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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020081/heat-stress-induces-expression-of-hsp-genes-in-genetically-divergent-chickens
#1
Haniel Cedraz, Juliana Gracielle Gonzaga Gromboni, Antonio Amandio Pinto Garcia, Ronaldo Vasconcelos Farias Filho, Teillor Machado Souza, Eduardo Ribeiro de Oliveira, Elizangela Bonfim de Oliveira, Carlos Souza do Nascimento, Camila Meneghetti, Amauri Arias Wenceslau
BACKGROUND: Chickens are animals that are sensitive to thermal stress, which may decrease their production level in terms that it affects feed intake and thus, decreasing body weight gain. The Heat Shock Factors (HSF) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) genes are involved in the key cellular defense mechanisms during exposure in hot environments. Aimed with this study to analyze the expression of HSF1, HSF3, HSP70 and HSP90 genes in two local breeds (Peloco and Caneluda) and a commercial broiler line (Cobb 500®) to verify differences in resistance of these chicken to Heat stress treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975486/sodium-fluoroacetate-toxicity-a-case-report-of-malicious-poisoning-in-dogs-across-a-phoenix-arizona-neighborhood
#2
Alexandra Brower, Jason Struthers, Jemima Schmidt
In May 2016, thirteen dogs housed in backyards within a single neighborhood were reported to have developed convulsions and died within a 24 h period. An investigation of the scene by law enforcement resulted in submission of eight dogs for postmortem examination. It was suspected that a rapid acting toxin was the cause of death. A gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) protocol combined with thin-layer chromatography that allows screening for common convulsants failed to identify a toxin in either pooled gastric content or liver samples from select cases...
October 3, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958814/avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccination-efficacy-in-egyptian-backyard-poultry
#3
Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Nageh El-Taweel, Mokhtar Gomaa, Hussein Galal, Ghazi Kayali, Mohamed A Ali
Raising backyard poultry under low biosecurity conditions is a common practice in Egypt. While vaccination is routinely applied in Egypt in commercial settings to curb the spread of avian influenza viruses, it remains less commonly used in backyard settings. We assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a H5N1 vaccine based on a contemporary Egyptian clade 2.2.1.2 virus among turkeys, ducks, geese, and chickens raised together in a backyard setting. Results showed that this vaccine elicits an immune response in all tested species reaching up to a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 10 log2 after a booster dose...
October 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956991/persistence-of-trichomonas-gallinae-in-birdseed
#4
Scott McBurney, Whitney K Kelly-Clark, María J Forzán, Raphaël Vanderstichel, Kevin Teather, Spencer J Greenwood
Trichomonas gallinae has emerged worldwide as a cause of mortality in songbirds (passerines). The congregation of numerous birds, including the reservoir hosts, pigeons and doves (columbids), at backyard feeding and watering sources has been suggested as a potential driver for the outbreaks. Evidence supporting a role for water in transmission has been established, but the role of birdseed in the transmission of trichomoniasis remained to be investigated. We assessed the survival of T. gallinae in three commercial birdseeds (mixed seed, black-oil sunflower seed, and niger seed) routinely used to attract passerine birds to local properties...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927474/first-detection-and-characterization-of-salmonella-spp-in-poultry-and-swine-raised-in-backyard-production-systems-in-central-chile
#5
R Alegria-Moran, D Rivera, V Toledo, A I Moreno-Switt, C Hamilton-West
Little is known about Salmonella serovars circulating in backyard poultry and swine populations worldwide. Backyard production systems (BPS) that raise swine and/or poultry are distributed across Chile, but are more heavily concentrated in central Chile, where industrialized systems are in close contact with BPS. This study aims to detect and identify circulating Salmonella serovars in poultry and swine raised in BPS. Bacteriological Salmonella isolation was carried out for 1744 samples collected from 329 BPS in central Chile...
September 20, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914975/seroepidemiology-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-pigs-in-durango-state-mexico
#6
Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Ángel Osvaldo Alvarado-Félix
No information about hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in pigs in the northern Mexican state of Durango exists. We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of anti-HEV IgG antibodies in pigs in Durango, Mexico. Through a cross-sectional study, we studied 427 pigs raised in backyards (n = 328), or slaughtered (n = 99) in Durango. Sera of pigs were analyzed for anti-HEV IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. Antibodies to HEV were found in 193 (45.2%) of the 427 pigs studied...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891693/radiography-and-ultrasonography-in-the-backyard-poultry-and-waterfowl-patient
#7
Maria-E Krautwald-Junghanns, Torsten Moerke-Schindler, Susanne Vorbrüggen, Kerstin Cramer
The keeping of backyard poultry and waterfowl as pets has become increasingly popular in recent years, resulting in a rising case load of these patients in veterinary practices. Diagnostic imaging techniques are taking a leading role in rapid diagnosis in the live bird. We provide an overview of the most important points regarding radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging procedures in these birds. We also review the most commonly documented radiographic and ultrasonographic signs in these species, as well as discuss unique anatomic characteristics with which the veterinarian should be familiar...
September 2017: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881144/studies-on-occurrence-characterization-and-decontamination-of-emerging-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-stec-etec-and-eiec-in-table-eggs
#8
C O Vinayananda, Nadeem Fairoze, C B Madhavaprasad, S M Byregowda, C Nagaraj, Prashanth Bagalkot, Nagappa Karabasanavar
1. Escherichia coli is one of the most common facultative anaerobic species present in the gastrointestinal tract of animals and human beings. Usually they occur as commensals, but some serotypes can cause significant illnesses in humans as well as mammals and birds. 2. The occurrence of E. coli in different categories of table eggs collected from markets was evaluated. Isolates were analysed for the presence of virulence genes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and efficacy of peracetic acid and chlorine for the purpose of decontaminating table eggs...
September 7, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874068/characterization-of-a-novel-viil-sub-genotype-of-newcastle-disease-virus-circulating-in-iran
#9
Fereshteh Sabouri, Mehdi Vasfi Marandi, Mohsen Bashashati
Newcastle disease (ND) is an economically important and highly contagious disease of wild and domestic avian species. Despite extensive vaccination efforts of industrial poultry, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks causing significant economic losses still occur. Rural chickens may act as a potential reservoir of NDVs for commercial poultry due to poor biosecurity and inadequate vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate phylogenetic relationship and molecular characterization of eight NDVs isolated from backyard poultry during 2011-2013...
September 6, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870755/high-seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-and-probability-of-detecting-tissue-cysts-in-backyard-laying-hens-compared-with-hens-from-large-free-range-farms
#10
G Schares, B Bangoura, F Randau, T Goroll, M Ludewig, P Maksimov, B Matzkeit, M Sens, A Bärwald, F J Conraths, M Opsteegh, J Van der Giessen
Serological assays are commonly used to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in livestock, but the predictive value of seropositivity with respect to the presence of infective tissue cysts is less clear. The present study aimed at the identification of seropositive and seronegative free-range laying hens from organic and backyard farms, and the relationship with the presence of viable tissue cysts. In addition, potential risk and protective factors on the selected farms were investigated...
October 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831228/characterization-of-salmonella-gallinarum-isolates-from-backyard-poultry-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-detection-of-invasion-inva-and-salmonella-plasmid-virulence-spvc-genes
#11
Susmita Pal, Samir Dey, Kunal Batabyal, Abhiroop Banerjee, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Indranil Samanta, Devi Prasad Isore
AIM: The aim was to characterize Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum isolated from backyard poultry by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of virulence genes invasion (invA) and Salmonella plasmid virulence C (spvC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two strains of Salmonella serovar Gallinarum isolates used in this study were obtained from an outbreak of fowl typhoid in backyard Vanaraja fowl. PCR technique was used for detection of invA and spvC genes using standard methodology...
July 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794040/pathobiology-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5nx-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-infections-in-minor-gallinaceous-poultry-supports-early-backyard-flock-introductions-in-the-western-united-states-in-2014-2015
#12
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Charles Balzli, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
In 2014 and 2015, the United States experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intrahost evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses in the United States were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768558/chlamydia-gallinacea-a-widespread-emerging-chlamydia-agent-with-zoonotic-potential-in-backyard-poultry
#13
L Li, M Luther, K Macklin, D Pugh, J Li, J Zhang, J Roberts, B Kaltenboeck, C Wang
Chlamydia gallinacea, a new chlamydial agent, has been reported in four European countries as well as Argentina and China. Experimentally infected chickens with C. gallinacea in previous study showed no clinical signs but had significantly reduced gains in body weight (6·5-11·4%). Slaughterhouse workers exposed to infected chickens have developed atypical pneumonia, indicating C. gallinacea is likely a zoonotic agent. In this study, FRET-PCR confirmed that C. gallinacea was present in 12·4% (66/531) of oral-pharyngeal samples from Alabama backyard poultry...
October 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757141/molecular-epidemiology-of-a-novel-re-assorted-epidemic-strain-of-equine-influenza-virus-in-pakistan-in-2015-16
#14
Amjad Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Jawad Nazir, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Asghar Khan
BACKGROUND: A widespread epidemic of equine influenza (EI) occurred in nonvaccinated equine population across multiple districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan during 2015-2016. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: An epidemiological surveillance study was conducted from Oct 2015 to April 2016 to investigate the outbreak. EI virus strains were isolated in embryonated eggs from suspected equines swab samples and were subjected to genome sequencing using M13 tagged segment specific primers...
July 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742879/epidemiological-investigations-of-the-introduction-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-chile-2013-2015
#15
Víctor Neira, Barbara Brito, Juan Mena, Marie Culhane, Maria Ignacia Apel, Vanessa Max, Patricio Perez, Valentina Moreno, Christian Mathieu, Magdalena Johow, Catalina Badia, Montserrat Torremorell, Rafael Medina, Rene Ortega
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is endemic in most pork producing countries. In Chile, eradication of PRRS virus (PRRSV) was successfully achieved in 2009 as a result of the combined efforts of producers and the animal health authorities. In October 2013, after several years without detecting PRRSV under surveillance activities, suspected cases were confirmed on a commercial swine farm. Here, we describe the PRRS epidemic in Chile between October 2013 and April 2015, and we studied the origins and spread of PRRSV throughout the country using official surveillance data and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739438/pathogenicity-of-the-egyptian-a-h5n1-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#16
A A Azab, A Arafa, A Selim, M K Hassan, A I Bazid, A H Sultan, H A Hussein, E M Abdelwhab
Long-term circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses of clade 2.2.1 in Egyptian poultry since February 2006 resulted in the evolution of two distinct clades: 2.2.1.1 represents antigenic-drift variants isolated from vaccinated poultry and 2.2.1.2 that caused the newest upsurge in birds and humans in 2014/2015. In the present study, nine isolates were collected from chickens, ducks and turkeys representing the commercial and backyard sectors during the period 2009-2015. The subtyping was confirmed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, RT-qPCR and sequence analysis...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735568/turning-a-blind-eye-public-support-of-emergency-housing-policies-for-sex-offenders
#17
Kelly M Socia, Christopher P Dum, Jason Rydberg
In this study, we examine the influences of citizen decision making in the context of four policy scenarios that would affect the living conditions of sex offenders (SOs) residing at an "emergency shelter" budget motel. We surveyed 773 citizens in an online survey about their support for four policy scenarios that would improve the living conditions of SOs: (a) at no cost to the respondent, (b) in exchange for a US$100 tax increase, and (c) by relocating SOs within the respondent's neighborhood (i.e., "in my backyard"/IMBY scenario)...
July 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734262/mercury-risk-in-poultry-in-the-wanshan-mercury-mine-china
#18
Runsheng Yin, Wei Zhang, Guangyi Sun, Zhaohui Feng, James P Hurley, Liyuan Yang, Lihai Shang, Xinbin Feng
In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in muscles (leg and breast), organs (intestine, heart, stomach, liver) and blood were investigated for backyard chickens, ducks and geese of the Wanshan Mercury Mine, China. THg in poultry meat products range from 7.9 to 3917.1 ng/g, most of which exceeded the Chinese national standard limit for THg in meat (50 ng/g). Elevated MeHg concentrations (0.4-62.8 ng/g) were also observed in meat products, suggesting that poultry meat can be an important human MeHg exposure source...
November 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732033/spatial-and-simultaneous-representative-seroprevalence-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-antibodies-in-owners-and-their-domiciled-dogs-in-a-major-city-of-southern-brazil
#19
Aline do Nascimento Benitez, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Marcelle Mareze, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Santos, Fernanda Pinto Ferreira, Camila Marinelli Martins, João Luis Garcia, Regina Mitsuka-Breganó, Roberta Lemos Freire, Alexander Welker Biondo, Italmar Teodorico Navarro
Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, has traditionally been considered an important water and foodborne protozoonosis with important public health considerations. Although felids play a well-established role as definitive hosts, canine epidemiological involvement in the parasite's life cycle remains questionable and controversial. The increasing closeness of the human-dog bond, particularly seen in urban settings, has been recognized as a historically unprecedented worldwide movement. Sharing daily lives in the same households, dogs may be exposed to similar associated risks of T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720979/first-report-of-phyllosticta-citricarpa-and-description-of-two-new-species-p-%C3%A2-paracapitalensis-and-p-%C3%A2-paracitricarpa-from-citrus-in-europe
#20
V Guarnaccia, J Z Groenewald, H Li, C Glienke, E Carstens, V Hattingh, P H Fourie, P W Crous
The genus Phyllosticta occurs worldwide, and contains numerous plant pathogenic, endophytic and saprobic species. Phyllosticta citricarpa is the causal agent of Citrus Black Spot disease (CBS), affecting fruits and leaves of several citrus hosts (Rutaceae), and can also be isolated from asymptomatic citrus tissues. Citrus Black Spot occurs in citrus-growing regions with warm summer rainfall climates, but is absent in countries of the European Union (EU). Phyllosticta capitalensis is morphologically similar to P...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
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