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landmark research

Andrew R Marley, Hongmei Nan
Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics
Sandra Bouma
The publication of the landmark paper "Defining Pediatric Malnutrition: A Paradigm Shift Toward Etiology-Related Definitions" launched a new era in diagnosing pediatric malnutrition. This work introduced the paradigm shift of etiology-related definitions-nonillness and illness related-and the use of anthropometric z scores to help identify and describe children with malnutrition (undernutrition) in the developed world. Putting the new definition into practice resulted in some interesting observations: (1) Etiology-related definitions result in etiology-related interventions...
October 20, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Kejia Hu, Chao Chen, Qingyao Meng, Ziv Williams, Wendong Xu
BACKGROUND: With the tremendous advances in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), the literature in this field has grown exponentially; examination of highly cited articles is a tool that can help identify outstanding scientific studies and landmark papers. This study examined the characteristics of 100 highly cited BCI papers over the past 10 years. METHODS: The Web of Science was searched for highly cited papers related to BCI research published from 2006 to 2015...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Lara A Coelho, Giovanna Zaninelli, Claudia L R Gonzalez
Previous research has found that the perception of our hands is inaccurate. This distorted representation has several constant characteristics including an overestimation of hand width and an underestimation of finger length. In this study, we further investigate this phenomenon by exploring the boundaries of hand representation. Participants placed one hand underneath a table top so it was occluded from view. Using their free hand, participants were instructed to point to the location where they believed the tips and bases of each of their fingers were...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Research
Tim Aitman, Paraminder Dhillon, Aron M Geurts
Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
András P Keszei, Benjamin Berkels, Thomas M Deserno
We catalogue available software solutions for non-rigid image registration to support scientists in selecting suitable tools for specific medical registration purposes. Registration tools were identified using non-systematic search in Pubmed, Web of Science, IEEE Xplore® Digital Library, Google Scholar, and through references in identified sources (n = 22). Exclusions are due to unavailability or inappropriateness. The remaining (n = 18) tools were classified by (i) access and technology, (ii) interfaces and application, (iii) living community, (iv) supported file formats, and (v) types of registration methodologies emphasizing the similarity measures implemented...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Sven Gottschalk, Thomas Felix Fehm, Xose Luís Deán-Ben, Vassiliy Tsytsarev, Daniel Razansky
Visualization of whole brain activity during epileptic seizures is essential for both fundamental research into the disease mechanisms and the development of efficient treatment strategies. It has been previously discussed that pathological synchronization originating from cortical areas may reinforce backpropagating signaling from the thalamic neurons, leading to massive seizures through enhancement of high frequency neural activity in the thalamocortical loop. However, the study of deep brain neural activity is challenging with the existing functional neuroimaging methods due to lack of adequate spatiotemporal resolution or otherwise insufficient penetration into subcortical areas...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
Siti Adibah Othman, Lynnora Patrick Majawit, Wan Nurazreena Wan Hassan, Mang Chek Wey, Roziana Mohd Razi
OBJECTIVES: To establish the three-dimensional (3D) facial soft tissue morphology of adult Malaysian subjects of the Malay ethnic group; and to determine the morphological differences between the genders, using a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and nine subjects participated in this research, 54 Malay men and 55 Malay women, aged 20-30 years old with healthy BMI and with no adverse skeletal deviation. Twenty-three facial landmarks were identified on 3D facial images captured using a VECTRA M5-360 Head System (Canfield Scientific Inc, USA)...
2016: PloS One
T K Kim, Mark Phillips, Mohit Bhandari, John Watson, Rajesh Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Most TKA prostheses are designed based on the anatomy of white patients. Individual studies have identified key anthropometric differences between the knees of the white population and other major ethnic groups, yet there is limited understanding of what these findings may indicate if analyzed collectively. QUESTION/PURPOSE: What are the differences in morphologic features of the distal femur and proximal tibia among and within various ethnicities? METHODS: A systematic review of the PubMed database and a hand-search of article bibliographies identified 235 potentially eligible English-language studies...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Charlotte L Hall, John A Taylor, Karen Newell, Laurence Baldwin, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
BACKGROUND: The landmark US Multimodal Treatment of ADHD (MTA) study established the benefits of individualised medication titration and optimisation strategies to improve short- to medium-term outcomes in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This individualised medication management approach was subsequently incorporated into the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) ADHD Clinical Guidelines (NICE CG78). However, little is known about clinicians' attitudes towards implementing these medication management strategies for ADHD in routine care...
January 2016: BJPsych Open
A Nerot, W Skalli, X Wang
Recent progress in 3D scanning technologies allows easy access to 3D human body envelope. To create personalized human models with an articulated linkage for realistic re-posturing and motion analyses, an accurate estimation of internal skeleton points, including joint centers, from the external envelope is required. For this research project, 3D reconstructions of both internal skeleton and external envelope from low dose biplanar X-rays of 40 male adults were obtained. Using principal component analysis technique (PCA), a low-dimensional dataset was used to predict internal points of the upper body from the trunk envelope...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Lucie Vaníčková, Angelo Canale, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of medical and veterinary importance, due to their ability to transmit many pathogens and parasites. Renewed interest has been recently devoted to the potential of sterile insect technique (SIT) for mosquito suppression. However, the success of the SIT is mostly dependent on the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with the wild ones in the field. Nevertheless, little is known on the sexual chemical ecology of mosquitoes, with special reference to the role of chemical signals in males...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
M Daniel, N Rudenko, M Golovchenko, V Danielová, A Fialová, B Kříž, M Malý
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. In the previous decade (2001-2010) thirteen loci with increased incidence of tick borne encephalitis cases were defined, suggesting the permanent interaction of human population with ticks and indicating the landmarks for study of the presence of other tick borne pathogens...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Xin Fang, Yang Gao, Qinglei Li
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare gynecologic tumors in women. Due to the rarity and limited research efforts invested, the etiology of GCTs remains poorly defined. A landmark study has discovered the mutation of forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) as a genetic hallmark of adult GCTs in the human. However, our understanding of the role of cell signaling in GCT development is far from complete. Increasing lines of evidence highlight the importance of TGF-beta (TGFB) superfamily signaling in the pathogenesis of GCTs...
September 28, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Sayed E Wahezi, Kyle Silva, Naum Shaparin, Andrew Lederman, Mohammed Emam, Nogah Haramati, Sherry A Downie
BACKGROUND: Headache (HA) is a significant cause of morbidity globally. Despite many available treatment options, HAs that are refractory to conservative management can be challenging to treat. Third occipital nerve (TON) and greater occipital nerve (GON) irritation are potential etiologic agents of primary and cervicogenic HAs that can be targeted using minimally invasive treatment options such as nerve blocks or radiofrequency ablation. However, a substantial number of patients that undergo radiofrequency ablation do not experience pain relief despite a positive diagnostic medial branch block (MBB)...
September 2016: Pain Physician
Stephanie P Schwartz, Kyle J Rehder
Almost two decades ago, the landmark report "To Err is Human" compelled healthcare to address the large numbers of hospitalized patients experiencing preventable harm. Concurrently, it became clear that the rapidly rising cost of healthcare would be unsustainable in the long-term. As a result, quality improvement methodologies initially rooted in other high reliability industries have become a primary focus of healthcare. Multiple pediatric studies demonstrate remarkable quality and safety improvements in several domains including handoffs, catheter associated blood stream infections, and other serious safety events...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Samah M Al-Amery, Phrabhakaran Nambiar, Murali Naidu, Wei Cheong Ngeow
The lingual nerve is a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve. It is varied in its course and in its relationship to the mandibular alveolar crest, submandibular duct and also the related muscles in the floor of the mouth. This study aims to understand the course of the lingual nerve from the molar area until its insertion into the tongue muscle. This cadaveric research involved the study of 14 hemi-mandibles and consisted of two parts: (i) obtaining morphometrical measurements of the lingual nerve to three landmarks on the alveolar ridge, and (b) understanding non-metrical or morphological appearance of its terminal branches inserting in the ventral surface of the tongue...
2016: PloS One
Moritz E Wigand, Hauke F Wiegand, Nicolas Rüsch, Thomas Becker
BACKGROUND: T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land and A. Ginsberg's Howl are two landmark poems of the 20th century which have a unique way of dealing with emotional suffering. AIMS: (a) To explore the interplay between emotional suffering, conflicting relationships and societal perceptions; (b) to show the therapeutic effect of the writing process; (c) to analyse the portrayal of 'madness'; and (d) to discuss, in contemporary psychiatric terms, the 'solutions' offered by the poets...
September 19, 2016: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Jie Shi, Wen Zhang, Miao Tang, Richard J Caselli, Yalin Wang
Landmark curves were widely adopted in neuroimaging research for surface correspondence computation and quantified morphometry analysis. However, most of the landmark based morphometry studies only focused on landmark curve shape difference. Here we propose to compute a set of conformal invariant-based shape indices, which are associated with the landmark curve induced boundary lengths in the hyperbolic parameter domain. Such shape indices may be used to identify which surfaces are conformally equivalent and further quantitatively measure surface deformation...
September 6, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Tomomi Tani, Michael Shribak, Rudolf Oldenbourg
In 1948, Shinya Inoué arrived in the United States for graduate studies at Princeton. A year later he came to Woods Hole, starting a long tradition of summer research at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), which quickly became Inoué's scientific home. Primed by his Japanese mentor, Katsuma Dan, Inoué followed Dan's mantra to work with healthy, living cells, on a fundamental problem (mitosis), with a unique tool set that he refined for precise and quantitative observations (polarized light microscopy), and a fresh and brilliant mind that was unafraid of challenging current dogma...
August 2016: Biological Bulletin
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