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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810281/-hyponatremia-differential-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
Heiner Mönig, Alexander Arlt
Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in hospitalized patients, with up to 30 % having a plasma sodium concentration below 135 mmol/l. It is now clear that the clinical problem extends beyond the neurological symptoms, which can be explained by intracerebral osmotic fluid shifts and brain edema. Instead, chronic hyponatremia is associated with impaired gait stability and an increased risk of bone fragility fractures. Moreover, hyponatremia has been demonstrated to be an indicator of poor prognosis in a variety of conditions...
August 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800970/guidelines-of-the-brazilian-society-of-rheumatology-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-in-men
#2
REVIEW
Marco Antônio R Loures, Cristiano Augusto F Zerbini, Jaime S Danowski, Rosa Maria R Pereira, Caio Moreira, Ana Patrícia de Paula, Charlles Heldan M Castro, Vera Lucia Szenjenfeld, Laura Maria C Mendonça, Sebastião C Radominiski, Mailze C Bezerra, Ricardo Simões, Wanderley M Bernardo
Osteoporosis, a metabolic disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of the bone tissue microarchitecture and increased susceptibility to fractures, is commonly regarded as a women's health problem. This point of view is based on the fact that compared with men, women have lower bone mineral density and longer lifespans and lose bone mass faster, especially after menopause, due to a marked decrease in serum estrogen levels. However, in the last 20 years, osteoporosis in men has become recognized as a public health problem due to the occurrence of an increasingly higher number of fragility fractures...
August 8, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796695/the-management-of-osteoporosis-after-fragility-fracture-the-orthopaedic-perspective
#3
Jonathan Morris, Alexa J Karkenny, Jose B Toro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: JBJS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795340/vertebral-fractures-assessed-with-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-in-patients-with-addison-s-disease-on-glucocorticoid-and-mineralocorticoid-replacement-therapy
#4
Valentina Camozzi, Corrado Betterle, Anna Chiara Frigo, Veronica Zaccariotto, Martina Zaninotto, Erica De Caneva, Paola Lucato, Walter Gomiero, Silvia Garelli, Chiara Sabbadin, Monica Salvà, Miriam Dalla Costa, Marco Boscaro, Giovanni Luisetto
PURPOSE: to assess bone damage and metabolic abnormalities in patients with Addison's disease given replacement doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. METHODS: A total of 87 patients and 81 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls were studied. The following parameters were measured: urinary cortisol, serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, bone alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, serum CrossLaps, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D...
August 9, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791186/a-case-of-male-osteoporosis-a-37-year-old-man-with-multiple-vertebral-compression-fractures
#5
Suhaib Radi, Andrew C Karaplis
While the contributing role of testosterone to bone health is rather modest compared to other factors such as estradiol levels, male hypogonadism is associated with low bone mass and fragility fractures. Along with stimulating physical puberty by achieving virilization and a normal muscle mass and improving psychosocial wellbeing, the goals of testosterone replacement therapy in male hypogonadism also include attainment of age-specific bone mineral density. We report on a 37-year-old man who presented with multiple vertebral compression fractures several years following termination of testosterone replacement therapy for presumed constitutional delay in growth and puberty...
2017: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782072/frax-vs-t-score-based-intervention-thresholds-for-osteoporosis
#6
H Johansson, F Azizieh, N Al Ali, T Alessa, N C Harvey, E McCloskey, J A Kanis
Many current guidelines for the assessment of osteoporosis, including those in Kuwait, initiate fracture risk assessment in men and women using BMD T-score thresholds. We compared the Kuwaiti guidelines with FRAX-based age-dependent intervention thresholds equivalent to that in women with a prior fragility fracture. FRAX-based intervention thresholds identified women at higher fracture probability than fixed T-score thresholds, particularly in the elderly. PURPOSE: A FRAX® model been recently calibrated for Kuwait, but guidance is needed on how to utilise fracture probabilities in the assessment and treatment of patients...
August 7, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780668/new-anabolic-therapies-for-osteoporosis
#7
REVIEW
Salvatore Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Marco Occhiuto, Jessica Pepe
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength...
August 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777485/pls3-deletions-lead-to-severe-spinal-osteoporosis-and-disturbed-bone-matrix-mineralization
#8
Kämpe Aj, Costantini A, Levy-Shraga Y, Zeitlin L, Roschger P, Taylan F, Lindstrand A, Paschalis Ep, Gamsjaeger S, Raas-Rothschild A, Hövel M, Jiao H, Klaushofer K, Grasemann C, Mäkitie O
Mutations in the PLS3 gene, encoding Plastin 3, were described in 2013 as a cause for X-linked primary bone fragility in children. The specific role of PLS3 in bone metabolism remains inadequately understood. Here we describe for the first time PLS3 deletions as the underlying cause for childhood-onset primary osteoporosis in three boys from two families. We carried out thorough clinical, radiological and bone tissue analyses to explore the consequences of these deletions and to further elucidate the role of PLS3 in bone homeostasis...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777128/spinal-cord-injury-following-a-mild-trauma-in-homocystinuria-related-bone-frailty-neurorehabilitation-and-education-on-bone-health-management
#9
Ginny Varghese, Wafa Al Yazeedi, Mohammed Al Hamawi, Mohammed N Awad, Giorgio Ferriero, Elena Giovanazzi
Homocystinuria (HCU) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deficiency of cystathionine β-synthetase, presenting with variable clinical features including micronutrient deficiency-related osteoporosis. Early-onset osteoporosis results in increased bone fragility, which is associated with low-impact fractures. To date, no traumatic myelopathy has ever been described in patients with HCU. This case report describes a 30-year-old male patient with HCU who was not aware that he was at high risk of sustaining debilitating bone fractures...
August 2, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775273/calcium-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-marginally-impairs-fracture-healing-but-aggravates-posttraumatic-bone-loss-in-osteoporotic-mice
#10
Verena Fischer, Melanie Haffner-Luntzer, Katja Prystaz, Annika Vom Scheidt, Björn Busse, Thorsten Schinke, Michael Amling, Anita Ignatius
Calcium and vitamin-D (Ca/VitD) deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis. It may also contribute to the compromised bone healing frequently observed in osteoporotic patients, since calcium is essential for fracture-callus mineralization. Additionally, clinical data suggest systemic bone loss following fracture, which may aggravate osteoporosis and thus increase the risk for fragility fractures in osteoporotic patients further. However, the role of Ca/VitD in fracture healing and posttraumatic bone turnover has to date been poorly investigated...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771973/trends-and-determinants-of-osteoporosis-treatment-and-screening-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-compared-to-osteoarthritis
#11
Gulsen Ozen, Diane L Kamen, Ted R Mikuls, Bryant R England, Frederick Wolfe, Kaleb Michaud
OBJECTIVE: To profile osteoporosis (OP) care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over the past decade. METHODS: Patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA) were followed from 2003 through 2014. OP care was defined as receipt of OP treatment (with exception of calcium/vitamin D) or screening (OPTS). Adjusted trends over follow-up, and the factors associated with OP care were examined using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards. RESULTS: OPTS was reported in 67...
August 3, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771243/b3gat3-related-disorder-with-craniosynostosis-and-bone-fragility-due-to-a-unique-mutation
#12
Kevin Yauy, Frederic Tran Mau-Them, Marjolaine Willems, Christine Coubes, Patricia Blanchet, Christian Herlin, Ikram Taleb Arrada, Elodie Sanchez, Jean-Michel Faure, Marie-Pascale Le Gac, Olivier Prodhomme, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Jean-Baptiste Rivière, Yannis Duffourd, Jean-François Deleuze, Thomas Guignard, Guillaume Captier, Mouna Barat-Houari, David Genevieve
PurposeBased on prenatal suspicion of the combination of radioulnar or radiohumeral synostosis and a peculiar shape of the skull suggestive of craniosynostosis, we report on six patients from four unrelated consanguineous families in whom Antley-Bixler syndrome was suspected during the prenatal period without mutation in genes known to be associated with the syndrome.MethodsMolecular diagnosis involved whole-exome and gene-panel sequencing. RESULTS: All sequenced patients showed a unique homozygous mutation of c...
August 3, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770272/effectiveness-of-anti-osteoporotic-drugs-to-prevent-secondary-fragility-fractures-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
T Saito, J M Sterbenz, S Malay, L Zhong, M P MacEachern, K C Chung
Patients with osteoporotic fractures have an increased risk for secondary fractures. However, a rigorous study that assesses the effectiveness of individual osteoporotic drugs in preventing subsequent fractures is lacking. The purpose of this review was to analyze the effectiveness of anti-osteoporotic drugs in preventing secondary fractures. We searched for randomized controlled trials that showed the incidence of secondary fractures while using anti-osteoporotic drugs (bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, parathyroid hormone (PTH), or calcitonin) in MEDLINE, Embase...
August 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766739/serum-levels-of-a-cathepsin-k-generated-periostin-fragment-predict-incident-low-trauma-fractures-in-postmenopausal-women-independently-of-bmd-and-frax
#14
Nicolas Bonnet, Emmanuel Biver, Thierry Chevalley, René Rizzoli, Patrick Garnero, Serge L Ferrari
Periostin is a matricellular protein involved in bone formation and bone matrix organization, but it is also produced by other tissues. Its circulating levels have been weakly associated with bone microstructure and prevalent fractures, possibly because periostin measured by the current commercial assays does not specifically reflect bone metabolism. In this context, we developed a new ELISA for a periostin fragment resulting from cathepsin K digestion (K-Postn). We hypothesized that circulating K-Postn levels could be associated with bone fragility...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766137/inhaled-glucocorticoids-are-associated-with-vertebral-fractures-in-copd-patients
#15
Pedro Assed Gonçalves, Rafael Dos Santos Neves, Leonardo Vieira Neto, Miguel Madeira, Fernando Silva Guimarães, Laura Maria Carvalho Mendonça, Agnaldo Jose Lopes, Maria Lucia Fleiuss Farias
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. Oral glucocorticoids are deleterious to bone; however, the impact of inhaled glucocorticoids (ICS) remains unclear. Our objective was to determine whether ICS contribute to osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Sixty-one COPD patients, 35 current users of ICS and 26 who had never received glucocorticoids, were evaluated for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition and underwent vertebral fracture assessment (VFA)...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765053/metatarsal-periosteal-plantar-ganglion-cyst-associated-with-stress-fracture-a-case-report
#16
Kenji Serigano, Masayoshi Ikeda, Tadashi Nukaga, Masahiko Watanabe
We encountered a rare case of a periosteal ganglion cyst at the plantar aspect of the metatarsal that induced a stress fracture in a 77-year-old female. The clinical manifestation of the plantar ganglion cyst of the foot was not evident because of its location deep beneath the plantar fascia. A pressure cortical indentation was detected at the metatarsal neck on the initial radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stress fracture of the metatarsal with a ganglion cyst. The stress fracture was thought to have resulted from several factors, including structural weakness due to bony absorption from the ganglion cyst, osteoporosis that induced a fragility fracture, and a load-induced fatigue fracture...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761958/osteoporosis
#17
REVIEW
Kristine E Ensrud, Carolyn J Crandall
Osteoporosis is a common systemic skeletal disorder resulting in bone fragility and increased fracture risk. However, management of osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies are often not addressed by primary care clinicians, even in older patients with recent fractures. Evidence-based screening strategies will improve identification of patients who are most likely to benefit from drug treatment to prevent fracture. In addition, careful consideration of when pharmacotherapy should be started and choice of medication and duration of treatment will maximize the benefits of fracture prevention while minimizing potential harms of long-term drug exposure...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748388/pls3-sequencing-in-childhood-onset-primary-osteoporosis-identifies-two-novel-disease-causing-variants
#18
A J Kämpe, A Costantini, R E Mäkitie, N Jäntti, H Valta, M Mäyränpää, H Kröger, M Pekkinen, F Taylan, H Jiao, O Mäkitie
Altogether 95 children with primary bone fragility were screened for variants in PLS3, the gene underlying X-linked osteoporosis. Two children with multiple peripheral and spinal fractures and low BMD had novel disease-causing PLS3 variants. Children with milder phenotypes had no pathogenic variants. PLS3 screening is indicated in childhood-onset primary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to determine the role of pathogenic PLS3 variants in children's bone fragility and to elucidate the associated phenotypic features...
July 26, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748387/costs-of-fragility-hip-fractures-globally-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis
#19
REVIEW
S Williamson, F Landeiro, T McConnell, L Fulford-Smith, M K Javaid, A Judge, J Leal
Purpose This study was conducted in order to systematically review the costs of hip fractures globally and identify drivers of differences in costs. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify studies reporting patient level fragility hip fracture costs between 1990 and 2015. We extracted data on the participants and costs from these studies. Cost data concerning the index hospitalisation were pooled, and a meta-regression was used to examine its potential drivers. We also pooled data on the first-year costs following hip fracture and considered healthcare, social care as well as other cost categories if reported by studies...
July 26, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744227/trauma-of-the-frontal-region-is-influenced-by-the-volume-of-frontal-sinuses-a-finite-element-study
#20
Srbislav S Pajic, Svetlana Antic, Arso M Vukicevic, Nenad Djordjevic, Gordana Jovicic, Zivorad Savic, Igor Saveljic, Aleksa Janović, Zoran Pesic, Marija Djuric, Nenad Filipovic
Anatomy of frontal sinuses varies individually, from differences in volume and shape to a rare case when the sinuses are absent. However, there are scarce data related to influence of these variations on impact generated fracture pattern. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of frontal sinus volume on the stress distribution and fracture pattern in the frontal region. The study included four representative Finite Element models of the skull. Reference model was built on the basis of computed tomography scans of a human head with normally developed frontal sinuses...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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