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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324639/depopulation-of-caged-layer-hens-with-a-compressed-air-foam-system
#1
Shailesh Gurung, John Hoffman, Kendre Stringfellow, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Dan Zhao, David Caldwell, Jason Lee, Darrel Styles, Luc Berghman, James Byrd, Yuhua Farnell, Gregory Archer, Morgan Farnell
During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments...
January 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320563/field-effectiveness-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-vaccination-in-commercial-layers-in-indonesia
#2
Simson Tarigan, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Risa Indriani, Sumarningsih Sumarningsih, Sidna Artanto, Syafrison Idris, Peter A Durr, Widya Asmara, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Mark A Stevenson, Jagoda Ignjatovic
Although vaccination of poultry for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been practiced during the last decade in several countries, its effectiveness under field conditions remains largely unquantified. Effective HPAI vaccination is however essential in preventing incursions, silent infections and generation of new H5N1 antigenic variants. The objective of this study was to asses the level and duration of vaccine induced immunity in commercial layers in Indonesia. Titres of H5N1 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were followed in individual birds from sixteen flocks, age 18-68 week old (wo)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311555/swarm-incursions-of-reassortants-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-strains-h5n8-and-h5n5-clade-2-3-4-4b-germany-winter-2016-17
#3
Anne Pohlmann, Elke Starick, Christian Grund, Dirk Höper, Günter Strebelow, Anja Globig, Christoph Staubach, Franz J Conraths, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Timm Harder, Martin Beer
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in winter 2016/2017 was the most severe HPAI epizootic ever reported in Germany. The H5N8 and H5N5 viruses detected in birds in Germany in 2016/2017 represent a reassortant swarm of at least five distinct genotypes, which carried closely related HA segments derived from clade 2.3.4.4b. The genotypes of these viruses and their spatio-temporal distribution indicated a unique situation with multiple independent entries of HPAIV into Germany.
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300777/internal-genes-of-a-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-virus-determine-high-viral-replication-in-myeloid-cells-and-severe-outcome-of-infection-in-mice
#4
Hui Li, Konrad C Bradley, Jason S Long, Rebecca Frise, Jonathan W Ashcroft, Lorian C Hartgroves, Holly Shelton, Spyridon Makris, Cecilia Johansson, Bin Cao, Wendy S Barclay
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza virus has been a public health concern for more than a decade because of its frequent zoonoses and the high case fatality rate associated with human infections. Severe disease following H5N1 influenza infection is often associated with dysregulated host innate immune response also known as cytokine storm but the virological and cellular basis of these responses has not been clearly described. We rescued a series of 6:2 reassortant viruses that combined a PR8 HA/NA pairing with the internal gene segments from human adapted H1N1, H3N2, or avian H5N1 viruses and found that mice infected with the virus with H5N1 internal genes suffered severe weight loss associated with increased lung cytokines but not high viral load...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300686/220-mutation-in-the-hemagglutinin-of-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-alters-antigenicity-during-vaccine-strain-development
#5
Liqi Liu, Jian Lu, Zi Li, Jianfang Zhou, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
Since the first confirmed case of H7N9 infection was reported in China, there have been five epidemic waves of human H7N9 infections between 2013 and 2017. The fifth wave differed from the previous four waves in that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 viruses with multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site were detected in humans, poultry and environmental samples. The HPAI H7N9 viruses were genetically and antigenically distinct from previous H7N9 viruses. Therefore, a new candidate vaccine virus(CVV) derived from a HPAI A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016-like virus was proposed by the World Health Organization(WHO)...
January 4, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295514/broadening-the-h5n3-vaccine-immunogenicity-against-h5n1-virus-by-modification-of-neutralizing-epitopes
#6
Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar, Sharenya Chelvaretnam, Yunrui Tan, Mookkan Prabakaran
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus remains to be one of the world's largest pandemic threats due to the emergence of new variants. The rapid evolution of new sub-lineages is currently the greatest challenge in vaccine development. In this study, we developed an epitope modified non-pathogenic H5N3 (A/duck/Singapore/97) vaccine for broad protection against influenza H5 subtype. H5N3 hemagglutinin (HA) mutant reassortant viruses with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) backbone were generated by mutating amino acids at the 140th loop and 190th α-helix of hemagglutinin...
December 23, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248796/multiple-introductions-of-reassorted-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n8-clade-2-3-4-4b-causing-outbreaks-in-wild-birds-and-poultry-in-egypt
#7
Nahed Yehia, Mahmoud M Naguib, Ruiyun Li, Naglaa Hagag, Mohamed El-Husseiny, Zainab Mosaad, Ahmed Nour, Neveen Rabea, Wafaa M Hasan, Mohamed K Hassan, Timm Harder, Abdel-Satar A Arafa
Recently, an increased incidence of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in poultry linked to infected migratory birds has been reported from different European, Asian and African countries. In Egypt, incursion of HPAI H5N8 virus of clade 2.3.4.4b has been recently registered. Full genomic characterization of 3 virus isolates from wild birds and poultry (backyard and commercial farm sectors) showed high nucleotide similarity among the HA, NA, M, and NS gene segments of the three Egyptian HPAI H5N8 viruses, indicating that they are descendants of a common ancestral virus...
December 14, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230222/single-dose-of-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-virus-like-particles-vaccine-protects-chickens-against-divergent-h5-subtype-influenza-viruses
#8
Peipei Wu, Jihu Lu, Xuehua Zhang, Mei Mei, Lei Feng, Daxin Peng, Jibo Hou, Sang-Moo Kang, Xiufan Liu, Yinghua Tang
The H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the greatest threats to global poultry industry. To develop broadly protective H5 subunit vaccine, a recombinant consensus HA sequence (rHA) was constructed and expressed in virus-like particles (rHA VLPs) in the baculovirus-insect cell system. The efficacy of the rHA VLPs vaccine with or without immunopotentiator (CVCVA5) was assessed in chickens. Compared to the commercial Re6 or Re6-CVCVA5 vaccines, single dose immunization of chickens with rHA VLPs or rHA-CVCVA5 vaccines induced higher levels of serum hemagglutinin inhibition titers and neutralization titers, mucosal antibodies, IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines in sera, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209498/intensifying-poultry-production-systems-and-the-emergence-of-avian-influenza-in-china-a-one-health-ecohealth-epitome
#9
Marius Gilbert, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson
Several kinds of pressure can lead to the emergence of infectious diseases. In the case of zoonoses emerging from livestock, one of the most significant changes that has taken place since the mid twentieth century is what has been termed the "livestock revolution", whereby the stock of food animals, their productivity and their trade has increased rapidly to feed rising and increasingly wealthy and urbanized populations. Further increases are projected in the future in low and middle-income countries. Using avian influenza as an example, we discuss how the emergence of avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 in China was linked to rapid intensification of the poultry sector taking place in landscapes rich in wetland agriculture and wild waterfowls habitats, providing an extensive interface with the wild reservoir of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204739/serological-evidence-of-h5-subtype-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-indigenous-avian-and-mammalian-species-in-korea
#10
Hye Kwon Kim, Hee-Jong Kim, Ji Yeong Noh, Le Van Phan, Ji Hyung Kim, Daesub Song, Woonsung Na, Aram Kang, Thi Lan Nguyen, Jeong-Hwa Shin, Dae Gwin Jeong, Sun-Woo Yoon
In Korea, H5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of H5N1 since 2003, H5N8 since 2013 and H5N6 since 2016. Although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. Intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. Therefore, a total of 367 serum samples from wild animals were collected near major migratory bird habitats from 2011 to 2016 and tested by AIV-specific blocking ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test...
December 4, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199043/evaluating-interest-in-an-influenza-a-h5n1-vaccine-among-laboratory-workers-who-work-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-the-united-states
#11
Kate E Russell, J S Bresee, J M Katz, S J Olsen
BACKGROUND: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) viruses found in poultry and wild birds occasionally infect humans and can cause serious disease. In 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) reviewed data from one licensed ASO3-adjuvanted influenza A(H5N1) vaccine for consideration of use during inter-pandemic periods among persons with occupational exposure. To guide vaccine policy decisions, we conducted a survey of laboratory workers to assess demand for HPAI vaccination...
November 30, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184367/protective-efficacy-of-combined-trivalent-inactivated-isa-71-oil-adjuvant-vaccine-against-avian-influenza-virus-subtypes-h9n2-and-h5n1-and-newcastle-disease-virus
#12
Zeinab Mohamed Ali, Mervat Abd El Monaem Hassan, Hussein Ali Hussein, Basem Mohamed Ahmed, Ahmed Abd El-Ghany El Sanousi
Aim: The objective of the present study was to prepare a trivalent inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), H5N1, and H9N2 viruses. Materials and Methods: Three monovalent and a trivalent vaccines were prepared by emulsifying inactivated NDV (LaSota strain), reassortant H5N1, and H9N2 viruses with Montanide ISA 71 oil adjuvant. Parameters used for evaluation of the efficacy of the prepared vaccines in specific pathogen-free chickens were cellular immunity assays (blastogenesis, interferon gamma, interleukin 1 [IL1], and IL6), humoral immunity by hemagglutination inhibition, protection percentage, and shedding...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184365/public-health-concerns-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-endemicity-in-africa
#13
REVIEW
Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi, Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Fatima Adeola Balogun, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars...
October 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152316/seroepidemiology-and-assessment-of-risk-factors-for-the-spread-of-avian-influenza-in-birds-in-two-nigerian-states
#14
Musa Ibrahim Waziri, Paul A Abdu, Lawal Sa'idu, Mohammed Bello
Despite modified stamping out eradication policy adopted in Nigeria, there was resurgence in 2015 of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 with greater infectivity. A survey of the risk of spread of HPAI in two HPAI-infected and -uninfected Nigerian states were studied. A cross-sectional study to detect avian influenza (AI) H5 antibodies was conducted using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 950 birds' sera were tested for AI H5 antibodies...
November 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104094/a-two-year-monitoring-period-of-the-genetic-properties-of-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-viruses-in-nigeria-reveals-the-emergence-and-co-circulation-of-distinct-genotypes
#15
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103391/identifying-the-genetic-basis-for-resistance-to-avian-influenza-in-commercial-egg-layer-chickens
#16
W Drobik-Czwarno, A Wolc, J E Fulton, J Arango, T Jankowski, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have affected commercial egg production flocks in the American continent in recent years; a H7N3 outbreak in Mexico in 2012 that caused 70% to 85% mortality and a H5N2 outbreak in the United States in 2015 with over 99% mortality. Blood samples were obtained from survivors of each outbreak and from age and genetics matched non-affected controls. A total of 485 individuals (survivors and controls) were genotyped with a 600 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to detect genomic regions that influenced the outcome of highly pathogenic influenza infection in the two outbreaks...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070694/emergence-and-adaptation-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-h7n9-influenza-virus-in-birds-and-humans-from-a-2013-human-infecting-low-pathogenic-ancestor
#17
Wenbao Qi, Weixin Jia, Di Liu, Jing Li, Yuhai Bi, Shumin Xie, Bo Li, Tao Hu, Yingying Du, Li Xing, Jiahao Zhang, Fuchun Zhang, Xiaoman Wei, John-Sebastian Eden, Huanan Li, Huaiyu Tian, Wei Li, Guanming Su, Guangjie Lao, Chenggang Xu, Bing Xu, Wenjun Liu, Guihong Zhang, Tao Ren, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui, Weifeng Shi, George F Gao, Ming Liao
Since its emergence in 2013, the H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) has been circulating in domestic poultry in China, causing five waves of human infections. Recently, a novel H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) variant possessing multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein was firstly reported in two human infection cases in January 2017. More seriously, those novel HPAI H7N9 variants have transmitted and caused poultry farms outbreaks in eight provinces...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070059/synergistic-effect-of-pb2-283m-and-526r-contributes-to-enhanced-virulence-of-h5n8-influenza-viruses-in-mice
#18
Xiao Wang, Sujuan Chen, Dandan Wang, Xixin Zha, Siwen Zheng, Tao Qin, Wenjun Ma, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus has caused considerable economic losses to poultry industry and poses a great threat to public health. Our previous study revealed two genetically similar HPAI H5N8 viruses displaying completely different virulence in mice. However, the molecular basis for viral pathogenicity to mammals remains unknown. Herein, we generated a series of reassortants between the two viruses and evaluated their virulence in mice. We demonstrated that 283M in PB2 is a new mammalian virulence marker for H5 viruses and that synergistic effect of amino acid residues 283M and 526R in PB2 is responsible for high virulence of the HPAI H5N8 virus...
October 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067212/awareness-and-mitigation-measures-on-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-pastoral-poultry-flocks-of-north-central-nigeria-any-challenging-gap
#19
Nma B Alhaji, Suleiman Yatswako
Village poultry closely interact with wild birds and other livestock in extensively managed poultry flocks, a practice common in pastoral communities of Nigeria. This practice provides sustained dissemination of avian viruses, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. The objectives of this study were to assess their knowledge/awareness, risks identification and biosecurity measures on HPAI H5N1 in pastoral poultry flocks. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in systematically selected pastoral households of North-central Nigeria between May 2015 and June 2016...
August 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047426/airborne-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-virus-during-processing-of-infected-poultry
#20
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Terrence M Tumpey, Andrew Clark, David E Swayne
Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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