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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903065/predominance-and-geo-mapping-of-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-poultry-sectors-in-egypt
#1
Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Khoulosy, Mohammed K Hassan, Moussa Soliman, Olubunmi G Fasanmi, Folorunso O Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth, Yilma M Jobre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has been enzootic in the Egyptian poultry with significant human infections since 2008. This work evaluates the epidemiological and virological information from February 2006 to May 2015 in spatial and temporal terms. Only data with confirmed HPAI H5N1 sub-type were collected, and matched with the epidemiological data from various spatially and temporally-dispersed surveillances implemented between 2006 and 2015. Spatio-temporal analysis was conducted on a total of 3338 confirmed H5N1 HPAI poultry disease outbreaks and outputs described based on transmission patterns, poultry species, production types affected, trade, geographic and temporal distributions in Egypt...
November 28, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894719/structural-based-designed-modular-capsomere-comprising-ha1-for-low-cost-poultry-influenza-vaccination
#2
Jarurin Waneesorn, Nani Wibowo, John Bingham, Anton P J Middelberg, Linda H L Lua
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses cause a severe and lethal infection in domestic birds. The increasing number of HPAI outbreaks has demonstrated the lack of capabilities to control the rapid spread of avian influenza. Poultry vaccination has been shown to not only reduce the virus spread in animals but also reduce the virus transmission to humans, preventing potential pandemic development. However, existing vaccine technologies cannot respond to a new virus outbreak rapidly and at a cost and scale that is commercially viable for poultry vaccination...
November 25, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892498/sensitization-with-vaccinia-virus-encoding-h5n1-hemagglutinin-restores-immune-potential-against-h5n1-influenza-virus
#3
Fumihiko Yasui, Yasushi Itoh, Ai Ikejiri, Masahiro Kitabatake, Nobuo Sakaguchi, Keisuke Munekata, Shintaro Shichinohe, Yukiko Hayashi, Hirohito Ishigaki, Misako Nakayama, Yoshihiro Sakoda, Hiroshi Kida, Kazumasa Ogasawara, Michinori Kohara
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1 HPAI) virus causes elevated mortality compared with seasonal influenza viruses like H1N1 pandemic influenza (H1N1 pdm) virus. We identified a mechanism associated with the severe symptoms seen with H5N1 HPAI virus infection. H5N1 HPAI virus infection induced a decrease of dendritic cell number in the splenic extrafollicular T-cell zone and impaired formation of the outer layers of B-cell follicles, resulting in insufficient levels of antibody production after infection...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885988/global-mapping-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-and-h5nx-clade-2-3-4-4-viruses-with-spatial-cross-validation
#4
Madhur S Dhingra, Jean Artois, Timothy P Robinson, Catherine Linard, Celia Chaiban, Ioannis Xenarios, Robin Engler, Robin Liechti, Dimitry Kuznetsov, Xiangming Xiao, Sophie Von Dobschuetz, Filip Claes, Scott H Newman, Gwenaëlle Dauphin, Marius Gilbert
Global disease suitability models are essential tools to inform surveillance systems and enable early detection. We present the first global suitability model of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and demonstrate that reliable predictions can be obtained at global scale. Best predictions are obtained using spatial predictor variables describing host distributions, rather than land use or eco-climatic spatial predictor variables, with a strong association with domestic duck and extensively raised chicken densities...
November 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876611/re-emergence-of-amantadine-resistant-variants-among-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses-in-egypt
#5
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ola Bagato, Ahmed Kandeil, Ahmed Mostafa, Sara H Mahmoud, Hamdi M Hassanneen, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Ghazi Kayali
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus continues to undergo substantial evolution. Emergence of antiviral resistance among H5N1 avian influenza viruses is a major challenge in the control of pandemic influenza. Numerous studies have focused on the genetic and evolutionary dynamics of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes; however, studies on the susceptibility of HPAI H5N1 viruses to amantadine and genetic diversity of the matrix (M) gene are limited. Accordingly, we studied the amantadine susceptibility of the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated in Egypt during 2006-2015 based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics...
October 29, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876034/h5n2-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-from-the-us-2014-2015-outbreak-have-an-unusually-long-pre-clinical-period-in-turkeys
#6
Erica Spackman, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Darrell R Kapczynski, David E Swayne, David L Suarez
BACKGROUND: From December 2014 through June 2015, the US experienced the most costly highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak to date. Most cases in commercial poultry were caused by an H5N2 strain which was a reassortant with 5 Eurasian lineage genes, including a clade 2.3.4.4 goose/Guangdong/1996 lineage hemagglutinin, and 3 genes from North American wild waterfowl low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. The outbreak primarily affected turkeys and table-egg layer type chickens...
November 22, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873070/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-in-nigeria-in-2015-evidence-of-widespread-circulation-of-wa2-clade-2-3-2-1c
#7
Ismaila Shittu, Clement A Meseko, Dorcas A Gado, Abraham K Olawuyi, Chinonyerem N Chinyere, Emmanuel Anefu, Ponman Solomon, Philip A Okewole, David Shamaki, Tony M Joannis
Genetic analysis of the complete haemagglutinin (HA) gene of fourteen Nigerian avian influenza isolates showed multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site ((321)PQRERRRK (del) R*GLF(333)), characteristic of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Substitution of Gln to Lys at position 322 (H5-specific numbering) was identified in one isolate. In some isolates, amino acid substitutions were observed across the HA gene, however the receptor binding, antigenic and glycosylation sites were conserved in all...
November 21, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871330/age-is-not-a-determinant-factor-in-susceptibility-of-broilers-to-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#8
Kateri Bertran, Dong-Hun Lee, Charles Balzli, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, David E Swayne
In 2014-2015, the US experienced an unprecedented outbreak of H5 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus. The H5N2 HPAI virus outbreak in the Midwest in 2015 affected commercial turkey and layer farms, but not broiler farms. To assess any potential genetic resistance of broilers and/or age-related effects, we investigated the pathogenesis and transmission of A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) (Tk/MN/15) virus in commercial 5-week-old broilers, 8-week-old broilers, and >30-week-old broiler breeders...
November 21, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864633/biological-characterization-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-viruses-that-infected-humans-in-egypt-in-2014-2015
#9
Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Mostafa, Ahmed Kandeil, Sara H Mahmoud, Ola Bagato, Amel Naguib, Samir El Refaey, Richard J Webby, Mohamed A Ali, Ghazi Kayali
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 influenza viruses emerged as a human pathogen in 1997 with expected potential to undergo sustained human-to-human transmission and pandemic viral spread. HPAI H5N1 is endemic in Egyptian poultry and has caused sporadic human infection. The first outbreak in early 2006 was caused by clade 2.2 viruses that rapidly evolved genetically and antigenically. A sharp increase in the number of human cases was reported in Egypt in the 2014/2015 season. In this study, we analyzed and characterized three isolates of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from infected humans in Egypt in 2014/2015...
November 18, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836037/factors-affecting-chinese-broiler-farmers-main-preventive-practices-in-response-to-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza
#10
Zeying Huang, Di Zeng, Jimin Wang
Preventive practices are highly important in response to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). As biosecurity guidelines, HPAI vaccination, antiviral medication, farm cleaning and disinfection jointly focus on mitigating the risk of infectious pathogen spread, yet much less is known about the association between broiler farmer's socio-economic characteristics and their adoption decision of these preventive practices. The current study aims to bridge this gap using a nationally representative household survey of 331 Chinese chicken farm owners, among whom the practices are far from fully adopted (only 58% of the farmers adopt all four types)...
November 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817200/safe-application-of-regionalization-for-trade-in-poultry-and-poultry-products-during-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-usa
#11
David E Swayne, Rick E Hill, John Clifford
The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 50.4 million poultry in the stamping-out program that cost USA government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all U.S.-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the U...
November 7, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812833/antigenic-characterization-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-isolated-from-poultry-in-india-2006-2015
#12
Sudipta Bhat, Shanmugasundaram Nagarajan, Manoj Kumar, Harshad V Murugkar, Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Govindarajulu Venkatesh, Chakradhar Tosh
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major health concern worldwide. In this study, we focused on antigenic analysis of HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry in India between 2006 and 2015 comprising 25 isolates from four phylogenetic clades 2.2 (1 isolate), 2.2.2.1 (1 isolate), 2.3.2.1a (17 isolates) and 2.3.2.1c (6 isolates). Seven H5N1 isolates from all four clades were selected for production of chicken antiserum, and antigenic analysis was carried out by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay...
November 3, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807985/a-genetically-engineered-h5-protein-expressed-in-insect-cells-confers-protection-against-different-clades-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chickens
#13
Marcia Oliveira Cavalcanti, Eric Vaughn, Ilaria Capua, Giovanni Cattoli, Calogero Terregino, Timm Harder, Christian Grund, Carlos Vega, Francisco Robles, Julio Franco, Ayub Darji, Abdel-Satar Arafa, Egbert Mundt
The evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses (HPAI-H5N1) has resulted in the appearance of a number of diverse groups of HPAI-H5N1 based on the presence of genetically similar clusters of their haemagglutinin sequences (clades). An H5 antigen encoded by a recombinant baculovirus and expressed in insect cells, was used for oil-emulsion-based vaccine prototypes. In several experiments, vaccination was performed at 10 days of age, followed by challenge infection on day 21 post vaccination (PV) with HPAI-H5N1 clades 2...
November 3, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807237/influenza-overcomes-cellular-blocks-to-productively-replicate-impacting-macrophage-function
#14
Shauna A Marvin, Marion Russier, C Theodore Huerta, Charles J Russell, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
: Whether influenza replication in macrophages is productive or abortive has been a topic of debate. Utilizing a panel of 28 distinct human, avian and swine influenza viruses, we found that only a small subset can overcome cellular blocks to productively replicate in murine and primary human macrophages. Murine macrophages have two cellular blocks; the first block is during viral entry where virions with relatively acid-stable hemagglutinin (HA) proteins are rendered incapable of pH-induced triggering for membrane fusion resulting in lysomal degradation...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788412/modelling-the-impact-of-co-circulating-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-on-epidemics-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-poultry
#15
Sema Nickbakhsh, Matthew D Hall, Ilaria Dorigatti, Samantha J Lycett, Paolo Mulatti, Isabella Monne, Alice Fusaro, Mark E J Woolhouse, Andrew Rambaut, Rowland R Kao
It is well known that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerge through mutation of precursor low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in domestic poultry populations. The potential for immunological cross-protection between these pathogenic variants is recognised but the epidemiological impact during co-circulation is not well understood. Here we use mathematical models to investigate whether altered flock infection parameters consequent to primary LPAI infections can impact on the spread of HPAI at the population level...
October 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771560/in-vitro-exposure-system-for-study-of-aerosolized-influenza-virus
#16
Hannah M Creager, Hui Zeng, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Taronna R Maines, Terrence M Tumpey, Jessica A Belser
Infection of adherent cell monolayers using a liquid inoculum represents an established method to reliably and quantitatively study virus infection, but poorly recapitulates the exposure and infection of cells in the respiratory tract that occurs during infection with aerosolized pathogens. To better simulate natural infection in vitro, we adapted a system that generates viral aerosols similar to those exhaled by infected humans to the inoculation of epithelial cell monolayers. Procedures for cellular infection and calculation of exposure dose were developed and tested using viruses characterized by distinct transmission and pathogenicity phenotypes: an HPAI H5N1, an LPAI H7N9, and a seasonal H3N2 virus...
October 20, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770803/the-response-of-mute-swans-cygnus-olor-gm-1789-to-vaccination-against-avian-influenza-with-an-inactivated-h5n2-vaccine
#17
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738904/characterization-of-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n8-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-from-wild-birds-possessing-atypical-hemagglutinin-polybasic-cleavage-sites
#18
Tatsufumi Usui, Kosuke Soda, Yukiko Tomioka, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiyo Yabuta, Hiroki Takakuwa, Koichi Otsuki, Toshihiro Ito, Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences...
October 13, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729175/mutations-in-the-haemagglutinin-protein-and-their-effect-in-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-h5n1-virus-in-sub-optimally-vaccinated-chickens
#19
Ioannis Sitaras, Xanthoula Rousou, Ben Peeters, Mart C M de Jong
BACKGROUND: Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in poultry flocks is associated with huge economic losses, culling of millions of birds, as well as human infections and deaths. In the cases where vaccination against avian influenza is used as a control measure, it has been found to be ineffective in preventing transmission of field strains. Reports suggest that one of the reasons for this is the use of vaccine doses much lower than the ones recommended by the manufacturer, resulting in very low levels of immunity...
October 8, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705103/retrospective-analysis-of-the-epidemiologic-literature-1990-2015-on-wildlife-associated-diseases-from-the-republic-of-korea
#20
Jusun Hwang, Kyunglee Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Jonathan M Sleeman, Hang Lee
To assess the status of research on wildlife diseases in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and to identify trends, knowledge gaps, and directions for future research, we reviewed epidemiologic publications on wildlife-associated diseases in the ROK. We identified a relatively small but rapidly increasing body of literature. The majority of publications were focused on public or livestock health and relatively few addressed wildlife health. Most studies that focused on human and livestock health were cross-sectional whereas wildlife health studies were mostly case reports...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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