmacological-action-of-adaptogens-and-other-phytochemicals
#14
REVIEW
Alexander Panossian
Adaptogens are stress-response modifiers that increase an organism's nonspecific resistance to stress by increasing its ability to adapt and survive. The classical reductionist model is insufficiently complex to explain the mechanistic aspects of the physiological notion of "adaptability" and the adaptogenic activity of adaptogens. Here, I demonstrate that (1) the mechanisms of action of adaptogens are impossible to rationally describe using the reductionist concept of pharmacology, whereas the network pharmacology approach is the most suitable method; and (2) the principles of systems biology and pharmacological networks appear to be more suitable for conceptualizing adaptogen function and are applicable to any phytochemical...
June 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640204/fucoidan-does-not-exert-anti-tumorigenic-effects-on-uveal-melanoma-cell-lines
#15
Michaela Dithmer, Anna-Maria Kirsch, Elisabeth Richert, Sabine Fuchs, Fanlu Wang, Harald Schmidt, Sarah E Coupland, Johann Roider, Alexa Klettner
BACKGROUND: The polysaccharide fucoidan is widely investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Here, we tested the effect of fucoidan on uveal melanoma cell lines. METHODS: The effect of 100 µM fucoidan was investigated on five cell lines (92.1, Mel270 OMM1, OMM2.3, OMM2.5) and of 1 µg/mL-1 mg/mL fucoidan in two cell lines (OMM1, OMM2.3). Cell proliferation and viability were investigated with a WST-1 assay, migration in a wound healing (scratch) assay. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was measured in ELISA...
June 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639904/role-of-jnk-signaling-in-oral-cancer-a-mini-review
#16
Ioannis Gkouveris, Nikolaos G Nikitakis
JNKs (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) belong to mitogen-activated protein kinases' family and become activated by several growth factors, stress, radiation, and other extracellular signals. In turn, JNK activation results in phosphorylation of downstream molecules involved in many normal cellular processes. Nevertheless, recent data have linked JNK signaling with several pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, inflammation, and cancer. The role of JNK in cancer remains controversial. Initially, JNK was thought to play a rather oncosuppressive role by mediating apoptosis in response to stress stimuli, inflammatory, or oncogenic signals...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638734/severe-but-not-mild-heat-shock-treatment-induces-immunogenic-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#17
Irena Adkins, Lenka Sadilkova, Nada Hradilova, Jakub Tomala, Marek Kovar, Radek Spisek
The mechanisms of immunogenicity underlying mild heat-shock (mHS) treatment < 42°C of tumor cells are largely attributed to the action of heat-shock proteins; however, little is known about the immunogenicity of tumor cells undergoing severe cytotoxic heat-shock treatment (sHS > 43°C). Here, we found that sHS, but not mHS (42°C), induces immunogenic cell death in human cancer cell lines as defined by the induction of ER stress response and ROS generation, cell surface exposure of calreticulin, HSP70 and HSP90, decrease of cell surface CD47, release of ATP and HMGB1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637876/monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-with-silenced-pd-1-ligands-and-transpresenting-interleukin-15-stimulate-strong-tumor-reactive-t-cell-expansion
#18
Johan Mj Van den Bergh, Evelien Ljm Smits, Zwi N Berneman, Tim Ja Hutten, Hans De Reu, Viggo Fi Van Tendeloo, Harry Dolstra, Eva Lion, Willemijn Hobo
Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can elicit graft-versus-tumor (GVT) immunity, patients often relapse due to residual tumor cells. As essential orchestrators of the immune system, vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) is an appealing strategy to boost the GVT-response. Nevertheless, durable clinical responses after DC vaccination are still limited, stressing the need to improve current DC vaccines. Aiming to empower DC potency, we engineered monocyte-derived DCs to deprive them of ligands for the immune checkpoint regulated by programmed death 1 (PD-1)...
June 21, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637083/changes-in-spiritual-well-being-and-psychological-outcomes-in-ovarian-cancer-survivors
#19
Lauren Z Davis, Michaela Cuneo, Premal H Thaker, Michael J Goodheart, David Bender, Susan Lutgendorf
OBJECTIVE: Because of the poor prognosis of ovarian cancer and concomitant distress, understanding contributors to positive well-being is critical. This study examines spiritual growth as a domain of posttraumatic growth and its contribution to longitudinal emotional outcomes in ovarian cancer. METHODS: Ovarian cancer patients (N=241) completed measures assessing spirituality (FACIT-SP-12; subscales: faith, meaning, and peace), depression (CESD), cancer-specific anxiety (IES), and total mood disturbance (TMD: POMS) prior to surgery and one-year post-surgery...
June 21, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637073/-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-oncology-what%C3%A2-makes-sense
#20
Axel Eustachi, Dieter Melchart
The basis of any complementary therapy should be the recommendation of a healthy lifestyle (diet, nutrition, exercise, stress-reduction), and appropriate self-help techniques (e. g. thermotherapy, herbal OTC-products) aimed at releasing the patients' most debilitating symptoms. For therapy-resistant or strong symptoms, more invasive interventions or medical treatments with an acceptable evidence base can be used (e. g. acupuncture for cancer pain, herbal prescriptions). The effects of any complementary intervention should be controlled for a period of six weeks after its administration...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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