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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212491/food-ingestion-in-an-upright-sitting-position-increases-post-prandial-amino-acid-availability-when-compared-to-food-ingestion-in-a-lying-down-position
#1
Andrew M Holwerda, Kaatje Lenaerts, Jörgen Bierau, Will K W H Wodzig, Luc J C van Loon
Dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial increase in muscle protein synthesis. We recently demonstrated that body position during feeding can modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. Here we investigated whether protein ingestion in an upright sitting body position accelerates gastric emptying and improves dietary protein digestion and subsequent amino acid absorption compared with feeding in a supine lying body position. In a crossover design, eight young males (26±1 y, 24...
February 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#2
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208072/identification-of-triosephosphate-isomerase-as-a-novel-allergen-in-octopus-fangsiao
#3
Yang Yang, Zhong-Wei Chen, Barry K Hurlburt, Gui-Ling Li, Yong-Xia Zhang, Dan-Xia Fei, Hai-Wang Shen, Min-Jie Cao, Guang-Ming Liu
Octopus is an important mollusk in human dietary for its nutritional value, however it also causes allergic reactions in humans. Major allergens from octopus have been identified, while the knowledge of novel allergens remains poor. In the present study, a novel allergen with molecular weight of 28kDa protein was purified from octopus (Octopus fangsiao) and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) by mass spectrometry. TIM aggregated beyond 45°C, and its IgE-binding activity was affected under extreme pH conditions due to the altered secondary structure...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207290/fatty-acid-and-mineral-receptors-as-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#4
Pawin Pongkorpsakol, Aekkacha Moonwiriyakit, Chatchai Muanprasat
Nutrient-sensing receptors, including fatty acid receptors (FFA1-FFA4), Ca(2+)-sensing receptors and Zn(2+)-sensing receptors, are involved in several biological processes. These receptors are abundantly expressed in the GI tract, where they have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating GI function. This review provides an overview of the GI functions of fatty acid and mineral receptors, including the regulation of gastric and enteroendocrine functions, GI motility, ion transport and cell growth. Recently, several lines of evidence have implicated these receptors as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of GI disorders, for example, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, metabolic syndrome and diarrheal diseases...
February 16, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206729/gut-microbiota-and-gastric-disease
#5
Dolores Sgambato, Agnese Miranda, Lorenzo Romano, Marco Romano
The gut microbiota may be considered a crucial "organ" of human body because of its role in the maintenance of the balance between health as well as disease. It is mainly located in the small bowel and colon, while, the stomach was long thought to be sterile in particular for its high acid production. In particular, stomach was considered "an hostile place" for bacterial growth until the identification of Helicobacter pylori (HP). Now, the stomach and its microbiota can be considered as two different "organs" that share the same place and they have an impact on each other...
15, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205007/long-term-evaluation-of-biliary-reflux-after-experimental-one-anastomosis-gastric-bypass-in-rats
#6
Matthieu Bruzzi, Henri Duboc, Caroline Gronnier, Dominique Rainteau, Anne Couvelard, Maude Le Gall, André Bado, Jean-Marc Chevallier
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains regarding biliary reflux after one-anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB). The aim of this "pilot" study was to analyze biliary reflux and its potential long-term consequences on esogastric mucosae in OAGB-operated rats. METHODS: Diet-induced obese rats were subjected to OAGB (n = 10) or sham (n = 4) surgery and followed up for 16 weeks. Evolution of weight and glucose tolerance was analyzed. Bile acid concentration measurement, histological and qRT-PCR analysis were performed in the esogastric segments...
February 15, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202805/chenodeoxycholic-acid-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-in-patients-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#7
Signe Nielsen, Maria S Svane, Rune E Kuhre, Trine R Clausen, Viggo B Kristiansen, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Kirstine N Bojsen-Moller
Postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is enhanced after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but the precise molecular mechanisms explaining this remain poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of bile acids (BAs) increase after RYGB, and BAs may act as molecular enhancers of GLP-1 secretion through activation of TGR5-receptors. We aimed to evaluate GLP-1 secretion after oral administration of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and the secondary bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (which are available for oral use) in RYGB-operated participants...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201966/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-mutual-prodrugs-of-carboxylic-group-containing-some-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-and-propyphenazone
#8
Sucheta Ohlan, Meenu Paliwal, Ruchita Ruchita, Shilpa Jain, Monika Monika, Himanshu Himanshu
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); ketorolac (KA), niflumic acid (NA), tolfenamic acid (TA) were conjugated with propyphenazone derivative 3-Hydroxymethyl propyphenazone (HMP) by direct coupling and by using spacer technique with the objective of obtaining gastro-sparing NSAIDs prodrugs devoid of ulcerogenic side effects. Mutual prodrugs were synthesized and their structures were confirmed and characterized using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy and their purity was established by elemental analysis...
February 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199791/unpredictable-performance-of-ph-dependent-coatings-accentuates-the-need-for-improved-predictive-in-vitro-test-systems
#9
Jozef Al-Gousous, Yasuhiro Tsume, Maoqi Fu, Isam Salem, Peter Langguth
First introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century, enteric coatings are commonly used to protect acid-labile drugs, reduce the risk of gastric side effects due to irritating drugs or for local drug delivery to the lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The currently available enteric-coatings are based on pH-sensitive weakly acidic polymers. Despite the long history of their use, the causes behind their performance often being unpredictable have not been properly investigated with most of the attention being focused only on the gastric emptying...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198428/acyl-ghrelin-induces-insulin-resistance-independently-of-gh-cortisol-and-free-fatty-acids
#10
Esben T Vestergaard, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
Ghrelin produced in the gut stimulates GH and ACTH secretion from the pituitary and also stimulates appetite and gastric emptying. We have shown that ghrelin also induces insulin resistance via GH-independent mechanisms, but it is unknown if this effect depends on ambient fatty acid (FFA) levels. We investigated the impact of ghrelin and pharmacological antilipolysis (acipimox) on insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism in 8 adult hypopituitary patients on stable replacement with GH and hydrocortisone using a 2 × 2 factorial design: Ghrelin infusion, saline infusion, ghrelin plus short-term acipimox, and acipimox alone...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194462/designing-an-efficient-multi-epitope-oral-vaccine-against-helicobacter-pylori-using-immunoinformatics-and-structural-vaccinology-approaches
#11
Navid Nezafat, Mahboobeh Eslami, Manica Negahdaripour, Mohammad Reza Rahbar, Younes Ghasemi
Helicobacter pylori is the cunning bacterium that can live in the stomachs of many people without any symptoms, but gradually can lead to gastric cancer. Due to various obstacles, which are related to anti-H. pylori antibiotic therapy, recently developing an anti-H. pylori vaccine has attracted more attention. In this study, different immunoinformatics and computational vaccinology approaches were employed to design an efficient multi-epitope oral vaccine against H. pylori. Our multi-epitope vaccine is composed of heat labile enterotoxin IIc B (LT-IIc) that is used as a mucosal adjuvant to enhance vaccine immunogenicity for oral immunization, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) to increase vaccine stability in acidic pH of gut, one experimentally protective antigen, OipA, and two hypothetical protective antigens, HP0487 and HP0906, and "CTGKSC" peptide motif that target epithelial microfold cells (M cells) to enhance vaccine uptake from the gut barrier...
February 14, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194260/anti-bacterial-effects-of-enzymatically-isolated-sialic-acid-from-glycomacropeptide-in-a-helicobacter-pylori-infected-murine-model
#12
Hye-Ji Noh, Hong Bum Koh, Hee-Kyoung Kim, Hyang Hyun Cho, Jeongmin Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization of the stomach mucosa and duodenum is the major cause of acute and chronic gastroduodenal pathology in humans. Efforts to find effective anti-bacterial strategies against H. pylori for the non-antibiotic control of H. pylori infection are urgently required. In this study, we used whey to prepare glycomacropeptide (GMP), from which sialic acid (G-SA) was enzymatically isolated. We investigated the anti-bacterial effects of G-SA against H...
February 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192536/correction-association-between-increased-gastric-juice-acidity-and-sliding-hiatal-hernia-development-in-humans
#13
Hiroshi Kishikawa, Kayoko Kimura, Asako Ito, Kyoko Arahata, Sakiko Takarabe, Shogo Kaida, Takanori Kanai, Soichiro Miura, Jiro Nishida
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170416.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190472/gastroprotective-and-anti-secretory-mechanisms-of-2-phenylquinoline-an-alkaloid-isolated-from-galipea-longiflora
#14
Eduardo Breviglieri, Luisa Mota da Silva, Thaise Boeing, Lincon Bordignon Somensi, Benhur Judah Cury, Alberto Gimenez, Valdir Cechinel Filho, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade
BACKGROUND: We previously described the gastroprotective effect of 2-phenylquinoline (2-PQ), the main alkaloid isolated from the bark of Galipea longiflora (Rutaceae). However, despite the significant and promising results, the pharmacological mechanisms of the gastroprotection induced by 2-PQ have not been investigated. PURPOSE: To evaluate the mechanisms underlying the gastroprotective effects of 2-PQ. STUDY DESIGN: We used an in vivo mouse ulcer model and in vitro methodologies involving H⁺/K⁺-ATPase and L929 murine fibroblasts...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190384/lactic-acid-bacteria-with-concomitant-il-17-il-23-and-tnf%C3%AE-binding-ability-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Staša Kosler, Borut Štrukelj, Aleš Berlec
BACKGROUND: Neutralization of proinflammatory cytokines is an established strategy in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Systemic anti-TNFα antibodies have been used in the clinics for several years, while anti-IL-17/IL-23 antibodies have been less successful so far. We report the development of safe lactic acid bacterium Lb. salivarius with the ability to simultaneously bind IL-17A, IL-23 and TNFα that could be administered orally for the treatment of IBD. METHODS: Three different cytokine-binding non-Ig scaffolds (anti-IL-17A fynomer, anti-IL-23-binding adnectin and anti-TNFα-binding affibody) were cloned and expressed in L...
10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184212/the-daily-consumption-of-cola-can-determine-hypocalcemia-a-case-report-of-postsurgical-hypoparathyroidism-related-hypocalcemia-refractory-to-supplemental-therapy-with-high-doses-of-oral-calcium
#16
Valentina Guarnotta, Serena Riela, Marina Massaro, Sebastiano Bonventre, Angela Inviati, Alessandro Ciresi, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Salvatore Benvenga, Carla Giordano
The consumption of soft drinks is a crucial factor in determining persistent hypocalcemia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the biochemical mechanisms inducing hypocalcemia in a female patient with usual high consumption of cola drink and persistent hypocalcemia, who failed to respond to high doses of calcium and calcitriol supplementation. At baseline and after pentagastrin injection, gastric secretion (Gs) and duodenal secretion (Ds) samples were collected and calcium and total phosphorus (Ptot) concentrations were evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180141/identification-of-diagnostic-markers-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-gastric-cancer-through-itraq-based-quantitative-proteomics
#17
Zhen Jiang, Hongchun Shen, Bo Tang, Hui Chen, Qin Yu, Xingli Ji, Li Wang
We provide detailed datasets from our analysis of proteins that are differentially expressed in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal gastric tissues, as identified by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics. Also included is a set of representative images of immunohistochemical staining of gastric cancer tissues showing four levels of expression of fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN). The data presented in this paper support the research article "Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals that proteins required for fatty acid metabolism may serve as diagnostic markers for gastric cancer" (Jiang et al...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179487/supplemental-citrulline-is-more-efficient-than-arginine-in-increasing-systemic-arginine-availability-in-mice
#18
Umang Agarwal, Inka C Didelija, Yang Yuan, Xiaoying Wang, Juan C Marini
Background: Arginine is considered to be an essential amino acid in various (patho)physiologic conditions of high demand. However, dietary arginine supplementation suffers from various drawbacks, including extensive first-pass extraction. Citrulline supplementation may be a better alternative than arginine, because its only fate in vivo is conversion into arginine.Objective: The goal of the present research was to determine the relative efficiency of arginine and citrulline supplementation to improve arginine availability...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177232/adaptation-to-biocides-cetrimide-and-chlorhexidine-in-bacteria-from-organic-foods-association-with-tolerance-to-other-antimicrobials-and-physical-stresses
#19
Rebeca Gadea, Nicolas Glibota, Ruben Pérez Pulido, Antonio Galvez, Elena Ortega
Chlorhexidine (CH) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), like cetrimide (CE) are widely used as disinfectants because of their broad antimicrobial spectrum. However, their frequent use for disinfection in different settings may promote bacterial drug resistance against both biocides and clinically relevant antibiotics. This study analyzes the effects of step-wise exposure to cetrimide (CE) and chlorhexidine (CH) of bacteria from organic foods and previously classified as sensitive to biocides. Gradual exposure of these strains to biocides resulted in mainly transient decreased antimicrobial susceptibility to other biocides and to antibiotics...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176219/large-buffering-effect-of-the-duodenal-bulb-in-duodenal-switch-a-wireless-ph-metric-study
#20
Z Bekhali, J Hedberg, H Hedenström, M Sundbom
INTRODUCTION: Bariatric procedures result in massive weight loss, however, not without side effects. Gastric acid is known to cause marginal ulcers, situated in the small bowel just distal to the upper anastomosis. We have used the wireless BRAVO™ system to study the buffering effect of the duodenal bulb in duodenal switch (DS), a procedure in which the gastric sleeve produces a substantial amount of acid. METHODS: We placed a pre- and a postpyloric pH capsule in 15 DS-patients (seven men, 44 years, BMI 33) under endoscopic guidance and verified the correct location by fluoroscopy...
February 7, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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