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Tatsufumi Usui, Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Since 2014, clade H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
Ioannis Sitaras, Xanthoula Rousou, Ben Peeters, Mart C M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry flocks is associated with huge economic losses, culling of millions of birds, as well as human infections and deaths. In the cases where vaccination against avian influenza is used as a control measure, it has been found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of field strains. Reports suggest that one of the reasons for this is the use of vaccine doses much lower than the ones recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in very low levels of immunity...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
Jusun Hwang, Kyunglee Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Jonathan M Sleeman, Hang Lee
To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
D K Ajithdoss, M K Torchetti, L Badcoe, D S Bradway, T V Baszler
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major viral disease of poultry characterized by acute onset, systemic infection, and rapid death. In January 2015, H5N2 HPAI was identified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and gene sequencing as the cause of rapid death in 40 of 390 ring-necked pheasants (approximately 10% mortality), raised in a game bird farm in Washington State. We report clinicopathologic findings and viral antigen distribution in pheasants that died during the outbreak...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Marjolein J Poen, Josanne H Verhagen, Ruth J Manvell, Ian Brown, Theo M Bestebroer, Stefan van der Vliet, Oanh Vuong, Rachel D Scheuer, Henk P van der Jeugd, Bart A Nolet, Erik Kleyheeg, Gerhard J D M Müskens, Frank A Majoor, Christian Grund, Ron A M Fouchier
In 2014, H5N8 clade highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Xiangjie Sun, Jessica A Belser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Hui Zeng, Amanda Lewis, Wun-Ju Shieh, Terrence M Tumpey, Taronna R Maines
: Avian influenza A H7 viruses have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry throughout North America, resulting in occasional human infections in close contact. In early 2016, the presence of H7N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and closely related H7N8 low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses were confirmed in commercial turkey farms in Indiana. These H7N8 viruses represent the first isolation of this subtype in domestic poultry in North America, with their virulence in mammalian hosts and the potential risk for human infection largely unknown...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Syed Ali Ghafouri, Arash Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Hossein Maghsoudloo, Farshad Tehrani, Reza Khaltabadifarahani, Hamed Abdollahi, Mohammad Hossein Fallah
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n = 10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n = 10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes...
September 27, 2016: Virus Genes
H A Hussein, B M Ahmed, S M Aly, A H El-Deeb, A A El-Sanousi, M A Rohaim, A A Arafa, M R Gadalla
In this study, a recombinant DNA plasmid was constructed, encoding for HA1 of a selected Egyptian H5N1 virus (isolated during the 2012 outbreaks). In the immunization and challenge experiments, SPF chickens received 1 or 2 doses of H5-DNA plasmid prime, and boosted with the inactivated H5N2 vaccine. Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers, protection levels, and the magnitude of virus shedding were compared to that of the chickens that received either DNA plasmid or inactivated H5N2 vaccine alone. H5N1 virus A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade 2...
2016: Acta Virologica
R Kosmider, J Smith, S Gillings, L Snow, A C Breed, R M Irvine, A Hill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 15, 2016: Veterinary Record
Eric DeJesus, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Diane Smith, Dong-Hun Lee, Erica Spackman, Darrell R Kapczynski, Mia Kim Torchetti, Mary L Killian, David L Suarez, David E Swayne, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood
H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused a severe poultry outbreak in the United States (U.S.) during 2015. In order to examine changes in adaptation of this viral lineage, the infectivity, pathogenicity and transmission of poultry H5N2 viruses were investigated in chickens and mallards in comparison to the wild duck 2014 U.S. index H5N2 virus. The four poultry isolates examined had a lower mean bird infectious dose than the index virus but still transmitted poorly to direct contacts. In mallards, two of the H5N2 poultry isolates had similar high infectivity and transmissibility as the index H5N2 virus, the H5N8 U...
September 12, 2016: Virology
Jin-Yong Noh, Jae-Keun Park, Dong-Hun Lee, Seong-Su Yuk, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Sang-Won Lee, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, In-Soo Choi, Chang-Seon Song
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein...
2016: PloS One
Jaber Belkhiria, Moh A Alkhamis, Beatriz Martínez-López
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) has recently (2014-2015) re-emerged in the United States (US) causing the largest outbreak in US history with 232 outbreaks and an estimated economic impact of $950 million. This study proposes to use suitability maps for Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (LPAI) to identify areas at high risk for HPAI outbreaks. LPAI suitability maps were based on wild bird demographics, LPAI surveillance, and poultry density in combination with environmental, climatic, and socio-economic risk factors...
2016: Scientific Reports
Montserrat Torremorell, Carmen Alonso, Peter R Davies, Peter C Raynor, Devi Patnayak, Mia Torchetti, Brian McCluskey
We investigated the plausibility of aerosol transmission of H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus during the 2015 spring outbreaks that occurred in the U.S. midwest. Air samples were collected inside and outside of infected turkey and layer facilities. Samples were tested to assess HPAI virus concentration (RNA copies/m(3) of air), virus viability, and virus distribution by particle size. HPAI virus RNA was detected inside and up to 1000 m from infected facilities. HPAI virus was isolated from air samples collected inside, immediately outside, up to 70 m from infected facilities, and in aerosol particles larger than 2...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Syed Sayeem U Ahmed, Mutiu O Oladele-Bukola, Abdelgawad S El-Tahawy, Ahmed R Elbestawy, Folorunso O Fasina
Live bird market (LBM) is integral component in the perpetuation of HPAI H5N1, while biosecurity is crucial and key to the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Biosecurity compliance level and risk factor assessments in 155LBMs was evaluated in Nigeria and Egypt through the administration of a 68-item biosecurity checklist, scored based on the modifications of previous qualitative data, and analysed for degree of compliance. LBMs were scored as "complied with a biosecurity item" if they had good-very good scores (4)...
September 4, 2016: Acta Tropica
H Nuradji, J Bingham, J Payne, J Harper, S Lowther, H Wibawa, N T Long, J Meers
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus causes high mortality of infected birds, with infection in multiple organs, including in feathers. Feathers have been proposed as samples for diagnosis of HPAI infection in birds, and this study is part of a broader investigation validating the use of feathers for diagnostic purposes. To understand and characterize the morphological basis for feather infection, sections from 7 different skin tracts of ducks and chickens infected with 3 different clades of H5N1 HPAI virus from Indonesia and Vietnam were examined histologically...
August 31, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan, Carol Cardona, Alongkorn Amonsin, Srinand Sreevatsan
BACKGROUND: In early 2015, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N2 caused outbreaks in commercial poultry farms in Minnesota and neighboring states where more than 48 million birds were affected. To date, the origin and transmission pathways of HPAI H5N2 have not been conclusively established. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed forty-six samples from turkeys and their environment that were collected at different time-points of the outbreak to identify origins and within outbreak evolutionary changes...
2016: Virology Journal
Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Eric Shepherd, Eric DeJesus, Diane Smith, Erica Spackman, Darrell R Kapczynski, David L Suarez, David E Stallknecht, David E Swayne
: Wild aquatic birds have been associated with the intercontinental spread of H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 (Gs/GD) lineage during 2005, 2010, and 2014, but dispersion by wild waterfowl has not been implicated with spread of other HPAI viruses. To better understand why Gs/GD H5 HPAI viruses infect and transmit more efficiently in waterfowl than other HPAI viruses, groups of mallard ducks were challenged with one of 14 different H5 and H7 HPAI viruses, including a Gs/GD lineage H5N1 (clade 2...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
M Amalya, A D Iuliano, Y Wahyuningrum, C Y Praptiningsih, K E Lafond, A D Storms, G Samaan, I Ariawan, N Soeharno, J Kreslake, D Storey, T M Uyeki
Indonesia has reported highest number of fatal human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N1) virus infection worldwide since 2005. There are limited data available on seasonal and pandemic influenza in Indonesia. During 2012, we conducted a survey of clinicians in two districts in western Java, Indonesia to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of clinical diagnosis, testing, and treatment of patients with seasonal influenza, pandemic influenza, or HPAI H5N1 virus infections. Overall, a very low percentage of physician participants reported ever diagnosing hospitalized patients with seasonal, pandemic, or HPAI H5N1 influenza...
August 24, 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Nadia Ali Rimi, Rebeca Sultana, Kazi Ishtiak-Ahmed, Md Zahidur Rahman, Marufa Hasin, M Saiful Islam, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Nazmun Nahar, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers' awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention...
2016: BMC Public Health
Su-Jin Park, Young-Jae Si, Jihye Kim, Min-Suk Song, Se-Mi Kim, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Il Kim, Ok-Jun Lee, Ok Sarah Shin, Chul-Joong Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Young Ki Choi
To investigate cross-protective vaccine efficacy of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses against a recent HPAI H5N8 virus, we immunized C57BL/6 mice and ferrets with three alum-adjuvanted inactivated whole H5N1 vaccines developed through reverse-genetics (Rg): [Vietnam/1194/04xPR8 (clade 1), Korea/W149/06xPR8 (clade 2.2), and Korea/ES223N/03xPR8 (clade 2.5)]. Although relatively low cross-reactivities (10-40 HI titer) were observed against heterologous H5N8 virus, immunized animals were 100% protected from challenge with the 20 mLD50 of H5N8 virus, with the exception of mice vaccinated with 3...
November 2016: Virology
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