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landmark research

Tiffany L Gary-Webb, Elizabeth A Walker, Lindsey Realmuto, Alexandra Kamler, Jennifer Lukin, William Tyson, Olveen Carrasquillo, Linda Weiss
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) landmark randomized trial demonstrated that participants with prediabetes could reduce their risk for type 2 diabetes by 58% if they achieved 5%-7% weight loss through healthy eating and increasing physical activity. The National DPP (NDPP) is a group intervention based on the DPP and has been widely disseminated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and many healthcare institutions. While data show that the program is effective in diverse populations, enrollment among men from low-income and minority communities is low...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
James M West
Anesthesiologists have clearly established their place in the history of medical ethics. Our involvement goes back to 1966 when Henri Beecher published his landmark paper on research and informed consent. Participation in the ethics of transplantation is no less important than our previous work. Organ transplant has been life saving for many but also has given rise to many misunderstandings not just from the public but also among our own colleagues. These include methods of allocation and donation, the role that affluence may play in receiving an organ, the definition of death and donation after circulatory death...
March 1, 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Xiaokang Yu, Na Lei, Yalin Wang, Xianfeng Gu
3D dynamic surface tracking is an important research problem and plays a vital role in many computer vision and medical imaging applications. However, it is still challenging to efficiently register surface sequences which has large deformations and strong noise. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic method for non-rigid 3D dynamic surface tracking with surface Ricci flow and Teichmüller map methods. According to quasi-conformal Teichmüller theory, the Techmüller map minimizes the maximal dilation so that our method is able to automatically register surfaces with large deformations...
October 2017: Proceedings
R C Jiloha, Prerna Kukreti
Delhi hasn't always enjoyed the status of the India's capital, but it has always played a pivotal role in the history of India as a gateway city. The same way, it received mental health services much later than the rest part of country, but it has witnessed an evolution from colonial era to the birth of state of art modern psychiatry services. Journey started with the landmark inaugural meeting in Delhi University of few visionaries paving the birth of Indian psychiatry society. Subsequently, it witnessed emergence of general hospital psychiatry units & saw their transformation to apex institutes of teaching and research like AIIMS and others...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Mónika Bakonyi, Attila Gácsi, Anita Kovács, Mária-Budai Szűcs, Szilvia Berkó, Erzsébet Csányi
The application of local anesthetics, usually administered by subcutaneous injection, is common in the course of diagnostic, therapeutic, and cosmetic dermatology procedures. The effective dermal delivery of lidocaine could offer a solution to many adverse effects caused by needle insertion, such as pain, local reactions or toxicity, and additionally, it avoids the disruption of anatomical landmarks. Therefore, novel dermal formulations of local anesthetics are needed to overcome the barrier function of the skin and provide sufficient and prolonged anesthesia...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Reda Mohamed
The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species...
March 9, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Eldra W Daniels, David Cole, Bret Jacobs, Shawn F Phillips
Office-based ultrasonography has become increasingly available in many settings, and its use to guide joint and soft tissue injections has increased. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of ultrasound-guided injections over traditional landmark-guided injections, with a rapid growth in the literature over the past few years. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to demonstrate increased accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections regardless of anatomic location. In the upper extremity, ultrasound-guided injections have been shown to provide superior benefit to landmark-guided injections at the glenohumeral joint, the subacromial space, the biceps tendon sheath, and the joints of the hand and wrist...
February 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Timothy D Weaver, Philipp Gunz
Researchers studying extant and extinct taxa are often interested in identifying the evolutionary processes that have lead to the morphological differences among the taxa. Ideally, one could distinguish the influences of neutral evolutionary processes (genetic drift, mutation) from natural selection, and in situations for which selection is implicated, identify the targets of selection. The directional selection gradient is an effective tool for investigating evolutionary process, because it can relate form (size and shape) differences between taxa to the variation and covariation found within taxa...
March 6, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Jesús Montúfar, Marcelo Romero, Rogelio J Scougall-Vilchis
INTRODUCTION: This article presents a novel technique for automatic cephalometric landmark localization on 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) volumes by using an active shape model to search for landmarks in related projections. METHODS: Twenty-four random CBCT scans from a public data set were imported and processed into Matlab (MathWorks, Natick, Mass). Orthogonal coronal and sagittal projections (digitally reconstructed radiographs) were created, and 2 trained active shape models were used to locate cephalometric landmarks on each...
March 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Román Rossi-Pool, José Vergara, Ranulfo Romo
A 1989 paper by Patricia Goldman-Rakic and colleagues reported that the prefrontal cortex coded the visual space during working memory. This landmark work not only offered a biological explanation for this cognitive function, but also opened up a wide field of research aimed at understanding the biological bases of various cognitive functions.
March 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Benjamin F Mentiplay, Ksaniel Hasanki, Luke G Perraton, Yong-Hao Pua, Paula C Charlton, Ross A Clark
The Microsoft Xbox One Kinect™ (Kinect V2) contains a depth camera that can be used to manually identify anatomical landmark positions in three-dimensions independent of the standard skeletal tracking, and therefore has potential for low-cost, time-efficient three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA). This study examined inter-session reliability and concurrent validity of the Kinect V2 for the assessment of coronal and sagittal plane kinematics for the trunk, hip and knee during single leg squats (SLS) and drop vertical jumps (DVJ)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Nalini N Jairath, Cynthia J Peden-McAlpine, Mary C Sullivan, Judith A Vessey, Susan J Henly
BACKGROUND: Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue...
March 2018: Nursing Research
Andrea C Gielen, Shannon Frattaroli, Keshia M Pollack, Corinne Peek-Asa, Jingzhen G Yang
BACKGROUND: In the decades since the landmark report-America Burning-was published in 1973, the number of home fire deaths has shrunk from >5500 per year to 2650 in 2015. This paper: (1) describes how science and practice in injury prevention and fire and life safety contributed to successful interventions, and (2) identifies emerging strategies and future opportunities to prevent home fire-related deaths. METHODS: The aims are addressed through the lens of population health research, with a focus on the work of selected Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Injury Control Research Centers...
February 26, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Joseph Lee
Face transplantation (FT) is a landmark in reconstructive surgery involving vascularised composite allotransplantation. A recent issue of FT for patients who are blind has arisen. Some bioethicists recommend not excluding a patient who is blind, as this may amount to discrimination. From an ethical standpoint, FT for those with blindness is appropriate in selected candidates. This article seeks to add to the clinical evidence supporting FT for those with blindness by detailing a complementary psychosocial perspective...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Deborah A Hall, Rajnikant L Mehta, Kathryn Fackrell
Purpose: The authors respond to a letter to the editor (Sabour, 2018) concerning the interpretation of validity in the context of evaluating treatment-related change in tinnitus loudness over time. Method: The authors refer to several landmark methodological publications and an international standard concerning the validity of patient-reported outcome measurement instruments. Results: The tinnitus loudness rating performed better against our reported acceptability criteria for (face and convergent) validity than did the tinnitus loudness matching test...
February 20, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
Amanda Sheffield Morris, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Jennifer S Silk
This special section focuses on research that utilizes neuroimaging methods to examine the impact of social relationships and socioemotional development on adolescent brain function. Studies include novel neuroimaging methods that further our understanding of adolescent brain development. This special section has a particular focus on how study findings add to our understanding of risk and resilience. In this introduction to the special section, we discuss the role of neuroimaging in developmental science and provide a brief review of neuroimaging methods...
March 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
J J Bromfield
Artificial insemination has been a landmark procedure in improving animal agriculture over the past 150 years. The utility of artificial insemination has facilitated a rapid improvement in animal genetics across agricultural species, leading to improvements of growth, health and productivity in poultry, swine, equine and cattle species. The utility of artificial insemination, as with all assisted reproductive technologies side-steps thousands of years of evolution that has led to the development of physiological systems to ensure the transmission of genetics from generation to generation...
February 19, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gang Ji, Yifei Sun, Jiangfeng Lu, Yingzhen Niu, Fei Wang
The purpose of this study was to explore the anatomy and discuss functional regions of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL). Twelve fresh-frozen knees specimens were dissected. All medial surfaces of knees were intact and did not have indication of injury. General feature of the MPFL were observed. All anatomical landmarks were carefully identified and marked. The length of the two functional regions were conducted and recorded. All data were obtained, described, and analyzed in the form of mean ± standard deviation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
S Adil Saribay, Ali Furkan Biten, Erdem Ozan Meral, Pinar Aldan, Vít Třebický, Karel Kleisner
Many sets of human facial photographs produced in Western cultures are available for scientific research. We report here on the development of a face database of Turkish undergraduate student targets. High-resolution standardized photographs were taken and supported by the following materials: (a) basic demographic and appearance-related information, (b) two types of landmark configurations (for Webmorph and geometric morphometrics (GM)), (c) facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) measurement, (d) information on photography parameters, (e) perceptual norms provided by raters...
2018: PloS One
Sarah M Smith, Charles L Limoli
Purpose of review: To encapsulate past and current research efforts focused on stem cell transplantation strategies to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction. Recent Findings: Transplantation of human stem cells in the irradiated brain was first shown to resolve radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in a landmark paper by Acharya et al., appearing in PNAS in 2009. Since that time, work from the same laboratory as well as other groups have reported on the beneficial (as well as detrimental) effects of stem cell grafting after cranial radiation exposure...
December 2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
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