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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912826/can-yesterday-s-smoking-research-inform-today-s-shiftwork-research-epistemological-consequences-for-exposures-and-doses-due-to-circadian-disruption-at-and-off-work
#1
Thomas C Erren, Philip Lewis
In 1950, landmark epidemiology studies by Wynder & Graham and Doll & Hill contributed to identifying smoking as a potent carcinogen. In 2007, IARC classified shiftwork involving circadian disruption (CD) as probably carcinogenic; however, epidemiological evidence in regards to the carcinogenicity of shiftwork that involves nightwork is conflicting. We hypothesize that shiftwork research is lacking chronobiological and methodological rigor and that lessons can be learned from comparison with smoking research...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910657/the-use-of-real-time-feedback-to-improve-kinematic-marker-placement-consistency-among-novice-examiners
#2
Charles A J Macaulay, Sean T Osis, Christian Clermont, Reed Ferber
Marker placement deviation has been shown to be the largest source of error in gait kinematic data, limiting the ability of clinicians and researchers to conduct between-day or between-center investigations. Prior marker-placement standardization methods are either impractical for a clinical setting or rely on expert marker placement. However, a recently developed, real-time feedback tool has been developed and shown to improve marker placement and downstream kinematic calculations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this real-time marker-placement tool could improve the consistency of gait kinematic data collected by a group of novice examiners...
September 5, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904781/sharing-is-caring-measurement-error-and-the-issues-arising-from-combining-3d-morphometric-datasets
#3
Carmelo Fruciano, Mélina A Celik, Kaylene Butler, Tom Dooley, Vera Weisbecker, Matthew J Phillips
Geometric morphometrics is routinely used in ecology and evolution and morphometric datasets are increasingly shared among researchers, allowing for more comprehensive studies and higher statistical power (as a consequence of increased sample size). However, sharing of morphometric data opens up the question of how much nonbiologically relevant variation (i.e., measurement error) is introduced in the resulting datasets and how this variation affects analyses. We perform a set of analyses based on an empirical 3D geometric morphometric dataset...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898715/cortisol-and-salivary-alpha-amylase-trajectories-following-a-group-social-evaluative-stressor-with-adolescents
#4
Deirdre A Katz, Melissa K Peckins
Intraindividual variability in stress responsivity and the interrelationship of multiple neuroendocrine systems make a multisystem analytic approach to examining the human stress response challenging. The present study makes use of an efficient social-evaluative stress paradigm - the Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) - to examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA)-axis and Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) reactivity profiles of 54 adolescents with salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)...
August 23, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885873/bovine-reproductive-palpation-training-does-the-cow-make-a-difference
#5
Hilari M French, John J Dascanio, Gregory E Gilbert, James Q Robinson
Gaining experience and dexterity for trans-rectal cattle palpation requires substantial training. Simulation allows students to perform palpation without risks and to obtain feedback, but many believe live cattle palpation is essential. Limited research exists on the proper training method for live animal trans-rectal palpation. This study compared student improvement in laboratory palpation skills when assigned to the same cows versus choosing a cow at random. The hypothesis for the study was that students assigned the same cow, as compared to students choosing a cow at random, would be more accurate at palpation, would learn what structures are present on the ovaries and what size the reproductive tract measures, and would be able to follow the cyclicity of the cow...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884793/using-vascular-landmarks-to-orient-3d-optical-coherence-tomography-images-of-the-mouse-eye
#6
Mark P Krebs
Comparing 3D structural information obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) requires accurate alignment of images acquired from individual subjects. Despite the widespread use of OCT to image the anterior and posterior mouse eye, few approaches to align the resulting image data have been described, in part due to a lack of well-characterized landmarks that are suitable for alignment. Here, we provide an OCT acquisition and analysis protocol that incorporates the use of the long posterior ciliary arteries as landmarks...
September 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880961/experimental-verification-of-subthreshold-laser-therapy-using-conventional-pattern-scan-laser
#7
Tomoyasu Shiraya, Satoshi Kato, Fumiyuki Araki, Takashi Ueta, Hitoshi Abe, Nobuharu Asai
PURPOSE: Leading-edge therapeutic laser technologies are not available at every medical facility; therefore, alternative approaches incorporating novel advances in digital and laser technology into more readily available conventional methods have generated significant research interest. Using a rabbit model, this study investigated whether the algorithm used in the Endpoint Management (EM) software system of the latest devices could enable subthreshold laser treatment in conventional retinal tissue laser therapy systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852775/natural-agents-mediated-targeting-of-histone-deacetylases
#8
REVIEW
Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Syed Kamran-Ul-Hassan Naqvi, Aliye Aras Perk, Onur Yanar, Sobia Tabassum, Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad, Qaisar Mansoor, Mohamed S Ashry, Muhammad Ismail, George E Naoum, Waleed O Arafat
In the past few years, basic and clinical scientists have witnessed landmark achievements in many research projects, such as those conducted by the US National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Mapping Consortium, the International Human Epigenome Consortium, The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and the International Cancer Genome Consortium, which have provided near-complete resolution of epigenetic landscape in different diseases. Furthermore, genome sequencing of tumors has provided compelling evidence related to frequent existence of mutations in readers, erasers and writers of epigenome in different cancers...
August 30, 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851328/measurement-of-acetabular-inclination-and-anteversion-via-ct-generated-3d-pelvic-model
#9
R Y Wang, W H Xu, X C Kong, L Yang, S H Yang
BACKGROUND: Inclination and anteversion were the main factors that determined the reliability of the acetabulum. Inclination and anteversion measurements included anatomical, operational and radiographic methods. The aim of our present study was to exhibit divergence of inclination and anteversion via the three measurements. METHODS: Inclination and anteversion were defined according to the definitions put forward by Murray. Three-dimensional models of pelvis of CT data were brought forth...
August 29, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815932/polymer-based-hybrid-nanocomposites-a-progress-toward-enhancing-interfacial-interaction-and-tailoring-advanced-applications
#10
REVIEW
Chang-Sik Ha
Organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites, in particular polymer based hybrid nanocomposites, constitute emerging advanced materials since they combine unique properties from the inorganic and organic (i. e. polymeric) components. We investigated three different hybrid nanocomposites depending on dimensions of the dispersed phase in the nanometer range,; polymer-layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites where polymers are mixed with layered silicates, polymer/graphene oxide hybrid nanocomposites, and polymer hybrid nanocomposites with reinforcing polymers with isodimensional phases of inorganic silicas using sol-gel reactions...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806879/major-advances-in-the-development-of-vectors-for-clinical-gene-therapy-of-hematopoietic-stem-cells-from-european-groups-over-the-last-25-years
#11
Anne Galy
The first attempts at hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy (HSC-GT) were reported about 25 years ago in primary immune deficiencies, marking the beginning of a vibrant field of translational and therapeutic research. Since then, many HSC-GT studies have been conducted in diverse genetic diseases. The approach has been improved over time, showing biological and therapeutic efficacy with an overall excellent safety record. Within a defined regulatory and ethical landscape, the field of HSC-GT has reached industrialization and commercialization stages with a landmark recent approval by the European Medicines Agency of the first HSC-GT medicine for human use...
August 15, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780975/short-term-and-long-term-results-of-endovascular-and-open-repair-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-in-germany
#12
Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Art Sedrakyan, Henrik Christian Rieß, Franziska Heidemann, Tilo Kölbel, Jörg Petersen, Eike Sebastian Debus
BACKGROUND: Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has emerged as a standard of care for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, real-world evidence to compare this technology to open aortic repair (OAR) is limited. Major gaps exist related to long-term outcomes of therapies worldwide. METHODS: Health insurance claims data of Germany's third largest insurance provider, DAK-Gesundheit, were used to determine outcomes after interventions for intact AAA (iAAA) and ruptured AAA (rAAA)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767506/defining-chronic-pain-in-epidemiological-studies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Ólöf Anna Steingrímsdóttir, Tormod Landmark, Gary J Macfarlane, Christopher Sivert Nielsen
The objective was to document the operational definitions applied in epidemiological studies of chronic pain and to examine whether pain definitions and other methodological factors are systematically related to prevalence estimates. Medline, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO were searched for original research reports with study samples of at least 1,000 individuals, excluding studies of less than five out of 15 selected body regions and studies solely concerned with specific pain conditions. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were applied with random effects models; covariates were geography, sampling year, survey method, sampling frame, participation rate, percentage women of all participants, pain duration, and pain location...
July 31, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765854/psa-testing-for-men-at-average-risk-of-prostate-cancer
#14
Bruce K Armstrong, Michael J Barry, Mark Frydenberg, Robert A Gardiner, Ian Haines, Stacy M Carter
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men at normal risk of prostate cancer is one of the most contested issues in cancer screening. There is no formal screening program, but testing is common - arguably a practice that ran ahead of the evidence. Public and professional communication about PSA screening has been highly varied and potentially confusing for practitioners and patients alike. There has been much research and policy activity relating to PSA testing in recent years. Landmark randomised controlled trials have been reported; authorities - including the 2013 Prostate Cancer World Congress, the Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia, Cancer Council Australia, and the National Health and Medical Research Council - have made or endorsed public statements and/or issued clinical practice guidelines; and the US Preventive Services Task Force is revising its recommendations...
July 26, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764141/morphological-study-of-human-liver-and-its-surgical-importance
#15
Heena J Chaudhari, Minal K Ravat, Vasant H Vaniya, Amul N Bhedi
INTRODUCTION: Liver is the largest abdominal organ located in right hypochondrium, epigastrium and left hypochondrium in upper abdominal cavity. Although the segmental anatomy of the liver has been extensively researched, very few studies have dealt with surface variations of the liver. The major fissures are important landmarks for interpreting the lobar anatomy and locating the liver lesions. AIM: To determine gross anatomical variations of liver and their clinical and surgical implications...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763420/patients-with-staged-bilateral-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-registries-immortal-time-bias-and-methodological-options
#16
Stéphanie L van der Pas, Rob G H H Nelissen, Marta Fiocco
BACKGROUND: In arthroplasty data, patients with staged bilateral total joint arthroplasty (TJA) pose a problem in statistical analysis. Subgroup analysis, in which patients with unilateral and bilateral TJA are studied separately, is sometimes considered an appropriate solution to the problem; we aim to show that this is not true because of immortal time bias. METHODS: We reviewed patients who underwent staged (at any time) bilateral TJA. The logical fallacy leading to immortal time bias is explained through a simple artificial data example...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756087/a-glimpse-of-membrane-transport-through-structures-advances-in-the-structural-biology-of-the-glut-glucose-transporters
#17
REVIEW
Nieng Yan
The cellular uptake of glucose is an essential physiological process, and movement of glucose across biological membranes requires specialized transporters. The major facilitator superfamily glucose transporters GLUTs, encoded by the SLC2A genes, have been a paradigm for functional, mechanistic, and structural understanding of solute transport in the past century. This review starts with a glimpse into the structural biology of membrane proteins and particularly membrane transport proteins, enumerating the landmark structures in the past 25years...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752814/a-matter-of-scale-and-dimensions-chromatin-of-chromosome-landmarks-in-the-fungi
#18
Allyson A Erlendson, Steven Friedman, Michael Freitag
Chromatin and chromosomes of fungi are highly diverse and dynamic, even within species. Much of what we know about histone modification enzymes, RNA interference, DNA methylation, and cell cycle control was first addressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus nidulans, and Neurospora crassa. Here, we examine the three landmark regions that are required for maintenance of stable chromosomes and their faithful inheritance, namely, origins of DNA replication, telomeres and centromeres...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749968/analysis-of-age-as-a-factor-in-nasa-astronaut-selection-and-career-landmarks
#19
Gregory T A Kovacs, Mark Shadden
NASA's periodic selection of astronauts is a highly selective process accepting applications from the general population, wherein the mechanics of selection are not made public. This research was an effort to determine if biases (specifically age) exist in the process and, if so, at which points they might manifest. Two sets of analyses were conducted. The first utilized data requested via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) on NASA astronaut applicants for the 2009 and 2013 selection years. Using a series of multinomial and logistic regressions, the data were analyzed to uncover whether age of the applicants linearly or nonlinearly affected their likelihood of receiving an invitation, as well as their likelihood of being selected into the astronaut program...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748331/eligibility-for-phase-3-clinical-trials-of-systemic-therapy-in-real-world-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-cancer-managed-in-a-rural-region
#20
Carsten Nieder, Mohsan A Syed, Astrid Dalhaug, Adam Pawinski, Jan Norum
Previous research has identified disparities between urban and rural cancer care, including clinical trial access. Therefore, we addressed three different questions in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer managed according to national guidelines in a rural Norwegian standard practice setting. (1) How many patients would have been eligible for three recent landmark randomized clinical trials? (2) Is survival different between eligible and non-eligible patients receiving first-line systemic therapy? (3) Is survival different between eligible patients and published trial results? We performed a retrospective analysis of 101 consecutive patients (2006-2016)...
September 2017: Medical Oncology
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