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Yun Zheng, Xinliang Fu, Lifang Wang, Wenyan Zhang, Pei Zhou, Xin Zhang, Weijie Zeng, Jidang Chen, Zongxi Cao, Kun Jia, Shoujun Li
MicroRNAs, a class of noncoding RNAs 18 to 23 nucleotides (nt) in length, play critical roles in a wide variety of biological processes. The objective of this study was to examine differences in microRNA expression profiles derived from the lungs of beagle dogs infected with the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) or the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus (canine-origin isolation strain). After dogs were infected with H3N2 or H5N1, microRNA expression in the lungs was assessed using a deep-sequencing approach...
May 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Dikky Indrawan, Karl M Rich, Peter van Horne, Arief Daryanto, Henk Hogeveen
Despite extensive efforts to control the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), it remains endemic in Western Java, Indonesia. To understand the limited effectiveness of HPAI control measures, it is important to map the complex structure of the poultry sector. The governance of the poultry value chain in particular, could play a pivotal role, yet there is limited information on the different chain governance structures and their impacts on HPAI control. This article uses value chain analysis (VCA), focusing on an in-depth assessment of governance structures as well as transaction cost economics and quantitative estimates of the market power of different chain actors, to establish a theoretical framework to examine biosecurity and HPAI control in the Western Java poultry chain...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Lin Chen, Chao Xing, Guoyao Ma, Jing Luo, Wen Su, Meng Li, Qiumei Shi, Hongxuan He
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A/H5N1 virus hijacks host cellular machinery to complete its life cycle; identification of the host factors involved in viral replication may facilitate antiviral drug development. Here, we first characterize a metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), and showed that it plays a crucial role in H5N1 viral replication. We found that H5N1 infection upregulated NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression. Overexpression of NDRG1 released approximately 4-fold more virions compared to the control group, whereas knockdown of NDRG1 resulted in a drop in viral RNA and protein production...
May 3, 2018: Virus Research
Shuhong Li, Weiyue Meng, Dongping Liu, Qiqi Yang, Lixia Chen, Qiang Dai, Tian Ma, Ruyi Gao, Wendong Ru, Yunfeng Li, Pengbo Yu, Jun Lu, Guogang Zhang, Huaiyu Tian, Hongliang Chai, Yanbing Li
In late 2014, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hereafter HPAI) H5N1 outbreak infected whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering at the Sanmenxia Reservoir area, China, and raised concerns about migratory linkages between wintering and breeding grounds of whooper swans. In this study, 61 swans were satellite tracked from 2013 to 2016 to determine the spatial association of their migration routes and H5N1 outbreaks, and 3596 fecal samples were collected along the migration routes for virology testing. Swans departed the wintering grounds and migrated along the Yellow River, and flew over the Yin Mountains in China...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
J-H Kwon, D-H Lee, D E Swayne, J-Y Noh, S-S Yuk, S Jeong, S-H Lee, C Woo, J-H Shin, C-S Song
The wide geographic spread of Eurasian Goose/Guangdong lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) clade viruses by wild birds is of great concern. In December 2014, an H5N8 HPAI clade Group A ( virus was introduced to North America. Long-distance migratory wild aquatic birds between East Asia and North America, such as Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), were strongly suspected of being a source of intercontinental transmission. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity, infectivity and transmissibility of an H5N8 HPAI clade 2...
May 4, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Jaeyoung Kim, Jung Hoon Kwon, Jinyoung Jang, Hyojin Lee, Seungki Kim, Young Ki Hahn, Sang Kyung Kim, Kwan Hyi Lee, Seok Lee, Heesoo Pyo, Chang-Seon Song, Joonseok Lee
Rapid and sensitive on-site detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) is the key for achieving near real-time surveillance of AIV and reducing the risk of dissemination. However, unlike the laboratory-prepared transparent buffer solutions containing a single type of influenza virus, distinction between real- and false- positive outputs and detection of low concentrations of AIV in stool specimens or cloacal swabs are difficult. Here, we developed a rapid and background-free lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) platform that utilizes near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) to yield a sensor that detects AIV nucleoproteins (NPs) from clinical samples within 20 min...
April 22, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Anis Anis, Mohammed AboElkhair, Mahmoud Ibrahim
In 2016, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus was detected in wild birds for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, we identified the HPAI virus H5N8 of clade from domestic waterfowl in Egypt, suggesting its transmission to the domestic poultry from the migratory birds. Based on partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence, this virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Asia and Europe. Pathologically, H5N8 virus in hybrid duck induced nervous signs accompanied by encephalomalacia, hemorrhages, nonsuppurative encephalitis and nonsuppurative vasculitis...
April 27, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
E N Njoto, M Scotch, C M Bui, D C Adam, A A Chughtai, C R MacIntyre
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are a major concern to human and animal health in Indonesia. This study aimed to characterize transmission dynamics of H5N1 over time using novel Bayesian phylogeography methods to identify factors which have influenced the spread of H5N1 in Indonesia. We used publicly available hemagglutinin sequence data sampled between 2003 and 2016 to model ancestral state reconstruction of HPAI H5N1 evolution. We found strong support for H5N1 transmission routes between provinces in Java Island and inter-island transmissions, such as between Nusa Tenggara and Kalimantan Islands, not previously described...
April 24, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Angela Bullanday Scott, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Mini Singh, Peter Groves, Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass, Barbara Moloney, Amanda Black, Marta Hernandez-Jover
This study quantified and compared the probability of avian influenza (AI) spread within and between Australian commercial chicken farms via specified spread pathways using scenario tree mathematical modeling. Input values for the models were sourced from scientific literature, expert opinion, and a farm survey conducted during 2015 and 2016 on Australian commercial chicken farms located in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland. Outputs from the models indicate that the probability of no establishment of infection in a shed is the most likely end-point after exposure and infection of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) in one chicken for all farm types (non-free range meat chicken, free range meat chicken, cage layer, barn layer, and free range layer farms)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Kate C Mellor, Anne Meyer, Doaa A Elkholly, Guillaume Fournié, Pham T Long, Ken Inui, Pawin Padungtod, Marius Gilbert, Scott H Newman, Timothée Vergne, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Kim B Stevens
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Vietnam since 2003, whilst outbreaks of HPAI H5N6 virus are more recent, having only been reported since 2014. Although the spatial distribution of H5N1 outbreaks and risk factors for virus occurrence has been extensively studied, there have been no comparative studies for H5N6. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
W-H Kim, J-U An, J Kim, O-K Moon, S H Bae, J B Bender, S Cho
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Judith M A van den Brand, Josanne H Verhagen, Edwin J B Veldhuis Kroeze, Marco W G van de Bildt, Rogier Bodewes, Sander Herfst, Mathilde Richard, Pascal Lexmond, Theo M Bestebroer, Ron A M Fouchier, Thijs Kuiken
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is essentially a poultry disease. Wild birds have traditionally not been involved in its spread, but the epidemiology of HPAI has changed in recent years. After its emergence in southeastern Asia in 1996, H5 HPAI virus of the Goose/Guangdong lineage has evolved into several sub-lineages, some of which have spread over thousands of kilometers via long-distance migration of wild waterbirds. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, we experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2...
April 18, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Clement Meseko, Anja Globig, Jeremiah Ijomanta, Tony Joannis, Chika Nwosuh, David Shamaki, Timm Harder, Donata Hoffman, Anne Pohlmann, Martin Beer, Thomas Mettenleiter, Elke Starick
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) potentially transmit to swine as shown by experiments, where further reassortment may contribute to the generation of pandemic strains. Associated risks of AIV inter-species transmission are greater in countries like Nigeria with recurrent epidemics of highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) in poultry and significant pig population. Analysis of 129 tracheal swab specimens collected from apparently healthy pigs at slaughterhouse during presence of HPAI virus H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria for influenza A by RT-qPCR yielded 43 positive samples...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander Nagy, Ádám Dán, Lenka Černíková, Eliška Vitásková, Vlastimil Křivda, Jitka Horníčková, Roman Masopust, Kamil Sedlák
Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the H5N8/H5N5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus strains detected in the Czech Republic during an outbreak in 2017. Network analysis of the H5 Hemagglutinin (HA) from 99% of the outbreak localities suggested that the diversity of the Czech H5N8/H5N5 viruses was influenced by two basic forces: local microevolution and independent incursions. The geographical occurrence of the central node H5 HA sequences revealed three eco-regions, which apparently played an important role in the origin and further spread of the local H5N8/HPAI variants across the country...
April 5, 2018: Archives of Virology
Simone Stoute, Beate Crossley, H L Shivaprasad
A February 2015 outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 in a flock of commercial Pekin ducks ( Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in California was investigated in detail. Approximately 17,349 five-wk-old ducks experienced an increased mortality from a normal of eight birds per day to 24, 18, 24, 33, and 61 birds per day, respectively, in the last 5 days prior to flock depopulation. Clinically, there was decreased water and feed consumption, and approximately 1.0% of the affected flock exhibited neurologic signs...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Sushant Bhat, Richa Sood, Shweta Shukla, Rekha Khandia, Atul Kumar Pateriya, Naveen Kumar, Vikas Kumar Singh, Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Manoj Kumar, Sandeep Bhatia
The present study was aimed at generating a reassortant vaccine candidate virus with clade Hemagglutinin (HA) and its evaluation in a challenge study for protection against homologous ( clade) and heterologous (2.2 clade) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses. Plasmid-based reverse genetics technique was used to rescue a 5 + 3 reassortant H5N2 strain containing the modified HA of H5N1 (clade, the Neuraminidase (NA) of H9N2, the Matrix (M) of H5N1 and the internal genes of A/WSN/33 H1N1...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Belinda Barnes, Kathryn Glass
Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in commercial poultry flocks are rare but highly disruptive to the industry. There is evidence that low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) can transfer from wild birds to domestic flocks, where it may mutate to HPAI, and the industry is concerned that an increasing demand for free-range produce may affect the risk of LPAI and HPAI outbreaks. In this paper we focus on LPAI introduction and establishment, and formulate a branching process model to compare risk between sectors and their contribution to overall industry-level risk...
March 23, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Jennifer L McKimm-Breschkin, Susan Barrett, Frank Y K Wong, Pudjiatmoko, Muhammad Azhar, Paul Selleck, Kelly R Davies, Nining Hartaningsih, James McGrane
We have tested the in vitro susceptibility to the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors of 96 highly pathogenic clade 2.1 A(H5N1) viruses from Indonesia, isolated between 2008 and 2011. HPAI virus samples obtained through the Influenza Virus Monitoring (IVM) surveillance program in Indonesia were tested for susceptibility to oseltamivir and zanamivir. The NAs of four viruses were identified as extreme outliers to oseltamivir, based on statistical analysis by box plots, with IC50 values ranging from 46-62 nM. The NAs of two of these viruses from Sumatra and Aceh, had an N294S substitution, while one virus from Sulawesi had an S246N NA substitution...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Research
Liqian Sun, Michael P Ward, Rui Li, Congcong Xia, Henry Lynn, Yi Hu, Chenglong Xiong, Zhijie Zhang
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have continuously circulated throughout much of the world since 2003, resulting in huge economic losses and major public health problems. Wild birds have played an important role in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. To understand its spatial distribution, H5N1 HPAI have been studied by many disciplines from different perspectives, but only one kind of disciplinary knowledge was involved, which has provided limited progress in understanding. Combining risk information from different disciplines based on knowledge fusion can provide more accurate and detailed information...
April 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Xian Qi, Xiaofei An, Yongjun Jiao, Huiyan Yu, Ke Xu, Lunbiao Cui, Shenjiao Wang, Fei Deng, Xiang Huo, Haodi Huang, Qigang Dai, Changjun Bao
Five epidemic waves of human infection with influenza A (H7N9) virus have emerged in China since spring 2013. We previously described the epidemiological characterization of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. In this study, 41 H7N9 viruses from patients and live-poultry markets were isolated and sequenced to further elucidate the genetic features of viruses of the fifth wave in Jiangsu province. Phylogenetic analysis revealed substantial genetic diversity in the internal genes, and 18 genotypes were identified from the 41 H7N9 virus strains...
March 14, 2018: Archives of Virology
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