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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213653/perceived-risk-of-avian-influenza-and-urbanization-in-northern-vietnam
#1
Melissa L Finucane, Nghiem Tuyen, Sumeet Saksena, James H Spencer, Jefferson M Fox, Nguyen Lam, Trinh Dinh Thau, Tran Duc Vien, Nancy Davis Lewis
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is an important public health concern because of potential for widespread morbidity and mortality in humans and poultry and associated devastating economic losses. We examined how perceptions of the risk of HPAI in poultry vary across communes/wards in the north of Vietnam at different levels of urbanization (rural, peri-urban, urban). Analyses of questionnaire responses from 1081 poultry raisers suggested that the perceived risk of HPAI in poultry was highest in peri-urban and rural settings...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213409/defra-announces-plans-to-amend-hpai-prevention-zone-measures
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206909/a-highly-pathogenic-avian-derived-influenza-virus-h5n1-with-2009-pandemic-h1n1-internal-genes-demonstrates-increased-replication-and-transmission-in-pigs
#3
Eugenio J Abente, Pravina Kitikoon, Kelly M Lager, Phillip C Gauger, Tavis K Anderson, Amy L Vincent
This study investigated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reverse-genetics-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 lineage influenza A virus that was isolated from a human, A/Iraq/755/06. We also examined surface gene reassortant viruses composed of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/Iraq/755/06 and the internal genes of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, A/New York/18/2009 (2Iraq/06 : 6NY/09 H5N1), and haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/New York/18/2009 with the internal genes of A/Iraq/755/06 (2NY/09 : 6Iraq/06 H1N1)...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202755/low-pathogenic-influenza-a-viruses-in-north-american-diving-ducks-contribute-to-the-emergence-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-influenza-a-h7n8-virus
#4
Yifei Xu, Andrew M Ramey, Andrew S Bowman, Thomas J DeLiberto, Mary L Killian, Scott Krauss, Jacqueline M Nolting, Mia Kim Torchetti, Andrew B Reeves, Richard J Webby, David E Stallknecht, Xiu-Feng Wan
Introductions of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced genomes of 441 wild bird-origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. Results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176609/outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-minnesota-in-2015
#5
Ann Fitzpatrick, Sunil K Mor, Mary Thurn, Elizabeth Wiedenman, Tracy Otterson, Robert E Porter, Devi P Patnayak, Dale C Lauer, Shauna Voss, Stephanie Rossow, James E Collins, Sagar M Goyal
The incursion of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) into the United States during 2014 resulted in an unprecedented foreign animal disease (FAD) event; 232 outbreaks were reported from 21 states. The disease affected 49.6 million birds and resulted in economic losses of $950 million. Minnesota is the largest turkey-producing state, accounting for 18% of U.S. turkey production. Areas with concentrated numbers of turkeys in Minnesota were the epicenter of the outbreak. The first case was presumptively diagnosed in the last week of February 2015 at the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (MVDL) and confirmed as HPAI H5N2 at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories on March 4, 2015...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169074/efficacy-of-clade-2-3-2-h5-commercial-vaccines-in-protecting-chickens-from-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-infection
#6
Seong-Su Yuk, T O Erdene-Ochir, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Jong-Il Shin, Jung-Hyang Sur, Chang-Seon Song
Emerging clade 2.3.4.4 of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strain H5N8, which had been detected sporadically in domestic poultry in China, started to affect wild birds and poultry in South Korea in 2014. The virus was spread to Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and even United States by migratory birds. Here, we tested currently used commercial clade 2.3.2 H5 vaccines to evaluate mortality, clinical signs, virus shedding, and histological damage after experimental infection of chickens with the clade 2...
February 3, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160424/social-network-analysis-of-the-movement-of-poultry-to-and-from-live-bird-markets-in-bali-and-lombok-indonesia
#7
J Kurscheid, M Stevenson, P A Durr, J-A L M L Toribio, S Kurscheid, I G A A Ambarawati, M Abdurrahman, S Fenwick
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 has resulted in large losses to the Indonesian poultry sector. Evidence suggests that live bird markets (LBMs) play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Knowledge of the frequency and type of contact between the various poultry market players should allow animal health authorities to develop a better understanding of factors influencing virus transmission between Indonesian villages. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 17 LBMs on the neighbouring Indonesian islands of Bali and Lombok to investigate the movement patterns of poultry to and from markets...
February 4, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116911/co-circulation-of-paramyxo-and-influenza-viruses-in-pigeons-in-egypt
#8
Shimaa M G Mansour, Fakry F Mohamed, Amal A M Eid, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
In recent years, avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have caused large-scale outbreaks in many countries, including Egypt. The culling and vaccination strategies have failed to control both viruses in Egypt. In this study, we investigated the outbreaks of nervous manifestations and deaths in pigeons between 2013 and 2015. The H5N1 subtype of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1), an antigenic variant of NDV, were found to be the cause; AIV and PPMV-1 were isolated from 61...
January 24, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108705/second-turkey-flock-affected-by-h5n8-hpai
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100622/glycosylation-of-the-ha-protein-of-h5n1-virus-increases-its-virulence-in-mice-by-exacerbating-the-host-immune-response
#10
Dongming Zhao, Libin Liang, Shuai Wang, Tomomi Nakao, Yanbing Li, Liling Liu, Yuntao Guan, Satoshi Fukuyama, Zhigao Bu, Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Hualan Chen
: The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in nature and threaten public health. Although several viral determinants and host factors that influence the virulence of HPAI H5N1 viruses in mammals have been identified, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly defined and requires further clarification. In our previous studies, we characterized two naturally isolated HPAI H5N1 viruses that had similar viral genomes but differed substantially in their lethality in mice...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094780/rapid-acquisition-of-polymorphic-virulence-markers-during-adaptation-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-virus-in-the-mouse
#11
Won-Suk Choi, Yun Hee Baek, Jin Jung Kwon, Ju Hwan Jeong, Su-Jin Park, Young-Il Kim, Sun-Woo Yoon, Jungwon Hwang, Myung Hee Kim, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Young Ki Choi, Min-Suk Song
Emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus in Asia and its spread to Europe and North America has caused great concern for human health. Although the H5N8 virus has been only moderately pathogenic to mammalian hosts, virulence can still increase. We evaluated the pathogenic potential of several H5N8 strains via the mouse-adaptation method. Two H5N8 viruses were sequentially passaged in BALB/c mice and plaque-purified from lung samples. The viruses rapidly obtained high virulence (MLD50, up to 0...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079520/genetic-characterisation-of-novel-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n6-viruses-isolated-in-birds-south-korea-november-2016
#12
Young-Jae Si, In Won Lee, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Su-Jin Park, Hiep Dinh Nguyen, Se Mi Kim, Jin-Jung Kwon, Won-Suk Choi, Yun Hee Beak, Min-Suk Song, Chul-Joong Kim, Richard J Webby, Young-Ki Choi
A novel genotype of H5N6 influenza viruses was isolated from migratory birds in South Korea during November 2016. Domestic outbreaks of this virus were associated with die-offs of wild birds near reported poultry cases in Chungbuk province, central South Korea. Genetic analysis and animal studies demonstrated that the Korean H5N6 viruses are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and that these viruses are novel reassortants of at least three different subtypes (H5N6, H4N2 and H1N1).
January 5, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077631/vaccine-efficacy-of-an-inactivated-chimeric-ha-h9-h5n2-avian-influenza-virus-and-its-suitability-for-the-marker-vaccine-strategy
#13
Se Mi Kim, Young-Il Kim, Su-Jin Park, Eun-Ha Kim, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Young-Jae Si, In-Won Lee, Min-Suk Song, Young Ki Choi
: In order to produce a dual effective vaccine against H9 and H5 avian influenza viruses that aligns with the DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) strategy, we generated a chimeric H9/H5N2 recombinant vaccine which expressed the whole HA1 region of A/CK/Korea/04163/04 H9N2 and HA2 region of recent HPAI A/MD/Korea/W452/14 H5N8 viruses. The Chimeric H9/H5N2 virus showed similar in vitro and in vivo growth properties and virulence to the LPAI H9 influenza virus. An inactivated vaccine based on this chimeric virus induced serum neutralizing (SN) antibodies against both H9 and H5 viruses, but only induced cross-reactive hemmaglutination inhibition (HI) antibody against H9 viruses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062008/experimental-infection-of-mandarin-duck-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-and-h5n1-viruses
#14
Hyun-Mi Kang, Eun-Kyoung Lee, Byung-Min Song, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Joojin Jung, Il Jang, You-Chan Bae, Suk Chan Jung, Youn-Jeong Lee
A highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was first detected in poultry and wild birds in South Korea in January 2014. Here, we determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of three different clades of H5 viruses in mandarin ducks to examine the potential for wild bird infection. H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4) replicated more efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tract of mandarin ducks than two previously identified H5N1 virus clades (clades 2.2 and 2.3.2.1). However, none of the mandarin ducks infected with H5N8 and H5N1 viruses showed severe clinical signs or mortality, and gross lesions were only observed in a few tissues...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038412/enhanced-virulence-of-clade-2-3-2-1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n1-viruses-in-ferrets
#15
Melissa B Pearce, Claudia Pappas, Kortney M Gustin, C Todd Davis, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, David E Swayne, Taronna R Maines, Jessica A Belser, Terrence M Tumpey
Sporadic avian to human transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses necessitates the analysis of currently circulating and evolving clades to assess their potential risk. Following the spread and sustained circulation of clade 2 viruses across multiple continents, numerous subclades and genotypes have been described. To better understand the pathogenesis associated with the continued diversification of clade 2A(H5N1) influenza viruses, we investigated the relative virulence of eleven human and poultry isolates collected from 2006 to 2013 by determining their ability to cause disease in the ferret model...
February 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012921/therapeutic-efficacy-of-peramivir-against-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-harboring-the-neuraminidase-h275y-mutation
#16
Masanori Kobayashi, Makoto Kodama, Takeshi Noshi, Ryu Yoshida, Takushi Kanazu, Naoki Nomura, Kosuke Soda, Norikazu Isoda, Masatoshi Okamatsu, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Yoshinori Yamano, Akihiko Sato, Hiroshi Kida
High morbidity and mortality associated with human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, including H5N1 influenza virus, have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antiviral effects of peramivir against HPAI viruses. In neuraminidase (NA) inhibition and virus replication inhibition assays, peramivir showed strong inhibitory activity against H5N1, H7N1 and H7N7 HPAI viruses with sub-nanomolar activity in enzyme assays. In H5N1 viruses containing the NA H275Y mutation, the antiviral activity of peramivir against the variant was lower than that against the wild-type...
December 22, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003481/shifting-clade-distribution-reassortment-and-emergence-of-new-subtypes-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5-viruses-collected-from-vietnamese-poultry-from-2012-to-2015
#17
Diep T Nguyen, Yunho Jang, Tho D Nguyen, Joyce Jones, Samuel S Shepard, Hua Yang, Nancy Gerloff, Thomas Fabrizio, Long V Nguyen, Ken Inui, Genyan Yang, Adrian Creanga, Li Wang, Duong T Mai, Sharmi Thor, James Stevens, Thanh L To, David E Wentworth, Tung Nguyen, Dong V Pham, Juliet E Bryant, C Todd Davis
Whole-genome sequences of representative highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) viruses from Vietnam were generated, comprising samples from poultry outbreaks and active market surveillance collected from January 2012 to August 2015. Six hemagglutinin gene clades were characterized. Clade 1.1.2 was predominant in southern Mekong provinces throughout 2012 and 2013 but gradually disappeared and was not detected after April 2014. Clade 2.3.2.1c viruses spread rapidly during 2012 and were detected in the south and center of the country...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989811/re-emergence-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-among-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses-in-egypt
#18
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ola Bagato, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sara H Mahmoud, Hamdi M Hassanneen, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Kayali Ghazi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolution dynamic of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983512/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h5n8-outbreaks-protection-and-management-of-exposed-people-in-europe-2014-15-and-2016
#19
Cornelia Adlhoch, Ian H Brown, Svetla G Angelova, Ádám Bálint, Ruth Bouwstra, Silke Buda, Maria R Castrucci, Gavin Dabrera, Ádám Dán, Christian Grund, Timm Harder, Wim van der Hoek, Katalin Krisztalovics, Frances Parry-Ford, Rodica Popescu, Anders Wallensten, Anna Zdravkova, Siamak Zohari, Svetla Tsolova, Pasi Penttinen
Introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A(H5N8) into Europe prompted animal and human health experts to implement protective measures to prevent transmission to humans. We describe the situation in 2016 and list public health measures and recommendations in place. We summarise critical interfaces identified during the A(H5N1) and A(H5N8) outbreaks in 2014/15. Rapid exchange of information between the animal and human health sectors is critical for a timely, effective and efficient response...
December 8, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982050/immune-responses-induced-by-recombinant-bacillus-subtilis-expressing-the-hemagglutinin-protein-of-h5n1-in-chickens
#20
Chunxiao Mou, Liqi Zhu, Jingjing Yang, Wenwen Xu, Xiaoying Cheng, Qian Yang
To develop an effective, safe, and convenient vaccine for the prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, we have constructed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis strain (B.S.-HA) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Then we evaluated the immune function in chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), and the immune response after oral immunization. Our results show that the recombinant Bacillus subtilis B.S.-HA could be sampled by BM-DCs in vitro and increase the BM-DCs major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II phenotype...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
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