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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#1
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631606/highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-clade-2-3-2-1-and-clade-2-3-4-viruses-do-not-induce-a-clade-specific-phenotype-in-mallard-ducks
#2
Mariette Ducatez, Stephanie Sonnberg, Jeri Carol Crumpton, Adam Rubrum, Phouvong Phommachanh, Bounlom Douangngeun, Malik Peiris, Yi Guan, Robert Webster, Richard Webby
Among the diverse clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses of the goose/Guangdong lineage, only a few have been able to spread across continents: clade 2.2 viruses spread from China to Europe and into Africa in 2005-2006, clade 2.3.2.1 viruses spread from China to Eastern Europe in 2009-2010 and clade 2.3.4.4 viruses of the H5Nx subtype spread from China to Europe and North America in 2014/2015. While the poultry trade and wild-bird migration have been implicated in the spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses, it has been proposed that robust virus-shedding by wild ducks in the absence of overt clinical signs may have contributed to the wider dissemination of the clade 2...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625993/survival-of-h5n1-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-in-tissues-derived-from-experimentally-infected-chickens
#3
Yu Yamamoto, Kikuyasu Nakamura, Masaji Mase
Eurasian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has been a severe threat to the poultry industry since its emergence in 1996. The carcass or tissues derived from infected birds may have the risk of the virus spreading to humans, animals, and the surrounding environment. In this study, we investigated the survival of the virus in feather, muscle, and liver tissues collected from six chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with H5N1 HPAI virus. The tissues were stored at +4°C or +20°C and viral isolation was performed at different times for 360 days...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623934/serological-and-virological-surveillance-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-domestic-ducks-of-the-north-east-region-of-bangladesh
#4
Rahul Deb Sarker, Mohammad Giasuddin, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam
BACKGROUND: Wild waterfowl are considered as the natural reservoir for avian influenza (AI) viruses. Bangladesh has been experiencing highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks since 2007, mostly in chickens and occasionally in ducks. Ducks play an important role in the persistence and genetic recombination of AI viruses. This paper presents the results of serological and virological monitoring of AI in domestic ducks in 2013 in the north-east region of Bangladesh. RESULTS: A total of 871 and 662 serum samples and 909 and 302 pairs of cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from domestic ducks of Mymensingh and Sylhet division, respectively, were analysed...
June 17, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620679/are-poultry-or-wild-birds-the-main-reservoirs-for-avian-influenza-in-bangladesh
#5
Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Md Ahasanul Hoque, Nitish Chandra Debnath, Mat Yamage, Marcel Klaassen
Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are of great socioeconomic and health concern, notably in Southeast Asia where highly pathogenic strains, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and other H5 and H7 AIVs, continue to occur. Wild bird migrants are often implicated in the maintenance and spread of AIV. However, little systematic surveillance of wild birds has been conducted in Southeast Asia to evaluate whether the prevalence of AIV in wild birds is higher than in other parts of the world where HPAI outbreaks occur less frequently...
June 15, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619174/experimental-infection-with-highly-pathogenic-h5n8-avian-influenza-viruses-in-the-mandarin-duck-aix-galericulata-and-domestic-pigeon-columba-livia-domestica
#6
Jung-Hoon Kwon, Yun Kyung Noh, Dong-Hun Lee, Seong-Su Yuk, Tseren-Ochir Erdene-Ochir, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Sol Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song, Sang-Soep Nahm
Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and dissemination of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV). Sub-clinical infection with HPAI in resident wild birds could be a source of dissemination of HPAIV and continuous outbreaks. In this study, the pathogenicity and infectivity of two strains of H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 virus were evaluated in the Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) and domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). None of the birds experimentally infected with H5N8 viruses showed clinical signs or mortality...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609011/the-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-a-virus-down-regulated-several-cellular-micrornas-which-target-viral-genome
#7
Rong Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Jian-Sheng Lu, Bing-Hui Xia, Zhi-Xin Yang, Xu-Dong Zhu, Xiao-Wei Zhou, Pei-Tang Huang
Higher and prolonged viral replication is critical for the increased pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype of H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV) over the lowly pathogenic H1N1 IAV strain. Recent studies highlighted the considerable roles of cellular miRNAs in host defence against viral infection. In this report, using a 3'UTR reporter system, we identified several putative miRNA target sites buried in the H5N1 virus genome. We found two miRNAs, miR-584-5p and miR-1249, that matched with the PB2 binding sequence...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592320/infectivity-transmission-and-pathogenicity-of-h5-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n8-and-h5n2-united-states-index-viruses-in-pekin-ducks-and-chinese-geese
#8
Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Mar Costa-Hurtado, Kateri Bertran, Eric DeJesus, Diane Smith, David E Swayne
In late 2014, a H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, clade 2.3.4.4, spread by migratory waterfowl into North America reassorting with low pathogenicity AI viruses to produce a H5N2 HPAI virus. Since domestic waterfowl are common backyard poultry frequently in contact with wild waterfowl, the infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenicity of the United States H5 HPAI index viruses (H5N8 and H5N2) was investigated in domestic ducks and geese. Ducks infected with the viruses had an increase in body temperature but no or mild clinical signs...
June 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580900/preliminary-epidemiology-of-human-infections-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-china-2017
#9
Lei Zhou, Yi Tan, Min Kang, Fuqiang Liu, Ruiqi Ren, Yali Wang, Tao Chen, Yiping Yang, Chao Li, Jie Wu, Hengjiao Zhang, Dan Li, Carolyn M Greene, Suizan Zhou, A Danielle Iuliano, Fiona Havers, Daxin Ni, Dayan Wang, Zijian Feng, Timothy M Uyeki, Qun Li
We compared the characteristics of cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infections in China. HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were more likely to have had exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas and were hospitalized earlier than were LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients.
August 17, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554502/protection-of-white-leghorn-chickens-by-u-s-emergency-h5-vaccination-against-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n2-high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza-virus
#10
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Dong-Hun Lee, David L Suarez, Darrell R Kapczynski, David E Swayne
During December 2014-June 2015, the U.S. experienced a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak caused by clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses with devastating consequences for the poultry industry. Three vaccines, developed based on updating existing registered vaccines or currently licensed technologies, were evaluated for possible use: an inactivated reverse genetics H5N1 vaccine (rgH5N1) and an RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), both containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.4.4 strain, and a recombinant herpesvirus turkey vectored vaccine (rHVT-H5) containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2...
May 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554058/stockpiled-pre-pandemic-h5n1-influenza-virus-vaccines-with-as03-adjuvant-provide-cross-protection-from-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-virus-challenge-in-ferrets
#11
Xiangjie Sun, Jessica A Belser, Joanna A Pulit-Penaloza, Hannah M Creager, Zhu Guo, Stacie N Jefferson, Feng Liu, Ian A York, James Stevens, Taronna R Maines, Daniel B Jernigan, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine, Terrence M Tumpey
Avian influenza viruses, notably H5 subtype viruses, pose a continuous threat to public health due to their pandemic potential. In recent years, influenza virus H5 subtype split vaccines with novel oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvants (e.g. AS03, MF59) have been shown to be safe, immunogenic, and able to induce broad immune responses in clinical trials, providing strong scientific support for vaccine stockpiling. However, whether such vaccines can provide protection from infection with emerging, antigenically distinct clades of H5 viruses has not been adequately addressed...
May 26, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553293/a-role-for-neutrophils-in-viral-respiratory-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jeremy V Camp, Colleen B Jonsson
Neutrophils are immune cells that are well known to be present during many types of lung diseases associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may contribute to acute lung injury. Neutrophils are poorly studied with respect to viral infection, and specifically to respiratory viral disease. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is the cause of a respiratory disease that poses a significant global public health concern. Influenza disease presents as a relatively mild and self-limiting although highly pathogenic forms exist...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549236/assessment-of-pathogenicity-and-antigenicity-of-american-lineage-influenza-h5n2-viruses-in-taiwan
#13
Chun-Yang Lin, Min-Yuan Chia, Po-Ling Chen, Chia-Tsui Yeh, Ming-Chu Cheng, Ih-Jen Su, Min-Shi Lee
During December 2003 and March 2004, large scale epidemics of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 occurred in poultry farms in central and southern Taiwan. Based on genomic analysis, these H5N2 viruses contain HA and NA genes of American-lineage H5N2 viruses and six internal genes from avian influenza A/H6N1 viruses endemic in poultry in Taiwan. After disappearing for several years, these novel influenza H5N2 viruses caused outbreaks in poultry farms again in 2008, 2010 and 2012, and have evolved into high pathogenic AI (HPAI) since 2010...
May 23, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537546/biological-characterisation-of-the-emerged-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-hpai-a-h7n9-viruses-in-humans-in-mainland-china-2016-to-2017
#14
Wenfei Zhu, Jianfang Zhou, Zi Li, Lei Yang, Xiyan Li, Weijuan Huang, Sumei Zou, Wenbing Chen, Hejiang Wei, Jing Tang, Liqi Liu, Jie Dong, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu
With no or low virulence in poultry, avian influenza A(H7N9) virus has caused severe infections in humans. In the current fifth epidemic wave, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus emerged. The insertion of four amino acids (KRTA) at the haemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site enabled trypsin-independent infectivity of this virus. Although maintaining dual receptor-binding preference, its HA antigenicity was distinct from low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9). The neuraminidase substitution R292K conferred a multidrug resistance phenotype...
May 11, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456525/homologous-and-heterologous-antigenic-matched-vaccines-containing-different-h5-hemagglutinins-provide-variable-protection-of-chickens-from-the-2014-u-s-h5n8-and-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses
#15
Darrell R Kapczynski, Mary J Pantin-Jackwood, Erica Spackman, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez, David E Swayne
From December 2014 to June 2015, a novel H5 Eurasian A/goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage clade 2.3.4.4 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus caused the largest animal health emergency in US history resulting in mortality or culling of greater than 48 million poultry. The outbreak renewed interest in developing intervention strategies, including vaccines, for these newly emergent HPAI viruses. In these studies, several existing H5 vaccines or vaccine seed strains with varying genetic relatedness (85-100%) to the 2...
April 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453859/temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-outbreaks-in-china-during-2004-to-2015
#16
Mingyue Liu, Qian Lu, Shuxia Zhang, Xiaolong Feng, Md Shakhawat Hossain
Identifying the temporal and spatial characteristics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks is very important for developing effective and appropriate countermeasures against HPAI and promoting sustainable development in the poultry industry. This study aimed to analyze four aspects of the temporal and spatial characteristics of HPAI outbreaks in China, including the frequency of HPAI outbreaks, numbers of dead animals (died or culled), types of HPAI viruses, and species of infected animals. Temporal characteristics showed that the frequency of HPAI outbreaks decreased and then increased, with some years deviating from the main trend in 2004 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015, while the largest number of dead animals due to HPAI outbreaks was in 2005...
April 26, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431524/biosecurity-survey-in-relation-to-the-risk-of-hpai-outbreaks-in-backyard-poultry-holdings-in-thimphu-city-area-bhutan
#17
Tenzin Tenzin, Chador Wangdi, Purna Bdr Rai
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess the biosecurity and other practices of backyard poultry holdings and knowledge and practices of poultry keepers following an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus in poultry in Thimphu city area, Bhutan. RESULTS: The study identified 62 backyard poultry holdings in 12 settlement areas, and the owners were subsequently interviewed. The birds are kept in a low-input low-output system, fed locally available scavenging feed base, and supplemented with food scraps and some grain...
April 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418904/a-consensus-hemagglutinin-based-vaccine-delivered-by-an-attenuated-salmonella-mutant-protects-chickens-against-heterologous-h7n1-influenza-virus
#18
Kim Je Hyoung, Irshad Ahmed Hajam, John Hwa Lee
H7N3 and H7N7 are highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and have posed a great threat not only for the poultry industry but for the human health as well. H7N9, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, is also highly pathogenic to humans, and there is a great concern that these H7 subtypes would acquire the ability to spread efficiently between humans, thereby becoming a pandemic threat. A vaccine candidate covering all the three subtypes must, therefore, be an integral part of any pandemic preparedness plan...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385007/experimental-infection-of-dogs-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n8
#19
Seong-Su Yuk, Dong-Hun Lee, Jae-Keun Park, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Chang-Seon Song
During the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 outbreak in South Korea, a dog reared in layer farm contaminated by the virus was reported seropositive for HPAI H5N8. In order to investigate the possibility of the adaptation and transmission of HPAI H5N8 to dogs, we inoculated the H5N8 to dogs in experimental condition. Weak viral genes in nasal swabs and seroconversions were detected even in contact dogs. Although the H5N8 virus doesn't seem to adapt to canine species fully, these results suggest that surveillance on farm dogs should continue as a species in which avian influenza virus may acquire infectivity to mammals through frequent contact with the virus...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364834/chinese-farmers-willingness-to-accept-compensation-to-practice-safe-disposal-of-hpai-infected-chicken
#20
Zeying Huang, Jimin Wang, Alec Zuo
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) is a high morbidity and mortality zoonotic disease, which threatens poultry and human health. An outbreak of disease in China requires strict slaughter and disposal of all chickens within a three-kilometer radius, incurring large private costs for farmers and encouraging black market transactions. A stated preference survey of 331 farmers across six provinces in China was conducted in 2015, in order to measure the responsiveness of farmers to accept various compensation prices for safely disposing of HPAI infected chicken...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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