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Gastric acid

Odete Gonçalves, L Filipe C Castro, Adam J Smolka, António Fontainhas, Jonathan M Wilson
The stomach, which is characterized by acid peptic digestion in vertebrates, has been lost secondarily multiple times in the evolution of the teleost fishes. The Cypriniformes are largely seen as an agastric order; however, within the superfamily Cobitoidea, the closely related sister groups Nemacheilidae and Balitoridae have been identified as gastric families. The presence of these most recently diverged gastric families in an otherwise agastric clade indicates that either multiple (>2-3) loss events occurred with the Cyprinidae, Catostomidae and Cobitidae, or that gastric reinvention arose in a recent ancestor of the Nemacheilidae/Balitoridae sister clade...
2016: PloS One
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Ana Roseli S Ribeiro, José Diego do Nascimento Valença, Jeferson da Silva Santos, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Ricardo L C Albuquerque-Júnior, Sara Maria Thomazzi
Many flavonoids have been shown to present good results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid derived from the Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi root, possesses several biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. This study was conducted to assess the gastroprotective properties of baicalein. Anti-ulcerogenic assay was performed using the protocol of ulcer induced by ethanol/HCl in mice; then, the role of presynaptic α2-receptors, sulfhydryl (SH) compounds, nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels in gastroprotection of baicalein was investigated...
October 22, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Hilmi Şen, Melike Oruç, Veysel Murat Işik, Murat Sadiç, Hamide Sayar, Rana Çitil, Meliha Korkmaz, Uğur Koçer
BACKGROUND: Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. METHODS: In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study...
October 24, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Amna K E Awadallah, Makarim Elfadil M Osman, Mariam A Ibrahim, Emerson S Bernardes, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Emadeldin Hassan E Konozy
Three isolectins denoted hereforth MBaL-30, MBaL-60, and MBaL-80 were isolated from seeds extract of Momordica balsamina by 30%, 60%, and 80% ammonium sulfate saturations, respectively. The native molecular weights of these lectins, as judged by gel filtration, were 108, 56, and 160 kDa, respectively. On SDS-PAGE, under reduced condition, 27 kDa band was obtained for all isolectins. The lectins hemagglutinating activities were variably inhibited by d-galactose (minimum inhibitory concentrations = 12.5mM, 50mM, and 0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
H L Cole, S Pennycook, P C Hayes
BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy has been reported to be an independent mortality risk factor in patients with cirrhosis. AIMS: To identify the prevalence of PPI prescription, the appropriateness of this therapy and to investigate the relationship between PPI therapy and overall survival in patients with liver disease. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used patient data for 2012 to 2014 collected from the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit and the Hepatology Ward at the New Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh...
October 23, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Satoshi Tanaka, Minoru Sakaguchi, Hiroki Yoneyama, Yoshihide Usami, Shinya Harusawa
Histamine is involved in various physiological functions, including its neurotransmitter actions in the central nervous system and its action as a causative agent of inflammation, allergic reactions, and gastric acid secretions. Histamine expression and biosynthesis have been detected in breast cancer cells. It was recently suggested that the histamine H3 receptor (H3R) plays a role in the proliferation of breast cancer cells. We recently developed the non-imidazole H3R antagonist OUP-186 which exhibited a potent and selective human H3R antagonistic activity as well as no activity against the human histamine H4 receptor (H4R)...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Allison R Schulman, Walter Chan, Aiofe Devery, Michele B Ryan, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Marginal ulceration, or ulceration at the gastrojejunal anastomosis, is a common complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Acidity likely contributes to the pathophysiology, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are frequently prescribed for treatment. However, patients with gastric bypass only have a small gastric pouch and rapid small bowel transit, which limits the opportunity for capsule breakdown and PPI absorption. Soluble PPIs (open capsules, OCs) might be more easily absorbed than intact capsules (IC)...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Lei Li, Guohua Jiang, Weijiang Yu, Depeng Liu, Hua Chen, Yongkun Liu, Zaizai Tong, Xiangdong Kong, Juming Yao
To overcome multiple barriers for oral delivery of insulin, the chitosan-based multifunctional nanocarriers modified by L-valine (LV, used as a target ligand to facilitate the absorption of the small intestine) and phenylboronic acid (PBA, used as a glucose-responsive unit) have been designed and evaluated in this study. The resultant nanocarriers exhibited low cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells and excellent stability against protein solution. The insulin release behaviors were evaluated triggered by pH and glucose in vitro...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Eitaro Aihara, Andrea L Matthis, Rebekah A Karns, Kristen A Engevik, Peihua Jiang, Jiang Wang, Bruce R Yacyshyn, Marshall H Montrose
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The peptic ulcer heals through a complex process, although the ulcer relapse often occurs several years later after healing. Our hypothesis is that even after visual evidence of healing of gastric ulceration, the regenerated epithelium is aberrant for an extended interval, increasing susceptibility of the regenerated epithelium to damage and further diseases. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by serosal topical application of acetic acid...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Francesco Siano, Francesco Addeo, Maria Grazia Volpe, Marina Paolucci, Gianluca Picariello
Fatty acid composition of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) is dominated by punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid (18:3, ω-5). As a free fatty acid, punicic acid is rapidly oxidized in air and extensively isomerizes upon acid-catalyzed methylation at 90 °C. In contrast, triacylglycerol-bound punicic acid in PSO was unchanged by simulated gastric conditions and was degraded for 5-7% by severe heating (up to 170 °C for 4 h), as herein assessed by gas chromatography, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Prabodh Chander Sharma, Mona Piplani, Harish Rajak
In the present study, a novel strategy was developed to construct lipid prodrug of norfloxacin. N-Mannich base of norfloxacin was synthesized. The prodrug was obtained by covalently coupling this N-Mannich base with fatty acid hydrazide. The synthesized prodrug was characterized by spectral as well as other physical analysis. The hydrolytic studies of prodrug in buffers (pH 1.2 and 7.4), simulated gastric and intestinal fluid by HPLC analysis were undertaken. The studies revealed that prodrug liberates only about 2% of norfloxacin in HCl buffer (pH 1...
October 18, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Florentina Sophie Ferstl, Alice Miriam Kitay, Rebecca Marion Trattnig, Abrar Alsaihati, John Peter Geibel
Prolonged exposure to gastric acid is a leading cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophagitis. With the ever increasing number of patients showing insensitivity to proton-pump-inhibitor (PPI) therapy with recurrence of symptoms over time, alternative treatment options remain an important issue. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that a zinc sulfate salt can inhibit HCl generation at the cellular level of the parietal cell. In this paper, we examine the difference between two hydration forms of ZnSO4 (monohydrate H2O and heptahydrate 7H2O) in their entry characteristics into the parietal cell under several physiological conditions associated with acid secretion...
October 19, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Belgacem Mihi, Annemieke Smet, Bram Flahou, Freddy Haesebrouck
The stomach of pigs at slaughter age is often colonized by Helicobacter (H.) suis, which is also the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter (NHPH) species in humans. It is associated with chronic gastritis, gastric ulceration and other gastric pathological changes in both hosts. Parietal cells are highly specialized, terminally differentiated epithelial cells responsible for gastric acid secretion and regulation. Dysfunction of these cells is closely associated with gastric pathology and disease...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
Cigdem Yucel Falco, Javier Sotres, Ana Rascón, Jens Risbo, Marité Cárdenas
HYPOTHESIS: Chitosan and sulfated oat β-glucan are materials suitable to create a prebiotic coating for targeted delivery to gastrointestinal system, using the layer by layer technology. EXPERIMENT: Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to assess the multilayer formation capacity and characterize the resulting coatings in terms of morphology and material properties such as structure and rigidity...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kaname Uno, Katsunori Iijima, Yasuhiko Abe, Tomoyuki Koike, Yasushi Takahashi, Nobuyuki Ara, Tooru Shimosegawa
PURPOSE: Endoscopic diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC) that emerges after eradication of Helicobacter pylori may be affected by unique morphological changes. Using comprehensive endoscopic imaging, which can reveal biological alterations in gastric mucosa after eradication, previous studies demonstrated that Congo red chromoendoscopy (CRE) might clearly show an acid non-secretory area (ANA) with malignant potential, while autofluorescence imaging (AFI) without drug injection or dyeing may achieve early detection or prediction of GC...
September 2016: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Kei Hosoda, Keishi Yamashita, Shinichi Sakuramoto, Natsuya Katada, Hiromitsu Moriya, Hiroaki Mieno, Masahiko Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Little is known about postgastrectomy syndrome and quality of life (QOL after laparoscopy-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (LAPPG). The aim of this study was to assess postgastrectomy syndrome and QOL after LAPPG as compared with laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I reconstruction (LADGBI). METHODS: Postgastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale-45 (PGSAS-45) questionnaires were sent by mail to 167 patients. To balance the characteristics of the groups, propensity score matching was performed...
October 8, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Daniel Konstantinou, Nina Bertaux-Skeirik, Yana Zavros
The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection...
October 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Shuitu Feng, Zhigao Zheng, Lihua Feng, Lihong Yang, Zuhong Chen, Yubiao Lin, Yingqin Gao, Yide Chen
The cancer stem cell (CSC) model suggests that a small subset of cancer cells possess stem cell properties and plays a crucial role in tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to anticancer therapy. Exploration of the specific therapies targeting at CSCs has been a crucial issue in antitumor research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells often exist in an ischemic microenvironment with acidic conditions in vivo, thus maintenance of cellular pH homeostasis is important for the survival and function of GC cells. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may prevent intracellular proton extrusions which consequently reduce cancer cell survival under acidic conditions...
October 7, 2016: Oncology Reports
Shan-Shan Rao, Xiang-Yan Zhang, Ming-Jun Shi, Ying Xiao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Chang-Zhi Zhang, Song-Jun Shao, Xin-Mei Liu, Bing Guo
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has anti-fibrotic effect. However, the exact mechanism of its anti-fibrotic potential remains is unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of SAHA in attenuating pulmonary fibrosis by regulating stability of Smad7 in paraquat (PQ)-induced lung fibrosis animal model and cultured pulmonary fibroblasts. METHODS: Rats with paraquat-induced lung fibrosis were fed with a SAHA solution (15 mg/kg) by gastric gavage...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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