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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222148/looking-out-for-avian-influenza-in-backyard-and-small-poultry-flocks
#1
David Welchman, Anna Brzozowska
This article has been prepared by David Welchman, veterinary lead of the Avian Expert Group, and Anna Brzozowska, surveillance data scientist, of the APHA's Surveillance Intelligence Unit.
December 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178267/tracing-the-origins-of-genotype-viih-newcastle-disease-in-southern-africa
#2
C Abolnik, C Mubamba, D B R Wandrag, R Horner, B Gummow, G Dautu, S P R Bisschop
It is widely accepted that Newcastle disease is endemic in most African countries, but little attention has been afforded to establishing the sources and frequency of the introductions of exotic strains. Newcastle disease outbreaks have a high cost in Africa, particularly on rural livelihoods. Genotype VIIh emerged in South-East Asia and has since caused serious outbreaks in poultry in Malaysia, Indonesia, southern China, Vietnam and Cambodia. Genotype VIIh reached the African continent in 2011, with the first outbreaks reported in Mozambique...
November 26, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177781/bioaccumulation-of-selected-heavy-metals-and-histopathological-and-hematobiochemical-alterations-in-backyard-chickens-reared-in-an-industrial-area-india
#3
Indrajit Kar, Sunit Kumar Mukhopadhayay, Amlan Kumar Patra, Saktipada Pradhan
This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of four heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co), and histopathological lesions in tissues of chickens reared in an industrial area of West Bengal, India. In particular, Mejhia Block was selected as a heavy metal-exposed area and Vatar Block (120 km away from industrially polluted areas) as a reference site. Samples were collected from the backyard chickens in these areas. Concentrations of heavy metals in soil, water, feedstuffs, tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and muscle), and droppings were greater (p < 0...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164137/urban-livestock-keeping-in-the-city-of-nairobi-diversity-of-production-systems-supply-chains-and-their-disease-management-and-risks
#4
Pablo Alarcon, Eric M Fèvre, Patrick Muinde, Maurice K Murungi, Stella Kiambi, James Akoko, Jonathan Rushton
Urban livestock keeping in developing cities have an important role in food security and livelihoods but can also pose a significant threat to the environment and health of urban dwellers. The aim of this study was to identify the different livestock systems in Nairobi, their supply chains, and their management and food safety risks. Seven focus group discussions with livestock production officers in charge of each major Nairobi sub-county were conducted. Data were collected on the type of systems existing for each livestock species and their supply chains, disease management, food safety risks, and general husbandry and gender factors...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164098/the-highs-and-lows-of-making-a-bucket-list-quantifying-potential-mosquito-breeding-habitats-in-metropolitan-backyards
#5
Ram Sharan Lamichhane, Peter J Neville, Jacques Oosthuizen, Kim Clark, Samir Mainali, Maria Fatouros, Shelley Beatty
While the development of land for residential housing along the Swan and Canning Rivers in Perth, WA, Australia has reduced natural mosquito breeding sites, the role of backyard container breeding remains a relatively unknown factor. Local Governments responsible for these areas focus management and control efforts on low lying, tidally driven mosquito habitats to control Aedes vigilax (Skuse) and Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) mosquitoes in an effort to reduce both the nuisance and disease risk to residents...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158638/genetic-characterization-of-chayote-sechium-edule-jacq-swartz-landraces-of-north-eastern-hills-of-india-and-conservation-measure
#6
Veerendra Kumar Verma, Avinash Pandey, Anjani Kumar Jha, S V Ngachan
Chayote or chow-chow is an underutilized cucurbit vegetable crop, widely cultivated by farmers in the backyards and Jhum lands for its tender leaves, fruits and tuberous root. In order to initiate crop improvement program in this crop, the present study was undertaken to assess the genetic variations in the 74 chow-chow landraces collected from the North Eastern Hill region of India. Wide variations for fruit colors, fruit length (6.5-21.5 cm), fruit width (4.2-10.7 cm), fruit weight (60-560 g), vitamin-C (2...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152884/economic-impacts-of-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-kerala-india
#7
G Govindaraj, R Sridevi, S N Nandakumar, R Vineet, P Rajeev, M K Binu, V Balamurugan, H Rahman
This study assessed the short-run impact to poultry farmers, duck hatcheries, control costs, compensation paid to stakeholders (transfer payments) and market reactions on own and substitute product prices and backwater tourism (boat operators) due to avian influenza (AI) outbreaks in Kuttanad region of Kerala, India, during 2014. The primary data from 91 poultry farms (duck farms, broiler chicken and backyard poultry), four hatcheries and 90 backwater boat owners were collected through pre-tested schedules...
November 19, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129490/rnalater-%C3%A2-is-a-viable-storage-option-for-avian-influenza-sampling-in-logistically-challenging-conditions
#8
Michelle Wille, Hong Yin, Åke Lundkvist, Juan Xu, Shaman Muradrasoli, Josef D Järhult
Surveillance of wild birds is critical in monitoring for highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (AIVs). However, a successful surveillance regime requires proper treatment of samples in the field - rapid placement of samples in -80°C and subsequent maintenance of cold-chain. Given the logistical difficulties of this, many avian taxa and/or geographic locations are not sampled, or, when sampled may result in false negatives due to poor sample treatment in the field. Here, we assessed the utility of RNAlater(®) as a stabilization agent for AIV sampling...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121250/mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-collected-from-residential-yards-and-dog-kennels-in-florida-using-two-aspirators-a-sweep-net-or-a-cdc-trap
#9
C J Holderman, S A Gezan, A E S Stone, C R Connelly, P E Kaufman
Mosquito surveillance typically uses Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mosquito light traps baited with CO2. From January 2013 to March 2015, we sampled seven field sites using three active mosquito-trapping techniques (two different aspirators and a sweep net) and the stationary CO2-baited CDC mosquito light trap to determine mosquito capture efficacy for each technique. Sampling occurred in four suburban backyards and three dog kennel facilities near Gainesville, FL, USA; species collection and relative abundance were measured...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080611/annona-muricata-is-the-natural-therapy-to-most-disease-conditions-including-cancer-growing-in-our-backyard-a-systematic-review-of-its-research-history-and-future-prospects
#10
REVIEW
Yahaya Gavamukulya, Fred Wamunyokoli, Hany A El-Shemy
Annona muricata (A. muricata) is a tropical plant species belonging to family Annonaceae and known for its many medicinal uses. This review focuses on the research history of its traditional uses, phytochemicals, pharmacological activities, toxicological aspects of the extracts and isolated compounds, as well as the in vitro propagation studies with the objective of stimulating further studies on this plant for human consumption and treatment. A. muricata extracts have been identified in tropical regions to traditionally treat diverse conditions ranging from fever to diabetes and cancer...
September 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076655/prevalence-antimicrobial-resistance-profile-and-comparison-of-selective-plating-media-for-the-isolation-of-salmonella-in-backyard-chickens-from-entre-rios-argentina
#11
F I Rodríguez, D C Pascal, D Pulido, J M Osinalde, M I Caffer, D J Bueno
This study was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds kept under backyard system in Entre Ríos, Argentina, and determine the performance of two selective plating media used for Salmonella isolation, and the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated. Also, the association of farms characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. A total of 657 backyard chickens and 15 gooses were sampled one time by cloacal swab, belonging to 51 and one family farms, respectively, and four counties in Entre Rios state from April 2014 to May 2015...
October 27, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030311/potential-transmission-opportunity-of-ctx-m-producing-escherichia-coli-in-large-scale-chicken-farm-in-vietnam
#12
Ngan Bui Thi Kim, Huong Bui Thi Mai, Shuhei Ueda, Tuyen Le Danh, Yoshimasa Yamamoto, Itaru Hirai
OBJECTIVES: Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli has been spread out worldwide. We investigated blaCTX-M-positive E. coli in a Vietnamese large-size chicken farm, and evaluated whether there was any different prevalence and molecular characters of blaCTX-M-positive E. coli between the large size chicken farm and a Vietnamese community. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 24 human individuals and 38 chickens of a large-scale chicken farm, and from 51 human and 36 chickens of a community...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020081/heat-stress-induces-expression-of-hsp-genes-in-genetically-divergent-chickens
#13
Haniel Cedraz, Juliana Gracielle Gonzaga Gromboni, Antonio Amandio Pinto Garcia, Ronaldo Vasconcelos Farias Filho, Teillor Machado Souza, Eduardo Ribeiro de Oliveira, Elizangela Bonfim de Oliveira, Carlos Souza do Nascimento, Camila Meneghetti, Amauri Arias Wenceslau
BACKGROUND: Chickens are animals that are sensitive to thermal stress, which may decrease their production level in terms that it affects feed intake and thus, decreasing body weight gain. The Heat Shock Factors (HSF) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) genes are involved in the key cellular defense mechanisms during exposure in hot environments. Aimed with this study to analyze the expression of HSF1, HSF3, HSP70 and HSP90 genes in two local breeds (Peloco and Caneluda) and a commercial broiler line (Cobb 500®) to verify differences in resistance of these chicken to Heat stress treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975486/sodium-fluoroacetate-toxicity-a-case-report-of-malicious-poisoning-in-dogs-across-a-phoenix-arizona-neighborhood
#14
Alexandra Brower, Jason Struthers, Jemima Schmidt
In May 2016, thirteen dogs housed in backyards within a single neighborhood were reported to have developed convulsions and died within a 24 h period. An investigation of the scene by law enforcement resulted in submission of eight dogs for postmortem examination. It was suspected that a rapid acting toxin was the cause of death. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) protocol combined with thin-layer chromatography that allows screening for common convulsants failed to identify a toxin in either pooled gastric content or liver samples from select cases...
December 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958814/avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccination-efficacy-in-egyptian-backyard-poultry
#15
Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel, Mokhtar Gomaa, Hussein Galal, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
Raising backyard poultry under low biosecurity conditions is a common practice in Egypt. While vaccination is routinely applied in Egypt in commercial settings to curb the spread of avian influenza viruses, it remains less commonly used in backyard settings. We assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H5N1 vaccine based on a contemporary Egyptian clade 2.2.1.2 virus among turkeys, ducks, geese, and chickens raised together in a backyard setting. Results showed that this vaccine elicits an immune response in all tested species reaching up to a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 10 log2 after a booster dose...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956991/persistence-of-trichomonas-gallinae-in-birdseed
#16
Scott McBurney, Whitney K Kelly-Clark, María J Forzán, Raphaël Vanderstichel, Kevin Teather, Spencer J Greenwood
Trichomonas gallinae has emerged worldwide as a cause of mortality in songbirds (passerines). The congregation of numerous birds, including the reservoir hosts, pigeons and doves (columbids), at backyard feeding and watering sources has been suggested as a potential driver for the outbreaks. Evidence supporting a role for water in transmission has been established, but the role of birdseed in the transmission of trichomoniasis remained to be investigated. We assessed the survival of T. gallinae in three commercial birdseeds (mixed seed, black-oil sunflower seed, and niger seed) routinely used to attract passerine birds to local properties...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927474/first-detection-and-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-poultry-and-swine-raised-in-backyard-production-systems-in-central-chile
#17
R Alegria-Moran, D Rivera, V Toledo, A I Moreno-Switt, C Hamilton-West
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile...
September 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914975/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-pigs-in-durango-state-mexico
#18
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix
No information about hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in pigs in the northern Mexican state of Durango exists. We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in pigs in Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, we studied 427 pigs raised in backyards (n = 328), or slaughtered (n = 99) in Durango. Sera of pigs were analyzed for anti-HEV IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies to HEV were found in 193 (45.2%) of the 427 pigs studied...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891693/radiography-and-ultrasonography-in-the-backyard-poultry-and-waterfowl-patient
#19
Maria-E Krautwald-Junghanns, Torsten Moerke-Schindler, Susanne Vorbrüggen, Kerstin Cramer
The keeping of backyard poultry and waterfowl as pets has become increasingly popular in recent years, resulting in a rising case load of these patients in veterinary practices. Diagnostic imaging techniques are taking a leading role in rapid diagnosis in the live bird. We provide an overview of the most important points regarding radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging procedures in these birds. We also review the most commonly documented radiographic and ultrasonographic signs in these species, as well as discuss unique anatomic characteristics with which the veterinarian should be familiar...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881144/studies-on-occurrence-characterisation-and-decontamination-of-emerging-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-stec-etec-and-eiec-in-table-eggs
#20
C O Vinayananda, Nadeem Fairoze, C B Madhavaprasad, S M Byregowda, C S Nagaraj, Prashanth Bagalkot, Nagappa Karabasanavar
1. Escherichia coli is one of the most common facultative anaerobic species present in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and human beings. Usually they occur as commensals, but some serotypes can cause significant illnesses in humans as well as mammals and birds. 2. The occurrence of E. coli in different categories of table eggs collected from markets was evaluated. Isolates were analysed for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and efficacy of peracetic acid and chlorine for the purpose of decontaminating table eggs...
December 2017: British Poultry Science
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