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Zika and pregnancy

Ashley Howard, John Visintine, Jaime Fergie, Miguel Deleon
Since 2007, Zika virus has spread through the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Beginning in 2016, women in Brownsville, Texas, USA, were identified as possibly being exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Two infants were evaluated for congenital Zika syndrome after identification of prenatal microcephaly. Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Margaret A Honein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Bruno Hoen, Bruno Schaub, Anna L Funk, Vanessa Ardillon, Manon Boullard, André Cabié, Caroline Callier, Gabriel Carles, Sylvie Cassadou, Raymond Césaire, Maylis Douine, Cécile Herrmann-Storck, Philippe Kadhel, Cédric Laouénan, Yoann Madec, Alice Monthieux, Mathieu Nacher, Fatiha Najioullah, Dominique Rousset, Catherine Ryan, Kinda Schepers, Sofia Stegmann-Planchard, Benoît Tressières, Jean-Luc Voluménie, Samson Yassinguezo, Eustase Janky, Arnaud Fontanet
BACKGROUND: The risk of congenital neurologic defects related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has ranged from 6 to 42% in various reports. The aim of this study was to estimate this risk among pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection in French territories in the Americas. METHODS: From March 2016 through November 2016, we enrolled in this prospective cohort study pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection that was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
William J Britt
The spread of Zika virus to the Americas was accompanied by surge in the number of infants with CNS abnormalities leading to a declaration of a health emergency by the WHO. This was accompanied by significant responses from governmental health agencies in the United States and Europe that resulted in significant new information described in the natural history of this perinatal infection in a very short period of time. Although much has been learned about Zika virus infection during pregnancy, limitations of current diagnostics and the challenges for accurate serologic diagnosis of acute Zika virus infection has restricted our understanding of the natural history of this perinatal infection to infants born to women with clinical disease during pregnancy and to Zika exposed infants with obvious clinical stigmata of disease...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
Victoria Hall, William L Walker, Nicole P Lindsey, Jennifer A Lehman, Jonathan Kolsin, Kimberly Landry, Ingrid B Rabe, Susan L Hills, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Carolyn V Gould, Stacey W Martin
Zika virus is a flavivirus primarily transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1). Zika virus infections also have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn; sexual transmission; blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-3). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic or result in mild clinical illness, characterized by acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome, meningoencephalitis, and severe thrombocytopenia rarely have been associated with Zika virus infection (1)...
March 9, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ian Fyfe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Michael J McFadden, Aaron Mitchell-Dick, Christine Vazquez, Allison E Roder, Kevin F Labagnara, John J McMahon, Debra L Silver, Stacy M Horner
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging flavivirus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito or through sexual contact with an infected partner. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been associated with numerous fetal abnormalities, including prenatal lethality and microcephaly. However, until recent outbreaks in the Americas, ZIKV has been relatively understudied, and therefore the biology and pathogenesis of ZIKV infection remain incompletely understood. Better methods to study ZIKV infection in live cells could enhance our understanding of the biology of ZIKV and the mechanisms by which ZIKV contributes to fetal abnormalities...
February 24, 2018: Viruses
Joan L Robinson
Zika virus (ZIKV) was recently recognized to be teratogenic. The diagnosis of congenital ZIKV syndrome should be considered in children with unexplained microcephaly, intracranial calcifications, ventriculomegaly or major structural central nervous system abnormalities. Management is evolving but suggestions are provided for children with findings compatible with congenital infection and for those born to women with potential exposure during pregnancy.
March 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Xiao-Feng Li, Hao-Long Dong, Hong-Jiang Wang, Xing-Yao Huang, Ye-Feng Qiu, Xue Ji, Qing Ye, Chunfeng Li, Yang Liu, Yong-Qiang Deng, Tao Jiang, Gong Cheng, Fu-Chun Zhang, Andrew D Davidson, Ya-Jun Song, Pei-Yong Shi, Cheng-Feng Qin
The global spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its unexpected association with congenital defects necessitates the rapid development of a safe and effective vaccine. Here we report the development and characterization of a recombinant chimeric ZIKV vaccine candidate (termed ChinZIKV) that expresses the prM-E proteins of ZIKV using the licensed Japanese encephalitis live-attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 as the genetic backbone. ChinZIKV retains its replication activity and genetic stability in vitro, while exhibiting an attenuation phenotype in multiple animal models...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Anne C Wheeler
The association between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and severe birth defects in infants has led to worldwide attention focused on the mechanisms of the disease and the prevention of future exposure. Surveillance efforts around the world continue with the goal of identifying and monitoring all potentially exposed women and their newborns. For infants who were born with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and their families, an uncertain future awaits. As infants who were born with CZS during the most recent outbreak enter their second year of life, new developments in the outcomes of the condition continue to unfold, providing some insight into the likely long-term sequalae...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
Jill A McDonald, Katherine Selchau, Bridget Acquah-Baidoo
Maternal Zika virus infection (ZIKV) has serious health consequences for unborn offspring. Knowledge about prevention is critical to reducing risk, yet what women in the high-risk US-Mexico border region know about protecting themselves and their babies from ZIKV is mostly unknown. This study aimed to assess knowledge of ZIKV among pregnant and inter-conception women and to identify sources of information that might address knowledge gaps. Clients in five federally-funded, border region Healthy Start programs (N = 326) were interviewed in late 2016 about their knowledge of ZIKV prevention methods and whether they believed themselves or their babies to be at risk...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Jelmer R Prins, Sharon Eskandar, Bart J L Eggen, Sicco A Scherjon
Disturbances in fetal neurodevelopment have extensively been related to neurodevelopmental disorders in early and later life. Fetal neurodevelopment is dependent on adequate functioning of the fetal immune system. During pregnancy, the maternal immune system is challenged to both tolerate the semi-allogenic fetus and to protect the mother and fetus from microbes. The fetal immune system is influenced by maternal immune disturbances; therefore, perturbations in maternal immunity likely do not only alter pregnancy outcome but also alter fetal neurodevelopment...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Brigid C Bollweg, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Pamela Spivey, Gillian L Hale
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause adverse fetal outcomes and severe irreversible congenital birth defects including microcephaly. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting ZIKV antigens in tissues from cases of fetal loss in women infected with ZIKV, and for providing insights into disease pathogenesis. As a result, there is increasing demand for commercially available ZIKV antibodies for use in IHC assays. ZIKV antibodies were selected and obtained from commercial sources to include both mouse and rabbit hosts, and a variety of antigenic targets...
January 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Irene Rivero-Calle, Eleni Nastouli, Maria Espiau, M A Frick, Ana Alarcon, Federico Martinón-Torres
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, risk factors, time of infection during pregnancy, newborn symptoms, treatment, and vaccines...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Igor Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcia Regina de Andrade, Janaína de Moraes Silva, Zenira Martins Silva, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Costa, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Guimarães, Marcelo Yoshito Wada, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016. METHODS: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH)...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus' impact on pregnancy became widely known in 2015 with a dramatic increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly in Recife, Brazil. A mosquito-borne virus resulting in congenital anomalies is unique, and Zika's ability to cause neurological defects on a large scale was a grim reminder of the Rubella epidemic in the 1950s. Over the past 2 years, studies have provided insight on how Zika virus (ZIKV) infects cells and causes disease, but much remains unknown about the long-term risks of Zika exposure on infant growth and development...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Mauricio A Salvo, Brock Kingstad-Bakke, Cristhian Salas-Quinchucua, Erwin Camacho, Jorge E Osorio
Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) typically causes a mild and self-limiting illness known as Zika fever. Since its recent emergence in 2014 in the American continent, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been closely associated with a wide range of congenital abnormalities. To date, no vaccines or antivirals are publicly available. We developed Zika virus-like particles (VLPs) and evaluated their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mouse models. ZIKV VLPs (ZIKVLPs) formulated with alum were injected into 6-8-week-old interferon deficient AG129 mice as well as wild type BALB/c mice...
February 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arthur Felix, Edouard Hallet, Anne Favre, Rémi Kom-Tchameni, Antoine Defo, Olivier Fléchelles, Jean-Marc Rosenthal, Maylis Douine, Mathieu Nacher, Narcisse Elenga
RATIONALE: A major epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection occurred in French Guiana and West Indies. French national epidemiological surveillance estimated that 1650 pregnant women contracted the ZIKV during epidemic period from January 2016 to October 2016 in French Guiana. PATIENT CONCERNS: ZIKV infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and birth defects. DIAGNOSES: In this report, we describe 2 children with proven in utero ZIKV exposure...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thuong C Bui, Xuan V Huynh, Hoang Nguyen, Kieu T Nguyen, Chuong D Nguyen, Nguyen D Pham
The present study includes two case reports of pregnant patients with Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Vietnam. Both patients provided written consent for the publication of the case reports. In the first, a Southern Vietnamese women (G1 P2 ) aged 30 years who was in the 21st week of pregnancy and was living with her husband in District 8 of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, approximately 9.9 km from Tu Du Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, presented for treatment. One week prior to presentation, the patient became ill with ocular pain, myalgia, and mild fever (maximum 37...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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