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Asabe Halimat Momoh, Jacob K P Kwaga, Mohammed Bello, Anthony K B Sackey, Anders Rhod Larsen
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium with impact on public health and livestock industry. The study investigated nasal carriage, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of S. aureus in pigs and pig workers. Nasal swabs from 300 backyard-raised pigs and 101 pig workers were used for the study. Resulting isolates were confirmed using MALDI-TOF MS, tested for antibiotic resistance, and three different multiplex PCRs were used to detect enterotoxin, mecA, spaA, scn, and pvl genes...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Nicholas Crossland, John Hawke, Yulia Sokolova, Pedro Viadanna, Thomas Waltzek, Fabio Del Piero
Fifteen adult koi (Cyprinus carpio) simultaneously developed white cutaneous proliferations affecting up to 30% of their bodies. Onset of lesions (September, 2014) was associated with return to a remodeled backyard water garden after temporarily being maintained in a plastic swimming pool. A single water temperature taken during the outbreak read 21°C on November 17, 2014. The water garden was under no extrinsic heat source, with average ambient temperatures ranging from 26.4-9.4 °C during the course of the outbreak (September 2014-January 2015, respectively)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Laura Mayela Montes-Rincón, Lucio Galaviz-Silva, Zinnia Judith Molina-Garza
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, American trypanosomiasis has become an emergent public health problem in countries receiving migrant populations such as México, USA, Canada or those in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in Latin American migrants on their way to USA and Canada by means of serological techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ELISA and IHA were performed to detect anti-T. cruzi antibodies...
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Shizhen Ma, Chengtao Sun, Anette Hulth, Jiyun Li, Lennart E Nilsson, Yuqing Zhou, Stefan Börjesson, Zhenwang Bi, Zhenqiang Bi, Qiang Sun, Yang Wang
Objectives: To characterize the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-5 in Aeromonas hydrophila from backyard pigs in rural areas of China. Methods: Pig faecal samples from 194 households were directly tested for the presence of mcr-5 by PCR assay and the phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the mcr-5-positive isolates were determined using the broth dilution method. The genomic location and transferability of mcr-5 were analysed by S1-PFGE with Southern blotting and DNA hybridization, and natural transformation, respectively...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Julia Blakey, Manuela Crispo, Arthur Bickford, Simone Stoute
Liposarcomas are a malignant neoplasm of adipocytes, and are rarely diagnosed in avian species. This case report describes the evidence supporting a diagnosis of metastatic liposarcoma in a backyard silkie chicken. On September 28, 2017, a dead 3-yr-old backyard silkie chicken, with a history of unknown skin lesions involving the entire body and severe weight loss, was submitted to California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-Turlock branch for necropsy. At necropsy, raised necrotic lesions involving the majority of the skin and multiple nodules in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow were noticed...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
R Hauck, S Stoute, R P Chin, C G Sentíes-Cué, H L Shivaprasad
The flagellate parasite Histomonas meleagridis causes a severe disease in turkeys. Since nitarsone, the last antiflagellate feed additive, was withdrawn from the market, H. meleagridis has gained increasing clinical and economic importance, and frequently entire turkey flocks are lost to the disease. Even before the antiflagellate market withdrawal, H. meleagridis has been recognized as a noteworthy disease in commercial turkeys. The aim of this study was to compile and analyze data on histomoniasis outbreaks diagnosed by the California Animal Health and Food Safety System in the years 2000 through 2014 while nitarsone was still available...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Peter Brukner, Thomas J Gara, Lauren V Fortington
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a historical review of direct trauma-related deaths in Australian cricket, both organised and informal. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted an extensive search of digitised print media (three databases) and traditional scientific literature (two databases) for on-field cricket incidents in Australia that resulted in deaths during the period 1858-2016. Main outcomes and measures: Numbers of cricket-related deaths by decade; type of cricket match (organised match or training, or informal play); site of fatal injury (eg, head, chest); activity at the time of the incident (eg, batting, fielding, watching)...
April 2, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
T Miller, S Brockmann, M Spackova, J Wetzig, C Frank, Y Pfeifer, P G Braun, R Prager, W Rabsch
BACKGROUND: In a rehabilitation clinic in Germany repeated outbreaks of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Infantis were microbiologically investigated from August 2002 to August 2009. AIM: To identify the sources of transmission and characterize the S. Infantis isolates. METHODS: Associated with these outbreaks, isolates from 98 patients, two kitchen employees, five food samples, four swabs of kitchen facilities, three samples of chicken faeces, and one from sewage water were evaluated by phage typing...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Manuela Donati, Karine Laroucau, Alessandro Guerrini, Andrea Balboni, Daniela Salvatore, Elena Catelli, Caterina Lupini, Aurora Levi, Antonietta Di Francesco
Until recently, Chlamydia psittaci was considered to be the only etiological agent of avian chlamydiosis, but two new avian species, Chlamydia gallinacea and Chlamydia avium, have recently been described in poultry and pigeons or psittacine birds, respectively. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of C. psittaci and C. gallinacea in backyard chickens in Italy. Cloacal swabs were taken from 160 asymptomatic chickens reared in 16 backyard farms. Samples were tested for C. psittaci and C. gallinacea by specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, with 24 (15%) of the 160 chickens resulting positive for C...
April 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Peter Brukner, Thomas J Gara, Lauren V Fortington
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a historical review of direct trauma-related deaths in Australian cricket, both organised and informal. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted an extensive search of digitised print media (three databases) and traditional scientific literature (two databases) for on-field cricket incidents in Australia that resulted in deaths during the period 1858-2016. Main outcomes and measures: Numbers of cricket-related deaths by decade; type of cricket match (organised match or training, or informal play); site of fatal injury (eg, head, chest); activity at the time of the incident (eg, batting, fielding, watching)...
March 26, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
M S da Silva, S Silveira, V S Caron, A C S Mósena, M N Weber, S P Cibulski, A A R Medeiros, G S Silva, L G Corbellini, R Klein, L C Kreutz, R Frandoloso, C W Canal
Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. There is no seroprevalence study in backyard farms, which are characterized by suboptimal hygienic conditions in Brazil. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and genetic diversity of HEV in backyard pigs in Brazil. Methods: Swine serum samples collected in 2012 (n=731) and 2014 (n=713) were analysed. The presence of anti-HEV immunoglobulin G in pig serum was evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
March 15, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Howard M A Thistlewood, Paramjit Gill, Elizabeth H Beers, Peter W Shearer, Doug B Walsh, Brigitte M Rozema, Susanna Acheampong, Steve Castagnoli, Wee L Yee, Peter Smytheman, Alix B Whitener
Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), was monitored from 2010 to 2014 in 314-828 sites located in interior fruit-growing regions of OR and WA, United States, and BC, Canada, using traps baited with apple cider vinegar or sugar-water-yeast. Seasonal population dynamics and sex ratios were summarized for berry, cherry, stone fruit, grape, non-crop host plants, non-host sites, and for conventional IPM, certified organic, backyard, and feral sites, by region and year...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Natalia Reyna-Bensusan, David C Wilson, Stephen R Smith
Uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an important source of air pollution and is wide spread in many developing countries, but only limited data quantify the extent of domestic open burning of household waste. Here, we present some of the first field data to be reported on the uncontrolled domestic burning of waste. A representative community of Mexico (Huejutla de Reyes Municipality) was investigated and household surveys, interviews with waste operators and a waste characterisation analysis were completed to assess the extent of, and factors controlling, the open burning of waste...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Research
John R Logan, Matthew Martinez
Studies of residential segregation typically focus on its degree without questioning its scale and configuration. We study Southern cities in 1880 to emphasize the salience of these spatial dimensions. Distance-based and sequence indices can reflect spatial patterns but with some limitations, while geocoded 100% population data make possible more informative measures. One improvement is flexibility in spatial scale, ranging from adjacent buildings to whole districts of the city. Another is the ability to map patterns in fine detail...
January 2018: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Enfu Chen, Maggie H Wang, Fan He, Riyang Sun, Wei Cheng, Benny C Y Zee, Steven Y F Lau, Xiaoxiao Wang, Ka Chun Chong
BACKGROUND: Although investigations have shown that closing live poultry markets (LPMs) is highly effective in controlling human influenza A (H7N9) infections, many of the urban LPMs were shut down, but rural LPMs remained open. This study aimed to compare the proportional changes between urban and rural infections in the Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2017 by analyzing the exposure histories of human cases. METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases of H7N9 from 2013 (the first wave) to 2017 (the fifth wave) in the Zhejiang province of China were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
Petrus Malo Bulu, Ian D Robertson, Maria Geong
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Gleisiane Gomes de Almeida Leal, Mariângela Carneiro, Aimara da Costa Pinheiro, Luana Araújo Marques, Henrique Gama Ker, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Wendel Coura-Vital
Until the 1980s, visceral leishmaniasis was concentrated in poor rural areas of Brazil. The Vale do Rio Doce, located in the Southeastern Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, was an endemic area with high numbers of human and canine cases. Prophylactic measures adopted since the 1960s reduced the number of cases and the region became a 'controlled endemic' area. In the early 1990s, however, the program was interrupted, and the human disease reemerged in 2008. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and the risk profile of infection of dogs with Leishmania spp in this reemergence area of visceral leishmaniasis...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Kristin A Clothier, Peony Kim, Asli Mete, Ashley E Hill
Backyard poultry operations are increasingly popular and commonplace in both rural and suburban locations. Although Salmonella surveillance programs are well established for large commercial poultry systems, information on smaller operations is lacking. We identified the occurrence and serotype distribution of Salmonella spp. recovered from backyard flock cases submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (Davis, CA) in 2012-2015, and evaluated minimum inhibitory concentration for 12 antimicrobials as well as the lesions associated with Salmonella spp...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Rongchang Liu, Cuiteng Chen, Yu Huang, Longfei Cheng, Ronghui Lu, Guanghua Fu, Shaohua Shi, Hongmei Chen, Chunhe Wan, Qiuling Fu, Jiansheng Lin
In total, 985 livers were collected from 275 backyard waterfowl farms distributed in seven provinces of southern China. The virus that was most commonly isolated was avian influenza virus, with a 12.1% positivity rate. Of the other positive samples, 10.6% tested positive for avian Tembusu virus, 6.8% for duck hepatitis A virus, 3.8% for duck plague virus, 3.4% for Muscovy duck parvovirus, 3.1% for goose parvovirus, 1.0% for mycoplasma, and 0.9% for respiratory enteric orphan virus. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Escherichia coli, with a 47...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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