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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941132/infectious-dose-dependent-accumulation-of-live-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-public-health
#1
G Vasudevan, P R Vanamayya, S Nagarajan, K Rajukumar, S Suba, G Venketash, C Tosh, R Sood, R H Nissly, S V Kuchipudi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry meat. Skeletal muscle is the largest soft tissue in chicken that has been shown to contain virus during systemic HPAIV infection and supports productive virus infection...
September 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934458/risk-of-human-infections-with-highly-pathogenic-h5n2-and-low-pathogenic-h7n1-avian-influenza-strains-during-outbreaks-in-ostriches-in-south-africa
#2
Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Rudo Samudzi, Johanna McAnerney, Charlene A Jacobs, Juno Thomas, Lucille Blumberg
Background: Risk factors for human infection with highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H5N2 and H7N1 were investigated during outbreaks in ostriches in the Western Cape province, South Africa. Methods: Serum surveys were conducted for veterinarians, farmworkers, and laboratory and abattoir workers involved in 2 AI outbreaks in the Western Cape province: (1) controlling and culling of 42000 ostriches during (HPAI)H5N2 outbreaks in ostriches (2011) (n = 207); (2) movement control during (LPAI)H7N1 outbreaks in 2012 (n = 66)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#3
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) along with other emerging influenzas continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enables evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#4
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903072/the-role-of-nuclear-ns1-protein-in-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#5
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#6
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889970/genomic-signature-analysis-of-the-recently-emerged-highly-pathogenic-a-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-implying-an-evolutionary-trend-for-bird-to-human-transmission
#7
Wei Xu, Yanyan Dai, Chen Hua, Qian Wang, Peng Zou, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
In early 2014, a novel subclade (2.3.4.4) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused the first outbreak in domestic ducks and migratory birds in South Korea. Since then, it has spread to 44 countries and regions. To date, no human infections with A(H5N8) virus have been reported, but the possibility cannot be excluded. By analyzing the genomic signatures of A(H5N8) strains, we found that among the 47 species-associated signature positions, three positions exhibited human-like signatures (HLS), including PA-404S, PB2-613I and PB2-702R and that mutation trend of host signatures of avian A(H5N8) is different before and after 2014...
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884667/influenza-virus-replication-in-macrophages-balancing-protection-and-pathogenesis
#8
Troy D Cline, Donald Beck, Elizabeth Bianchini
Macrophages are essential for protection against influenza A virus infection, but are also implicated in the morbidity and mortality associated with severe influenza disease, particularly during infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. While influenza virus infection of macrophages was once thought to be abortive, it is now clear that certain virus strains can replicate productively in macrophages. This may have important consequences for the antiviral functions of macrophages, the course of disease and the outcome of infection for the host...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880856/update-increase-in-human-infections-with-novel-asian-lineage-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-viruses-during-the-fifth-epidemic-china-october-1-2016-august-7-2017
#9
James C Kile, Ruiqi Ren, Liqi Liu, Carolyn M Greene, Katherine Roguski, A Danielle Iuliano, Yunho Jang, Joyce Jones, Sharmi Thor, Ying Song, Suizan Zhou, Susan C Trock, Vivien Dugan, David E Wentworth, Min Z Levine, Timothy M Uyeki, Jacqueline M Katz, Daniel B Jernigan, Sonja J Olsen, Alicia M Fry, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, C Todd Davis
Among all influenza viruses assessed using CDC's Influenza Risk Assessment Tool (IRAT), the Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (Asian H7N9), first reported in China in March 2013,* is ranked as the influenza virus with the highest potential pandemic risk (1). During October 1, 2016-August 7, 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China; CDC, Taiwan; the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection; and the Macao CDC reported 759 human infections with Asian H7N9 viruses, including 281 deaths, to the World Health Organization (WHO), making this the largest of the five epidemics of Asian H7N9 infections that have occurred since 2013 (Figure 1)...
September 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873012/altered-virulence-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n8-reassortant-viruses-in-mammalian-models
#10
Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Min-Suk Song, Se Mi Kim, Young-Il Kim, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Ok Sarah Shin, Chul-Joong Kim, Young Ki Choi
Recently identified highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses (clade 2.3.4.4) are relatively low to moderately pathogenic in mammalian hosts compared to HPAI H5N1 viruses. In this study, we generated reassortant viruses comprised of A/MD/Korea/W452/2014(H5N8) with substitution of individual genes from A/EM/Korea/W149/2006(H5N1) to understand the contribution of each viral gene to virulence in mammals. Substituting the PB2 gene segment or the NA gene segment of the H5N8 virus by that from the H5N1 virus resulted in significantly enhanced pathogenicity compared with the parental H5N8 virus in mice...
September 5, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859269/optimized-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-recombinant-vaccine-strains-against-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#11
Jin-Wook Jang, Chung-Young Lee, Il-Hwan Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Seong-Su Yuk, Ji-Ho Lee, Chang-Seon Song, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon
A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8)-derived recombinant viruses have been used for seasonal flu vaccines; however, they are insufficient for vaccines against some human-fatal H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses (HPAIV) due to low productivity. Additionally, the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) protein, an important mammalian-pathogenicity determinant, of PR8 possesses several mammalian-pathogenic mutations. We previously reported two avian PB2 genes (01310 and 0028) related to efficient replication in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) and nonpathogenicity in BALB/c mice...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859267/evolution-global-spread-and-pathogenicity-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5nx-clade-2-3-4-4
#12
REVIEW
Dong-Hun Lee, Kateri Bertran, Jung-Hoon Kwon, David E Swayne
Novel subtypes of Asian-origin (Goose/Guangdong lineage) H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses belonging to clade 2.3.4, such as H5N2, H5N5, H5N6, and H5N8, have been identified in China since 2008 and have since evolved into four genetically distinct clade 2.3.4.4 groups (A-D). Since 2014, HPAI clade 2.3.4.4 viruses have spread rapidly via migratory wild aquatic birds and have evolved through reassortment with prevailing local low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Group A H5N8 viruses and its reassortant viruses caused outbreaks in wide geographic regions (Asia, Europe, and North America) during 2014-2015...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815990/trade-patterns-facilitating-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-dissemination-in-the-free-grazing-layer-duck-system-in-vietnam
#13
A Meyer, T X Dinh, T A Han, D V Do, T V Nhu, L T Pham, T T T Nguyen, S Newman, B Häsler, D U Pfeiffer, T Vergne
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam...
August 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815716/characterization-of-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-wild-and-captive-birds-in-the-winter-season-of-2016-2017-in-northern-japan
#14
Takahiro Hiono, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Keita Matsuno, Atsushi Haga, Ritsuko Iwata, Lam Thanh Nguyen, Mizuho Suzuki, Yuto Kikutani, Hiroshi Kida, Manabu Onuma, Yoshihiro Sakoda
On November 15, 2016, a suspected case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dead black swan was reported from a zoo in Akita prefecture, northern Japan, and an HPAI virus (HPAIV) belonging to the H5N6 subtype was isolated from specimens taken from the bird. After the initial report, 230 cases of HPAI caused by H5N6 viruses were reported from wild birds, captive birds, and domestic poultry farms throughout the country during the winter season. In the present study, we further characterized 66 H5N6 HPAIVs isolated from northern Japan...
August 16, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805017/estimating-the-between-farm-transmission-rates-for-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-subtype-h5n1-epidemics-in-bangladesh-between-2007-and-2013
#15
A Ssematimba, I Okike, G M Ahmed, M Yamage, G J Boender, T J Hagenaars, B Bett
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is classified by the World Organization for Animal Health as one of the notifiable diseases. Its occurrence is associated with severe socio-economic impacts and is also zoonotic. Bangladesh HPAI epidemic data for the period between 2007 and 2013 were obtained and split into epidemic waves based on the time lag between outbreaks. By assuming the number of newly infected farms to be binomially distributed, we fit a Generalized Linear Model to the data to estimate between-farm transmission rates (β)...
August 14, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802028/h5n1-ns-genomic-segment-distinctly-governs-the-influenza-virus-infectivity-and-cytokine-induction-in-monocytic-cells
#16
Prem Prasad Lamichhane, Kobporn Boonnak, Don Changsom, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Sa-Nga Pattanakitsakul, Pilaipan Puthavathana
BACKGROUND: The level of virulence of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was higher than those of the other virus subtypes. It has been suggested that the nonstructural (NS) gene might be a factor contributing to H5N1 HPAI virulence. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficiency of the NS genomic segment of H5N1 HPAI virus on governing viral infectivity and cytokine induction in monocytic cells compared to other virus strain/subtypes. METHODS: By reverse genetics, five reassortant influenza viruses carrying the NS genomic segment derived from seasonal influenza A(H1N1), 2009 pandemic A(H1N1), A(H3N2) or H5N1 HPAI virus in the backbone of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 H1N1 (PR8) virus were constructed together with the reassorted PR8 virus control, i...
August 8, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794040/pathobiology-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5nx-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus-infections-in-minor-gallinaceous-poultry-supports-early-backyard-flock-introductions-in-western-u-s-2014-2015
#17
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Charles Balzli, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the U.S. experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Eurasian clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. Initial cases affected mainly wild birds and mixed backyard poultry species, while later outbreaks affected mostly commercial chickens and turkeys. The pathogenesis, transmission, and intra-host evolutionary dynamics of initial Eurasian H5N8 and reassortant H5N2 clade 2.3.4.4 HPAI viruses in the U.S. were investigated in minor gallinaceous poultry species (i.e. species for which the U...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780119/vaccine-efficacy-against-indonesian-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Juan P Villanueva-Cabezas, Mauricio J C Coppo, Peter A Durr, Jodie McVernon
Indonesia has implemented multiple strategies to control Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI/H5N1), including the licensure and use of multiple vaccine formulations. The continuous drift of Indonesian HPAI/H5N1 viruses and emergence of a new clade in 2012 that became dominant in 2016, demands the assessment of commercial vaccine formulations against Indonesian field viruses. Seven databases were explored to identify relevant literature reporting performance of commercial vaccines against Indonesian HPAI/H5N1 viruses...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750900/virulence-of-an-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-is-enhanced-by-the-amino-acid-substitutions-pb2-e627k-and-ha-a149v
#19
Haibo Wu, Xiuming Peng, Rufeng Lu, Lihua Xu, Fumin Liu, Linfang Cheng, Xiangyun Lu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu
A novel reassortant H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was recently identified in Asia, Europe, and North America. The H5N8 HPAI virus has raised serious concerns regarding the potential risk for human infection. However, the molecular changes responsible for allowing mammalian infection in H5N8 HPAI viruses are not clear. The objective of this study was to identify amino acid substitutions that are potentially associated with the adaptation of H5N8 HPAI viruses to mammals. In this study, an avian-origin H5N8 virus was adapted to mice through serial lung-to-lung passage...
July 25, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718801/from-variation-of-influenza-viral-proteins-to-vaccine-development
#20
REVIEW
Wandi Zhu, Chao Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Recurrent influenza epidemics and occasional pandemics are one of the most important global public health concerns and are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. Influenza viruses can evolve through antigen drift and shift to overcome the barriers of human immunity, leading to host adaption and transmission. Mechanisms underlying this viral evolution are gradually being elucidated. Vaccination is an effective method for the prevention of influenza virus infection. However, the emergence of novel viruses, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), the avian influenza A virus (H7N9), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus (HPAI H5N1), that have infected human populations frequently in recent years reveals the tremendous challenges to the current influenza vaccine strategy...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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