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Xian Qi, Xiaofei An, Yongjun Jiao, Huiyan Yu, Ke Xu, Lunbiao Cui, Shenjiao Wang, Fei Deng, Xiang Huo, Haodi Huang, Qigang Dai, Changjun Bao
Five epidemic waves of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China since spring 2013. We previously described the epidemiological characterization of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. In this study, 41 H7N9 viruses from patients and live-poultry markets were isolated and sequenced to further elucidate the genetic features of viruses of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substantial genetic diversity in the internal genes, and 18 genotypes were identified from the 41 H7N9 virus strains...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Virology
S Napp, N Majó, R Sánchez-Gónzalez, J Vergara-Alert
Circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses poses a continuous threat to animal and public health. After the 2005-2006 H5N1 and the 2014-2015 H5N8 epidemics, another H5N8 is currently affecting Europe. Up to August 2017, 1,112 outbreaks in domestic and 955 in wild birds in 30 European countries have been reported, the largest epidemic by a HPAI virus in the continent. Here, the main epidemiological findings are described. While some similarities with previous HPAI virus epidemics were observed, for example in the pattern of emergence, significant differences were also patent, in particular the size and extent of the epidemic...
March 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Kwang Min Yu, Min-Ah Yu, Ju Hwan Jung, Won-Suk Choi, Jin Jung Kwon, Su Jeong Ahn, Yun Hee Baek, Dam Van Lai, Ok-Jun Lee, Si-Wook Kim, Min-Suk Song, Sun-Woo Yoon, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, In-Pil Mo, Young Ki Choi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6) and A(H5N8) virus infections resulted in the culling of more than 37 million poultry in the Republic of Korea during the 2016/17 winter season. Here we characterize two representative viruses, A/Environment/Korea/W541/2016 [Em/W541(H5N6)] and A/Common Teal/Korea/W555/2017 [CT/W555(H5N8)], and evaluate their zoonotic potential in various animal models. Both Em/W541(H5N6) and CT /W555(H5N8) are novel reassortants derived from various gene pools of wild bird viruses present in migratory waterfowl arising from eastern China...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Hitoshi Takahashi, Shiho Nagata, Takato Odagiri, Tsutomu Kageyama
The H5 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5 HPAI) viruses is a threat to both animal and human public health and has the potential to cause a serious future pandemic in humans. Thus, specific and rapid detection of H5 HPAI viruses is required for infection control in humans. To develop a simple and rapid diagnostic system to detect H5 HPAI viruses with high specificity and sensitivity, we attempted to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that specifically recognize linear epitopes in hemagglutinin (HA) of H5 subtype viruses...
March 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shin-Hee Kim
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza...
March 9, 2018: Viruses
Na Zhao, Supen Wang, Hongyi Li, Shelan Liu, Meng Li, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Hongxuan He
The migration of wild birds plays an important role in the transmission and spread of H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, posing a severe risk to animal and human health. Substantial evidence suggests that altered gut microbial community is implicated in the infection of respiratory influenza virus. However, the influence of H5N1 infection in gut microbiota of migratory birds remains unknown. In January 2015, a novel recombinant H5N1 virus emerged and killed about 100 migratory birds, mainly including whooper swans in Sanmenxia Reservoir Area of China...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Mini Singh, Jenny-Ann Toribio, Angela Bullanday Scott, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
The objective of this study was to elicit experts' opinions and gather estimates on the perceived probability of introduction and spread of avian influenza (AI) virus in the Australian broiler and layer industry. Using a modified Delphi method and a 4-step elicitation process, 11 experts were asked to give initial individual estimates for the various pathways and practices in the presented scenarios using a questionnaire. Following this, a workshop was conducted to present group averages of estimates and discussion was facilitated to obtain final individual estimates...
2018: PloS One
Sandeep Kumar Dash, Manoj Kumar, Jag Mohan Kataria, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Chakradhar Tosh, Harshad V Murugkar, K Rajukumar, S Kalaiyarasu, D Senthil Kumar, Diwakar D Kulkarni
Herein, the induction of TLRs and cytokines in chickens pre-exposed to low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 virus followed by challenge with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was studied. Four groups (1-4) of chickens inoculated with 106 EID50 of H9N2 virus were challenged with 106 EID50 of H5N1 virus on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 post H9N2 inoculation, respectively. In groups (1-4) TLRs and cytokines induction was studied in chicken PBMCs on day 3 post H5N1 challenge. In H5N1 control group TLRs (1, 2, 5 and 7) cytokines (IFNα, IFNβ, IFNγ, IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL8 and TGF β3) were down regulated...
February 21, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Young-Il Kim, Young-Jae Si, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Su-Jin Park, Norbert John Robles, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Min-Ah Yu, Kwang-Min Yu, Youn-Jeong Lee, Myoung-Heon Lee, Young Ki Choi
We investigated influenza A(H5N6) viruses from migratory birds in Chungnam and Gyeonggi Provinces, South Korea following a reported die-off of poultry in nearby provinces in November 2017. Genetic analysis and virulence studies in chickens and ducks identified our isolate from December 2017 as a novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. It resulted from reassortment between the highly virulent H5N8 strain from Korea with the N6 gene from a low-pathogenic H3N6 virus from the Netherlands.
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Yumiko Shimizu, Yoko Hayama, Takehisa Yamamoto, Kiyokazu Murai, Toshiyuki Tsutsui
To successfully control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), understanding the risk factors related to the incursion of the virus into poultry farms is essential. In this study, we focused on the presence of inland waters surrounding poultry farms as a potential risk factor of incursion of the virus. To evaluate the influence of inland waters surrounding poultry farms on HPAI outbreaks in Japan, a simple matched case-control study was conducted. The results of the conditional regression analyses indicated that the number of farms with neighbouring inland waters was significantly high among the affected farms during the 2016-2017 outbreak period...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emily Walz, Eric Linskens, Jamie Umber, Marie Rene Culhane, David Halvorson, Francesca Contadini, Carol Cardona
Garbage management represents a potential pathway of HPAI-virus infection for commercial poultry operations as multiple poultry premises may share a common trash collection service provider, trash collection site (e.g., shared dumpster for multiple premises) or disposal site (e.g., landfill). The types of potentially infectious or contaminated material disposed of in the garbage has not been previously described but is suspected to vary by poultry industry sector. A survey of representatives from the broiler, turkey, and layer sectors in the United States revealed that many potentially contaminated or infectious items are routinely disposed of in the trash on commercial poultry premises...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Damarys Relova, Liliam Rios, Ana M Acevedo, Liani Coronado, Carmen L Perera, Lester J Pérez
The current global conditions, which include intensive globalization, climate changes, and viral evolution among other factors, have led to an increased emergence of viruses and new viral diseases; RNA viruses are key drivers of this evolution. Laboratory networks that are linked to central reference laboratories are required to conduct both active and passive environmental surveillance of this complicated global viral environment. These tasks require a continuous exchange of strains or field samples between different diagnostic laboratories...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Kaijian Luo, Kai Zhang, Lu Liu, Xuejuan Shen, Peirong Jiao, Yafen Song, Jiamin Lv, Mei Wang, Yongfa Liu, Wenbao Qi, Tao Ren, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
The H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have circulated within poultry in China since 2013. Infections of H5N6 in wild birds were reported since 2014. In order to investigate the infection history of H5N6 in wild birds, we conducted a retrospective analysis of H5 positive wild bird samples collected in 2013, the year H5N6 was discovered in poultry. We isolated a new HPAI H5N6 virus from a dead heron collected in 2013. The virus had high identity in all eight gene sequences to those collected from poultry in 2013 (for example, A/chicken/Shenzhen/1845/2013, 99...
January 30, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Petrus Malo Bulu, Ian D Robertson, Maria Geong
In early 2004 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus caused major outbreaks of disease in poultry in Indonesia. The disease was first reported in West Timor in eastern Indonesia in the same year, resulting in the death of approximately one hundred chickens from both commercial and backyard farms; however no evidence of disease has subsequently been reported in West Timor since 2007. A targeted survey was undertaken in 2013 in 2 districts of West Timor. Three hundred village and commercial poultry (292 chickens and 8 Muscovy ducks) from 10 villages and 5 live bird markets (LBMs) were sampled between August and October 2013...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Jaber Belkhiria, Robert J Hijmans, Walter Boyce, Beate M Crossley, Beatriz Martínez-López
The coexistence of different types of poultry operations such as free range and backyard flocks, large commercial indoor farms and live bird markets, as well as the presence of many areas where wild and domestic birds co-exist, make California susceptible to avian influenza outbreaks. The 2014-2015 highly pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) outbreaks affecting California and other states in the United States have underscored the need for solutions to protect the US poultry industry against this devastating disease...
2018: PloS One
Marjolein J Poen, Theo M Bestebroer, Oanh Vuong, Rachel D Scheuer, Henk P van der Jeugd, Erik Kleyheeg, Dirk Eggink, Pascal Lexmond, Judith M A van den Brand, Lineke Begeman, Stefan van der Vliet, Gerhard J D M Müskens, Frank A Majoor, Marion P G Koopmans, Thijs Kuiken, Ron A M Fouchier
IntroductionHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of subtype H5N8 were re-introduced into the Netherlands by late 2016, after detections in south-east Asia and Russia. This second H5N8 wave resulted in a large number of outbreaks in poultry farms and the deaths of large numbers of wild birds in multiple European countries. Methods: Here we report on the detection of HPAI H5N8 virus in 57 wild birds of 12 species sampled during active (32/5,167) and passive (25/36) surveillance activities, i.e. in healthy and dead animals respectively, in the Netherlands between 8 November 2016 and 31 March 2017...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
M Samir, M Hamed, F Abdallah, V Kinh Nguyen, E A Hernandez-Vargas, F Seehusen, W Baumgärtner, A Hussein, A A H Ali, F Pessler
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to cause major problems in poultry and can, although rarely, cause human infection. Being enzootic in domestic poultry, Egyptian isolates are continuously evolving, and novel clades vary in their pathogenicity in avian hosts. Considering the importance of domestic ducks as natural hosts of HPAI H5N1 viruses and their likelihood of physical contact with other avian hosts and humans, it is of utmost importance to characterize the pathogenicity of newly emerged HPAI strains in the domestic duck...
January 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Shailesh Gurung, John Hoffman, Kendre Stringfellow, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Dan Zhao, David Caldwell, Jason Lee, Darrel Styles, Luc Berghman, James Byrd, Yuhua Farnell, Gregory Archer, Morgan Farnell
During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments...
January 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Simson Tarigan, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Risa Indriani, Sumarningsih Sumarningsih, Sidna Artanto, Syafrison Idris, Peter A Durr, Widya Asmara, Esmaeil Ebrahimie, Mark A Stevenson, Jagoda Ignjatovic
Although vaccination of poultry for control of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been practiced during the last decade in several countries, its effectiveness under field conditions remains largely unquantified. Effective HPAI vaccination is however essential in preventing incursions, silent infections and generation of new H5N1 antigenic variants. The objective of this study was to asses the level and duration of vaccine induced immunity in commercial layers in Indonesia. Titres of H5N1 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were followed in individual birds from sixteen flocks, age 18-68 week old (wo)...
2018: PloS One
Anne Pohlmann, Elke Starick, Christian Grund, Dirk Höper, Günter Strebelow, Anja Globig, Christoph Staubach, Franz J Conraths, Thomas C Mettenleiter, Timm Harder, Martin Beer
The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in winter 2016/2017 was the most severe HPAI epizootic ever reported in Germany. The H5N8 and H5N5 viruses detected in birds in Germany in 2016/2017 represent a reassortant swarm of at least five distinct genotypes, which carried closely related HA segments derived from clade The genotypes of these viruses and their spatio-temporal distribution indicated a unique situation with multiple independent entries of HPAIV into Germany.
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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