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Sheri Johnson, Dalila Cardona, Jeremy Davis, Benjamin Gramling, Chelsea Hamilton, Ray Hoffmann, Sabrina Ruis, Doug Soldat, Steve Ventura, Ke Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
N Bravo-Vasquez, F Di Pillo, A Lazo, P Jiménez-Bluhm, S Schultz-Cherry, C Hamilton-West
In South America little is known regarding influenza virus circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations. Backyard productive systems (BPS) that breed swine and poultry are widely distributed throughout Chile with high density in the central zone, and several BPS are located within the "El Yali" (EY) ecosystem, which is one of the most important wetlands in South America. Here, 130 different wild bird species have been described, of them, at least 22 species migrate yearly from North America for nesting...
October 6, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
J O Amimo, T F Otieno, E Okoth, J O Onono, B Bett
We analysed data that were previously collected for molecular characterisation of rotavirus (RV) groups A and C in pigs from Teso and Busia subcounties in Kenya to determine risk factors for its infection. The data included records from 239 randomly selected piglets aged between 1 and 6 months raised in free range and backyard production systems. RV infection was confirmed by screening of fresh faecal samples by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); selected positive samples were subsequently sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis...
October 8, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Jianming Ou, Min Kang, Xiaoxiao Wang, Fiona Havers, Xiang Huo, Xiaoqing Liu, Qianlai Sun, Yongchao He, Bo Liu, Shenggen Wu, Yali Wang, Haitian Sui, Yongjie Zhang, Shaopei Tang, Caiyun Chang, Lunhui Xiang, Dong Wang, Shiguang Zhao, Suizan Zhou, Tao Chen, Nijuan Xiang, Carolyn M Greene, Yanping Zhang, Yuelong Shu, Zijian Feng, Qun Li
Background.  Human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus have been associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets (LPMs). We conducted a case-control study to identify additional and more specific risk factors. Methods.  Cases were laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) infections in persons in China reported from October 1, 2014 to April 30, 2015. Poultry workers, those with insufficient data, and those refusing participation were excluded. We matched up to 4 controls per case by sex, age, and residential community...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Michal Slany, Nikol Reslova, Vladimir Babak, Alena Lorencova
Toxoplasmosis is a major public health issue, due to the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, mainly in pork. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of T. gondii in pigs and wild boars bred in different production systems in the Czech Republic using ELISA and qPCR methods. Our results show that T. gondii infection is widespread in pigs and wild boars bred and slaughtered in the Czech Republic and that there is a higher exposure to T. gondii in backyard slaughter operations and organic pig farming, indicating a potential risk for meat consumption...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Syed Ali Ghafouri, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Farshad Tehrani, Reza Khaltabadifarahani, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Fallah
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes...
September 27, 2016: Virus Genes
F I Korennoy, V M Gulenkin, A E Gogin, T Vergne, A K Karaulov
In 1977, Ukraine experienced a local epidemic of African swine fever (ASF) in the Odessa region. A total of 20 settlements were affected during the course of the epidemic, including both large farms and backyard households. Thanks to timely interventions, the virus circulation was successfully eradicated within 6 months, leading to no additional outbreaks. Detailed report of the outbreak's investigation has been publically available from 2014. The report contains some quantitative data that allow studying the ASF-spread dynamics in the course of the epidemic...
September 25, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Tatsuya Nakayama, Michio Jinnai, Ryuji Kawahara, Khong Thi Diep, Nguyen Nam Thang, Tran Thi Hoa, Le Kieu Hanh, Pham Ngoc Khai, Yoshinori Sumimura, Yoshimasa Yamamoto
Reports of livestock infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E) are increasing. Based on interviews conducted over a 6-month period, we found that veterinarians in the Vietnamese province of Thai Binh prefer to prescribe colistin-based drugs (CBD) in chicken farms. We aimed to clarify whether CBD use selects for strains of colistin-resistant ESBL-E. With the cooperation of seven local households, we detected ESBL-E in chickens' feces after treating chickens with CBD...
September 23, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Colin Basler, Thai-An Nguyen, Tara C Anderson, Thane Hancock, Casey Barton Behravesh
Backyard poultry flocks have increased in popularity concurrent with an increase in live poultry-associated salmonellosis (LPAS) outbreaks. Better understanding of practices that contribute to this emerging public health issue is needed. We reviewed outbreak reports to describe the epidemiology of LPAS outbreaks in the United States, examine changes in trends, and inform prevention campaigns. LPAS outbreaks were defined as ≥2 culture-confirmed human Salmonella infections linked to live poultry contact. Outbreak data were obtained through multiple databases and a literature review...
October 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
L Pohjola, N Tammiranta, C Ek-Kommonen, T Soveri, M L Hänninen, M Fredriksson-Ahomaa, A Huovilainen
Backyard poultry is regaining popularity in Europe and increased interest in the health and management of non-commercial farms has resulted. Furthermore, commercial poultry farm owners have become concerned about the risk represented by contagious animal diseases that nearby backyard poultry could transmit. Fifty-one voluntary backyard chicken farms were visited between October 2012 and January 2013. Blood samples and individual cloacal swabs were collected from 457 chickens. In 44 farms (86%), one or more of the tested chickens had antibodies against avian encephalomyelitis and chicken infectious anemia viruses, 24 farms (47%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bronchitis virus, 10 farms (20%) had chickens seropositive for infectious bursal disease virus, six farms (12%) had chickens seropositive for infectious laryngotracheitis virus and two farms (5...
September 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nguyen Vinh Trung, Hoang Ngoc Nhung, Juan J Carrique-Mas, Ho Huynh Mai, Ha Thanh Tuyen, James Campbell, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Pham Van Minh, Jaap A Wagenaar, Nguyen Thi Nhu Mai, Thai Quoc Hieu, Constance Schultsz, Ngo Thi Hoa
BACKGROUND: Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major cause of diarrhea worldwide. E. coli carrying both virulence factors characteristic for EAEC and STEC and producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase caused severe and protracted disease during an outbreak of E. coli O104:H4 in Europe in 2011. We assessed the opportunities for E. coli carrying the aggR and stx genes to emerge in 'backyard' farms in south-east Asia. RESULTS: Faecal samples collected from 204 chicken farms; 204 farmers and 306 age- and gender-matched individuals not exposed to poultry farming were plated on MacConkey agar plates with and without antimicrobials being supplemented...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Fusae Ogasawara, Yu Yamamoto, Yasuo Sato, Kazuhiro Fukunari, Ken-Ichi Murata, Gakuji Yaegashi, Makiko Goto, Ryukoh Murakami
Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Nordio Laura, Vascellari Marta, Berto Giacomo, Bano Luca
A backyard laying hen exhibiting muscular atrophy, dyspnea, and absence of egg production was analyzed for diagnostic insights. Gross findings revealed the presence of a large ulcerated mass with irregular edges involving the caudal part of the oropharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus, occluding the lumen of the esophagus and compressing the trachea. Small nodular lesions were detected also in the lungs. Histologically, both esophageal and pulmonary masses were characterized by nests of pleomorphic epithelial cells with squamous differentiation...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Ananda K Javaregowda, B Kavitha Rani, Suresh Patel Revanna, Ganesh Udupa
The present study was conducted for 1 year from March 2010 to February 2011 to identify gastro-intestinal parasites of backyard chickens and to estimate its prevalence in and around Shimoga, a malnad region of Karnataka. A total of 250 gastro-intestinal tracts were collected from backyard chickens for the detection of gastrointestinal parasites. Among the 250 birds screened, 183 (73.2 %) were found positive for gastrointestinal parasites by gross examination of gastrointestinal tract. Out of 183 positive cases, 94 (51...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Tania Ferdushy, Mohammed Tabaruk Hasan, A K M Golam Kadir
Rural poultry production in Bangladesh is mainly based on the free range or backyard poultry production system. This backyard poultry plays a vital tool for poverty alleviation as well as for empowerment of poor women of this country. However, this production system has disadvantage of susceptibility to many diseases including higher burden of parasitic infection. Therefore this cross sectional epidemiological investigation was done to determine the prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths in Narsingdi district, Bangladesh...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
C Sreedevi, Ch Jyothisree, V Rama Devi, P Annapurna, L Jeyabal
A study was carried out to know the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in desi fowl in and nearby villages of Gannavaram, Andhra Pradesh for a period of 1 year. Screening of 492 samples comprising faecal samples and gastrointestinal tracts from freshly slaughtered desi birds at local poultry shops and samples from post mortem examinations at NTR College of Veterinary Science, Gannavaram revealed 63.21 % of gastrointestinal parasites. Faecal samples were examined by floatation technique using salt solution and samples positive for coccidian oocysts were sporulated in 2...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Anke S K Frank, Alexandra J R Carthey, Peter B Banks
Introduced predators have a global reputation for causing declines and extinctions of native species. Native prey naiveté towards novel predators is thought to be a key reason for predator impacts. However, naiveté is not necessarily forever: where coexistence establishes, it is likely that naiveté will be reduced through adaptation, and the once alien predator will eventually become recognised by prey. For example, native marsupial bandicoots in Sydney avoid backyards with domestic dogs (C. lupus familiaris), but not domestic cats (Felis catus), even though cats and dogs were both introduced about 200 years ago (Carthey and Banks 2012)...
2016: PloS One
Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Cao, Xiaolin Li, Hongyan Zhang, Chong Wang, Quanqing Liu, Xinping Chen, Zhenling Cui, Jianbo Shen, Rongfeng Jiang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou
Sustainably feeding the world's growing population is a challenge, and closing yield gaps (that is, differences between farmers' yields and what are attainable for a given region) is a vital strategy to address this challenge. The magnitude of yield gaps is particularly large in developing countries where smallholder farming dominates the agricultural landscape. Many factors and constraints interact to limit yields, and progress in problem-solving to bring about changes at the ground level is rare. Here we present an innovative approach for enabling smallholders to achieve yield and economic gains sustainably via the Science and Technology Backyard (STB) platform...
September 7, 2016: Nature
Li Mao, Wenliang Li, Leilei Yang, Jianhui Wang, Suping Cheng, Yong Wei, Qiusheng Wang, Wenwen Zhang, Fei Hao, Yonglong Ding, Yinhua Sun, Jieyuan Jiang
BACKGROUND: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of domestic and wildlife animals worldwide and is associated with several diseases. In China, there are many reports about genotyping of BVDV strains originated from cattle and pigs, and some of them focused on the geographical distributions of BVDV. Currently, the goat industry in Jiangsu province of China is under going a rapid expansion. Most of these goat farms are backyard enterprises and in close proximity to pig and cattle farms...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
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