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Fragility fractures

Wing Lee Chan, Magdalena Steiner, Tomasz Witkos, Johannes Egerer, Björn Busse, Shuji Mizumoto, Jan M Pestka, Haikuo Zhang, Ingrid Hausser, Layal Abo Khayal, Claus-Eric Ott, Mateusz Kolanczyk, Bettina Willie, Thorsten Schinke, Chiara Paganini, Antonio Rossi, Kazuyuki Sugahara, Michael Amling, Petra Knaus, Danny Chan, Martin Lowe, Stefan Mundlos, Uwe Kornak
Gerodermia osteodysplastica (GO) is characterized by skin laxity and early-onset osteoporosis. GORAB, the responsible disease gene, encodes a small Golgi protein of poorly characterized function. To circumvent neonatal lethality of the GorabNull full knockout, Gorab was conditionally inactivated in mesenchymal progenitor cells (Prx1-cre), pre-osteoblasts (Runx2-cre), and late osteoblasts/osteocytes (Dmp1-cre), respectively. While in all three lines a reduction in trabecular bone density was evident, only GorabPrx1 and GorabRunx2 mutants showed dramatically thinned, porous cortical bone and spontaneous fractures...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Nikita M Bajwa, Chandrasekhar Kesavan, Subburaman Mohan
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to long-term cognitive, behavioral, affective deficits, and increase neurodegenerative diseases. It is only in recent years that there is growing awareness that TBI even in its milder form poses long-term health consequences to not only the brain but to other organ systems. Also, the concept that hormonal signals and neural circuits that originate in the hypothalamus play key roles in regulating skeletal system is gaining recognition based on recent mouse genetic studies. Accordingly, many TBI patients have also presented with hormonal dysfunction, increased skeletal fragility, and increased risk of skeletal diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Patricia A Mackey, Laura D Rosenthal, Lanyu Mi, Michael D Whitaker
Because of osteoporosis, patients older than 50 years with fragility fractures are at risk of further fractures. We developed a quality improvement initiative based on an evidence-based Fracture Liaison Service (FLS) model of care to help prevent subsequent fractures. Previous to the implemented FLS model, less than 13% of patients with fragility fractures were assessed for osteoporosis at our institution. We created a registry tool to identify patients with fractures who were older than 50 years. Our interventions focused on identifying, contacting, and educating patients; and coordinating screening tests and an outpatient follow-up visit with an endocrinologist...
March 16, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Yanmao Wang, Yu Zhu, Shengdi Lu, Chengfang Hu, Wanrun Zhong, Yimin Chai
Osteoporosis is linked to reduced bone mineral density (BMD) as a major risk factor for fragility fractures. Recent studies indicated an association between BMD and abnormally elevated lipid levels in blood as common indicators for hyperlipidemia. In this study, we assessed the protective effect of paeoniflorin, a phytochemical compound with multiple pharmacological activities, against hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in rats fed a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet (HCHF). The special diet-fed rats were subjected to an 8-week treatment with either paeoniflorin (20 mg/kg, daily) or vehicle...
March 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
S Jin, E Hsieh, L Peng, C Yu, Y Wang, C Wu, Q Wang, M Li, X Zeng
This study is the first meta-analysis investigating the pooled incidence rates of fractures among patients with RA. Our results demonstrated that this population is at high risk of overall and fragility fractures. Consideration of vertebral imaging and RA-specific risk factor assessment may aid in fracture prevention for this vulnerable group. INTRODUCTION: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the incidence of fractures (overall and fragility) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
March 15, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Diana Olvera, Rachel Stolzenfeld, Joan C Marini, Michelle S Caird, Kenneth M Kozloff
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by altered bone quality and imbalanced bone remodeling, leading to skeletal fractures which are most prominent during childhood. Treatments for OI have focused on restoring pediatric bone density and architecture to recover functional strength and consequently reduce fragility. Though antiresorptive agents like bisphosphonates (BP) are currently the most common intervention for the treatment of OI, a number of studies have shown efficacy of sclerostin antibody (SclAb) in inducing gains in bone mass and reducing fragility in OI mouse models...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
D Burkard, T Beckett, E Kourtjian, C Messingschlager, R Sipahi, M Padley, J Stubbart
Teriparatide is an anabolic therapy used to treat patients with osteoporosis and is only approved for 2 years of treatment. This is the first study to look at two common osteoporosis drugs in maintaining its beneficial effects: denosumab and zoledronic acid. Denosumab treatment was associated with the greatest increase in bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, an amount that was statistically greater than no treatment and zoledronic acid treatment. INTRODUCTION: Teriparatide, a hallmark treatment for osteoporosis, has been shown to increase BMD and bone turnover...
March 14, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Yuji Komorita, Masanori Iwase, Hiroki Fujii, Toshiaki Ohkuma, Hitoshi Ide, Tamaki Jodai-Kitamura, Akiko Sumi, Masahito Yoshinari, Udai Nakamura, Dongchon Kang, Takanari Kitazono
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that weight loss is associated with increased fracture risk in the general population. As patients with diabetes often lose weight intentionally or unintentionally, we aimed to investigate prospectively the relationship between weight loss from maximum body weight and fracture risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,706 Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes (mean age 66 years), including 2,755 men and 1,951 postmenopausal women, were followed for a median of 5...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes Care
Feng Zhao, Matthew Kirby, Anuradha Roy, Yizhong Hu, X Edward Guo, Xiaodu Wang
Understanding the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical function of trabecular bone is critical for prediction and prevention of bone fragility fractures. However, a detailed understanding of the structural design of trabecular microarchitecture is still missing. This study hypothesized that there exists a commonality in the underlying probabilistic distributions of microstructural features of trabecular bones, whereas the microstructural differences among individuals are primarily describe by a set of scalar parameters...
March 10, 2018: Bone
Annette L Adams, John L Adams, Marsha A Raebel, Beth T Tang, Jennifer L Kuntz, Vinutha Vijayadeva, Elizabeth A McGlynn, Wendolyn S Gozansky
Holidays from bisphosphonates (BPs) may help to prevent rare adverse events like atypical femoral fractures, but may be appropriate only if risk of osteoporosis-related fractures does not increase. Our objective was to compare the incidence of osteoporosis-related fractures among women who had a bisphosphonate (BP) holiday to those who continued use BPs. This retrospective cohort study, conducted within 4 Kaiser Permanente integrated health system regions, included 39,502 women aged ≥45 years with ≥3 years exposure to BP...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Shyam Kumar, Ulhas Sonar, Iqbal Singh
The incidence of fragility fractures of the humerus is increasing worldwide. Although clinicians are aware of fractures of hips and wrists, fractures of the shoulder and elbow do not receive much attention. A considerable proportion of the elderly population (estimated at 10-24%) is dependent on walking aids. A well-functioning and pain-free shoulder and elbow is essential for use of these aids. The impact of loss of mobility in the elderly is well known, hence the overall impact of these fractures on the individual can be considerable...
March 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Ana M Rodrigues, Mónica Eusébio, Maria José Santos, Nélia Gouveia, Viviana Tavares, Pedro S Coelho, Jorge M Mendes, Jaime C Branco, Helena Canhão
Using a large population database, we showed that fragility fractures were highly prevalent in senior women and were associated with significant physical disability. However, treatment rates were low because osteoporosis treatment was not prescribed or not agreed to by the majority of women with prevalent fragility fractures. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to estimate prevalence of fragility fractures (FF), risk factors, and treatment rates in senior women and to assess impact of FF on physical function and quality of life...
March 7, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
M J Rothmann, P R Jakobsen, C M Jensen, A P Hermann, A C Smith, J Clemensen
This systematic review provides synthesised knowledge and guidance to health professionals on the experiences and perspectives of being diagnosed with osteoporosis from the patient's point of view. Using individuals' experiences and meanings can promote tailored and targeted information and guidance on osteoporosis, bone care and treatment at different stages of the osteoporosis trajectory. INTRODUCTION: To be diagnosed with osteoporosis with or without fragility fractures affects individuals differently...
March 6, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Trevor R Grace, Joseph T Patterson, Jennifer Tangtiphaiboontana, Justin D Krogue, Thomas P Vail, Derek T Ward
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine whether episode Target Prices in the Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative sufficiently match the complexities and expenses expected for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF) as compared to hip degenerative joint disease (DJD). METHODS: Claims data under BPCI Model 2 were collected for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty at a single institution over a 2-year period...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Inbal Goldshtein, Allison Martin Nguyen, Anne E dePapp, Sofia Ish-Shalom, Julie M Chandler, Gabriel Chodick, Varda Shalev
This study analyzed data on 87,224 osteoporotic patients with up to 18 years of computerized medical history. Patients with osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes had higher bone density yet more fractures than non-diabetic osteoporotic patients. Fracture incidence among the diabetic patients was associated with retinopathy and cardiovascular disease, but not with diabetes duration. PURPOSE: Little is known about the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and fragility fractures or the mechanism(s) involved...
March 3, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
N Segaud, I Legroux, M Hazzan, C Noel, B Cortet
INTRODUCTION: In renal transplant patients, bone loss may be related to the drugs patients are taking but also to their past history of chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in BMD 2 years after an initial assessment (performed 9 months post transplantation) and the factors associated with these changes. METHODS: This longitudinal study included patients who had undergone a renal transplantation between 2005 and 2011, and who were followed up at the Lille Regional University Hospital...
March 2, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Joanne LaFleur, Adam P Bress, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Jacob Crook, Kristin Knippenberg, Roger Bedimo, Pablo Tebas, Heather Nyman, Stephen Esker
INTRODUCTION: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been associated with greater incidences of bone complications, which might be modified by some concomitantly administered antiretrovirals, possibly by their effect on tenofovir concentrations. We compared bone adverse outcomes among treatment-naïve HIV-infected US veterans initiating efavirenz (EFV)-containing TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) regimens versus those initiating non-EFV-containing TDF/FTC regimens. METHODS: Using national Veterans Health Administration clinical and administrative data sets, we identified a cohort of treatment-naïve HIV-infected veterans without bone disease who initiated therapy with TDF/FTC plus EFV, rilpivirine, elvitegravir/cobicistat, or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in 2003-2015...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
A Yajima, K Tsuchiya, L F Bonewald, M Inaba, Y Tominaga, T Tanizawa, A Ito, K Nitta
Evaluation of bone is of great importance in chronic kidney disease patients, as these patients are at an increased risk for fractures. We treated a hemodialysis patient suffering from hyperparathyroid bone disease with cinacalcet hydrochloride and concurrent administration of maxacalcitol and alfacalcidol for a year. Hyperparathyroid bone disease is characterized by cortical thinning, increased cortical porosity, reduced trabecular bone volume, and increased hypomineralized matrix volume, and there is little information to date about the effects of treatment with cinacalcet hydrochloride on the bone fragility in patients with hyperparathyroid bone disease...
February 28, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Eleanor Bowden, Conor Carroll, Mishaal Gill, Rodney Llewelyn
Regional odontodysplasia (RO) also known as ghost teeth is a rare developmental anomaly affecting the mesodermal and ectodermal components of teeth with characteristic clinical and radiographic findings. The enamel and dentin are hypomineralized and hypocalcified with short roots and open apices. The affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, meaning they are fragile and thin and liable to fracture and decay. Radiographically, there is a marked reduction in radiodensity with little distinction between the enamel and dentin, hence the term "ghost teeth...
January 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
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