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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149118/perceived-self-efficacy-a-concept-analysis-for-symptom-management-in-patients-with-cancer%C3%A2
#1
Lynn L White, Marlene Z Cohen, Ann M Berger, Kevin A Kupzyk, Barbara A Swore-Fletcher, Philip J Bierman
BACKGROUND: Perceived self-efficacy (PSE) for symptom management plays a key role in outcomes for patients with cancer, such as quality of life, functional status, symptom distress, and healthcare use. Definition of the concept is necessary for use in research and to guide the development of interventions to facilitate PSE for symptom management in patients with cancer.
. OBJECTIVES: This analysis will describe the concept of PSE for symptom management in patients with cancer...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148039/3d-analysis-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-size-shape-and-breathing-kinematics-of-human-lungs
#2
Nicole Torres-Tamayo, Daniel García-Martínez, Stephanie Lois Zlolniski, Isabel Torres-Sánchez, Francisco García-Río, Markus Bastir
Sexual dimorphism in the human respiratory system has been previously reported at the skeletal (cranial and thoracic) level, but also at the pulmonary level. Regarding lungs, foregoing studies have yielded sex-related differences in pulmonary size as well as lung shape details, but different methodological approaches have led to discrepant results on differences in respiratory patterns between males and females. The purpose of this study is to analyse sexual dimorphism in human lungs during forced respiration using 3D geometric morphometrics...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140768/public-health-burden-of-hearing-impairment-and-the-promise-of-genomics-and-environmental-research-a-case-study-in-ghana-africa
#3
Samuel Mawuli Adadey, Gordon Awandare, Goffrey Kwabla Amedofu, Ambroise Wonkam
Hearing impairment (HI) is one of the most disabling conditions of major global health burden that contributes adversely to the social and economic development of a country, if not managed properly. A proper assessment of the nationwide burden and etiology of HI is instrumental in the prevention, treatment, and management of the condition. This article sought to perform an expert review of HI in Ghana to determine the present knowledge of its burden and possible causes of the condition. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using the following keywords: "hearing loss" OR "hearing impairment" OR "deafness" AND "Ghana...
November 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139190/a-man-before-his-time-russell-s-insights-into-nicotine-smoking-treatment-and-curbing-the-smoking-problem
#4
Ann McNeill, Debbie Robson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This narrative review aimed to provide a brief overview of five key research 'classics' produced by the innovative and radical thought leader, Professor Michael Anthony Hamilton Russell (1932-2009), drawing upon his other work wherever feasible. METHODS: Narrative review. From more than 250 publications, we selected papers we considered seminal texts, published in 1971, 1976, 1978, 1979 and 1991. RESULTS: Russell was among the first researchers to explain that smoking was a dependence disorder caused by the drug nicotine decades before this was recognized formally...
November 15, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125566/botulinum-toxin-in-management-of-limb-tremor
#5
REVIEW
Elina Zakin, David Simpson
Essential tremor is characterized by persistent, usually bilateral and symmetric, postural or kinetic activation of agonist and antagonist muscles involving either the distal or proximal upper extremity. Quality of life is often affected and one's ability to perform daily tasks becomes impaired. Oral therapies, including propranolol and primidone, can be effective in the management of essential tremor, although adverse effects can limit their use and about 50% of individuals lack response to oral pharmacotherapy...
November 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122687/is-anatomic-acetabular-orientation-related-to-pelvic-morphology-ct-analysis-of-150-healthy-pelvises
#6
P Sautet, H Giorgi, P Chabrand, P Tropiano, J-N Argenson, S Parratte, B Blondel
BACKGROUND: Links between sagittal spinal alignment and acetabular orientation attract considerable research attention with the goal of optimising prosthetic cup position. However, whether pelvic incidence (PI) is related to anatomic acetabular orientation remains unknown. We therefore conducted a radiological study with the following objectives: to look for correlations between PI and anatomic acetabular parameters; to describe the sacro-pubic angle (SPA), defined by fixed bony pelvic landmarks, and its relations with acetabular inclination; and to determine whether anatomical parameters (PI and SPA) correlate with demographic characteristics...
November 6, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119542/how-do-we-get-there-effects-of-cognitive-aging-on-route-memory
#7
Mary O'Malley, Anthea Innes, Jan M Wiener
Research into the effects of cognitive aging on route navigation usually focuses on differences in learning performance. In contrast, we investigated age-related differences in route knowledge after successful route learning. One young and two groups of older adults categorized using different cut-off scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), were trained until they could correctly recall short routes. During the test phase, they were asked to recall the sequence in which landmarks were encountered (Landmark Sequence Task), the sequence of turns (Direction Sequence Task), the direction of turn at each landmark (Landmark Direction Task), and to identify the learned routes from a map perspective (Perspective Taking Task)...
November 8, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112455/on-the-journey-toward-humane-education-in-brazil-first-request-for-a-total-ban-of-harmful-animal-use-in-professional-and-higher-education
#8
REVIEW
Róber Bachinski, Gutemberg Alves, Mariângela Freitas de Almeida Souza, Vanessa Carli Bones, Rita de Cassia Maria Garcia, Rosangela Gebara, Valeska Regina Reque Ruiz, Luciano da Silva Alonso, Thales Tréz, Simone Tostes Oliveira, Alexandro Aluisio Rocha, Rita Leal Paixão, Roseli Pizzigatti Klein, Débora Gasparetto, Nick Jukes, Júlia Maria Matera
The Brazilian Network for Humane Education (RedEH( is an independent and self-managed group comprised of academics from ten different Brazilian states and a number of international collaborators. In 2016, in a concerted effort to change the educational field in Brazil and propagate humane education, RedEH sent a request to the Brazilian National Council for the Control of Animal Experimentation (CONCEA(, asking that harmful animal use in education in professional and undergraduate courses be banned. This was the first formal request for a total replacement of harmful animal use in education in Brazil, and represented a major historic landmark in the advancement of Brazilian science education...
November 2017: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108942/how-landmark-suitability-shapes-recognition-memory-signals-for-objects-in-the-medial-temporal-lobes
#9
Chris B Martin, Jacqueline A Sullivan, Jessey Wright, Stefan Köhler
A role of perirhinal cortex (PrC) in recognition memory for objects has been well established. Contributions of parahippocampal cortex (PhC) to this function, while documented, remain less well understood. Here, we used fMRI to examine whether the organization of item-based recognition memory signals across these two structures is shaped by object category, independent of any difference in representing episodic context. Guided by research suggesting that PhC plays a critical role in processing landmarks, we focused on three categories of objects that differ from each other in their landmark suitability as confirmed with behavioral ratings (buildings > trees > aircraft)...
November 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099867/evaluating-causes-of-error-in-landmark-based-data-collection-using-scanners
#10
Brian M Shearer, Siobhán B Cooke, Lauren B Halenar, Samantha L Reber, Jeannette E Plummer, Eric Delson, Melissa Tallman
In this study, we assess the precision, accuracy, and repeatability of craniodental landmarks (Types I, II, and III, plus curves of semilandmarks) on a single macaque cranium digitally reconstructed with three different surface scanners and a microCT scanner. Nine researchers with varying degrees of osteological and geometric morphometric knowledge landmarked ten iterations of each scan (40 total) to test the effects of scan quality, researcher experience, and landmark type on levels of intra- and interobserver error...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099295/femoral-nerve-transfers-for-restoring-tibial-nerve-function-an-anatomical-study-and-clinical-correlation-a-report-of-2-cases
#11
Amy M Moore, Emily M Krauss, Rajiv P Parikh, Michael J Franco, Thomas H Tung
Sciatic nerve injuries cause debilitating functional impairment, particularly when the injury mechanism and level preclude reconstruction with primary grafting. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the anatomical feasibility of nerve transfers from the distal femoral nerve terminal branches to the tibial nerve and to detail the successful restoration of tibial function using the described nerve transfers. Six cadaveric legs were dissected for anatomical analysis and the development of tension-free nerve transfers from femoral nerve branches to the tibial nerve...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095836/mapping-longitudinal-scientific-progress-collaboration-and-impact-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative
#12
Xiaohui Yao, Jingwen Yan, Michael Ginda, Katy Börner, Andrew J Saykin, Li Shen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) is a landmark imaging and omics study in AD. ADNI research literature has increased substantially over the past decade, which poses challenges for effectively communicating information about the results and impact of ADNI-related studies. In this work, we employed advanced information visualization techniques to perform a comprehensive and systematic mapping of the ADNI scientific growth and impact over a period of 12 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092733/bortezomib-induced-syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuresis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma-a-case-report-and-literature-review%C3%A2
#13
Bo Peng, Hu Chen, Xiao Lou
Bortezomib is a landmark drug in the therapeutic history of multiple myeloma as the first-generation proteasome inhibitor. It is widely used clinically, and its common adverse reaction is peripheral nerve lesion. We observed a severe syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) in a female patient with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib. This paper reviews the treatment process and relevant research progress regarding SIAD through a case report so as to improve the clinicians' ability to recognize and diagnose this rare complication...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090737/investigating-cranial-morphological-variation-of-early-human-skeletal-remains-from-chile-a-3d-geometric-morphometric-approach
#14
Susan C Kuzminsky, Omar Reyes Báez, Bernardo Arriaza, César Méndez, Vivien G Standen, Manuel San Román, Iván Muñoz, Ángel Durán Herrera, Mark Hubbe
OBJECTIVES: Archaeological and genetic research has demonstrated that the Pacific Coast was a key route in the early colonization of South America. Research examining South American skeletons >8000 cal BP has revealed differences in cranial morphology between early and late Holocene populations, which may reflect distinct migration events and/or populations. However, genetic, cultural, and some skeletal data contradict this model. Given these discrepancies, this study examines ∼9000 years of prehistory to test the hypothesis that Early skeletons have a distinct cranial morphology from later skeletons...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082019/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-women-at-risk-of-imminent-preterm-birth-in-low-resource-countries-the-case-for-equipoise-and-the-need-for-efficacy-trials
#15
REVIEW
Joshua P Vogel, Olufemi T Oladapo, Cynthia Pileggi-Castro, Ebunoluwa A Adejuyigbe, Fernando Althabe, Shabina Ariff, Adejumoke Idowu Ayede, Abdullah H Baqui, Anthony Costello, Davy M Chikamata, Caroline Crowther, Bukola Fawole, Luz Gibbons, Alan H Jobe, Monica Lulu Kapasa, John Kinuthia, Alka Kriplani, Oluwafemi Kuti, James Neilson, Janna Patterson, Gilda Piaggio, Rahat Qureshi, Zahida Qureshi, Mari Jeeva Sankar, Jeffrey S A Stringer, Marleen Temmerman, Khalid Yunis, Rajiv Bahl, A Metin Gülmezoglu
The scientific basis for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) for women at risk of preterm birth has rapidly changed in recent years. Two landmark trials-the Antenatal Corticosteroid Trial and the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids Trial-have challenged the long-held assumptions on the comparative health benefits and harms regarding the use of ACS for preterm birth across all levels of care and contexts, including resource-limited settings. Researchers, clinicians, programme managers, policymakers and donors working in low-income and middle-income countries now face challenging questions of whether, where and how ACS can be used to optimise outcomes for both women and preterm newborns...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073650/the-cognitive-map-in-humans-spatial-navigation-and-beyond
#16
REVIEW
Russell A Epstein, Eva Zita Patai, Joshua B Julian, Hugo J Spiers
The 'cognitive map' hypothesis proposes that brain builds a unified representation of the spatial environment to support memory and guide future action. Forty years of electrophysiological research in rodents suggest that cognitive maps are neurally instantiated by place, grid, border and head direction cells in the hippocampal formation and related structures. Here we review recent work that suggests a similar functional organization in the human brain and yields insights into how cognitive maps are used during spatial navigation...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073531/automatic-initialization-and-quality-control-of-large-scale-cardiac-mri-segmentations
#17
Xènia Albà, Karim Lekadir, Marco Pereañez, Pau Medrano-Gracia, Alistair A Young, Alejandro F Frangi
Continuous advances in imaging technologies enable ever more comprehensive phenotyping of human anatomy and physiology. Concomitant reduction of imaging costs has resulted in widespread use of imaging in large clinical trials and population imaging studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), in particular, offers one-stop-shop multidimensional biomarkers of cardiovascular physiology and pathology. A wide range of analysis methods offer sophisticated cardiac image assessment and quantification for clinical and research studies...
October 16, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040015/distinct-representations-of-magnitude-and-spatial-position-within-parietal-cortex-during-number-space-mapping
#18
Frank J Kanayet, Andrew Mattarella-Micke, Peter J Kohler, Anthony M Norcia, Bruce D McCandliss, James L McClelland
Mapping numbers onto space is foundational to mathematical cognition. These cognitive operations are often conceptualized in the context of a "mental number line" and involve multiple brain regions in or near the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) that have been implicated both in numeral and spatial cognition. Here we examine possible differentiation of function within these brain areas in relating numbers to spatial positions. By isolating the planning phase of a number line task and introducing spatiotopic mapping tools from fMRI into the mental number line task research, we are able to focus our analysis on the neural activity of areas in anterior IPS (aIPS) previously associated with number processing and on spatiotopically organized areas in and around posterior IPS (pIPS), while participants prepare to place a number on a number line...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037437/the-australian-royal-commission-into-institutional-responses-to-child-sexual-abuse
#19
Katie Wright, Shurlee Swain, Kathleen McPhillips
The Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse is the largest royal commission in Australia's history and one of the largest public inquiries into institutional child abuse internationally. With an investment from the Australian government of half a billion dollars, it examined how institutions with a responsibility for children, both historically and in the present, have responded to allegations of child sexual abuse. Announced in the wake of previous Australian and international inquiries, public scandals and lobbying by survivor groups, its establishment reflected increasing recognition of the often lifelong and intergenerational damage caused by childhood sexual abuse and a strong political commitment to improving child safety and wellbeing in Australia...
October 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032607/erythroblast-macrophage-protein-emp-past-present-and-future
#20
REVIEW
Gulnaz T Javan, Amandeep Salhotra, Sheree J Finley, Shivani Soni
This review is a journey of the landmark protein Erythroblast macrophage protein (Emp) discovered in 1994, and it walks chronologically through the progress that has been made in understanding the biological function of this protein. Historically, Emp was the first identified cell attachment molecule and is expressed in both erythroblasts and macrophages and mediate their attachments to form erythroblastic islands. The absence of Emp erythroblasts shows defects in differentiation and enucleation. Emp-deficient macrophages display immature morphology characterized by small size, round shapes, and the lack of cytoplasmic projections...
October 15, 2017: European Journal of Haematology
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