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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104094/a-two-year-monitoring-period-of-the-genetic-properties-of-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-viruses-in-nigeria-reveals-the-emergence-and-co-circulation-of-distinct-genotypes
#1
Agnes Laleye, Tony Joannis, Ismaila Shittu, Clement Meseko, Gianpiero Zamperin, Adelaide Milani, Bianca Zecchin, Alice Fusaro, Isabella Monne, Celia Abolnik
Phylogenetic analyses of the complete genomes of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2.3.2.1c H5N1 virus strains causing outbreaks in Nigeria's poultry population from 2014 to 2016 showed evidence of distinct co-circulating genotypes and the emergence of reassortant viruses. One of these reassortants became the predominant strain by 2016, and the NA protein of this strain possessed the V96A substitution known to confer reduced susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibiting antiviral drugs. Our findings also demonstrated evolutionary relationships between Nigerian isolates and European and Middle Eastern strains of H5N1 which provides further evidence for the proposed role of migratory birds in spreading the virus, although the involvement of the live poultry trade cannot be excluded...
November 2, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103391/identifying-the-genetic-basis-for-resistance-to-avian-influenza-in-commercial-egg-layer-chickens
#2
W Drobik-Czwarno, A Wolc, J E Fulton, J Arango, T Jankowski, N P O'Sullivan, J C M Dekkers
Two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks have affected commercial egg production flocks in the American continent in recent years; a H7N3 outbreak in Mexico in 2012 that caused 70% to 85% mortality and a H5N2 outbreak in the United States in 2015 with over 99% mortality. Blood samples were obtained from survivors of each outbreak and from age and genetics matched non-affected controls. A total of 485 individuals (survivors and controls) were genotyped with a 600 k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array to detect genomic regions that influenced the outcome of highly pathogenic influenza infection in the two outbreaks...
November 6, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070694/emergence-and-adaptation-of-a-novel-highly-pathogenic-h7n9-influenza-virus-in-birds-and-humans-from-a-2013-human-infecting-low-pathogenic-ancestor
#3
Wenbao Qi, Weixin Jia, Di Liu, Jing Li, Yuhai Bi, Shumin Xie, Bo Li, Tao Hu, Yingying Du, Li Xing, Jiahao Zhang, Fuchun Zhang, Xiaoman Wei, John-Sebastian Eden, Huanan Li, Huaiyu Tian, Wei Li, Guanming Su, Guangjie Lao, Chenggang Xu, Bing Xu, Wenjun Liu, Guihong Zhang, Tao Ren, Edward C Holmes, Jie Cui, Weifeng Shi, George F Gao, Ming Liao
Since its emergence in 2013, the H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) has been circulating in domestic poultry in China, causing five waves of human infections. Recently, a novel H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) variant possessing multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin protein was firstly reported in two human infection cases in January 2017. More seriously, those novel HPAI H7N9 variants have transmitted and caused poultry farms outbreaks in eight provinces...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070059/synergistic-effect-of-pb2-283m-and-526r-contributes-to-enhanced-virulence-of-h5n8-influenza-viruses-in-mice
#4
Xiao Wang, Sujuan Chen, Dandan Wang, Xixin Zha, Siwen Zheng, Tao Qin, Wenjun Ma, Daxin Peng, Xiufan Liu
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 virus has caused considerable economic losses to poultry industry and poses a great threat to public health. Our previous study revealed two genetically similar HPAI H5N8 viruses displaying completely different virulence in mice. However, the molecular basis for viral pathogenicity to mammals remains unknown. Herein, we generated a series of reassortants between the two viruses and evaluated their virulence in mice. We demonstrated that 283M in PB2 is a new mammalian virulence marker for H5 viruses and that synergistic effect of amino acid residues 283M and 526R in PB2 is responsible for high virulence of the HPAI H5N8 virus...
October 25, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067212/awareness-and-mitigation-measures-on-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-in-pastoral-poultry-flocks-of-north-central-nigeria-any-challenging-gap
#5
Nma B Alhaji, Suleiman Yatswako
Village poultry closely interact with wild birds and other livestock in extensively managed poultry flocks, a practice common in pastoral communities of Nigeria. This practice provides sustained dissemination of avian viruses, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. The objectives of this study were to assess their knowledge/awareness, risks identification and biosecurity measures on HPAI H5N1 in pastoral poultry flocks. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in systematically selected pastoral households of North-central Nigeria between May 2015 and June 2016...
August 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047426/airborne-transmission-of-highly-pathogenic-influenza-virus-during-processing-of-infected-poultry
#6
Kateri Bertran, Charles Balzli, Yong-Kuk Kwon, Terrence M Tumpey, Andrew Clark, David E Swayne
Exposure to infected poultry is a suspected cause of avian influenza (H5N1) virus infections in humans. We detected infectious droplets and aerosols during laboratory-simulated processing of asymptomatic chickens infected with human- (clades 1 and 2.2.1) and avian- (clades 1.1, 2.2, and 2.1) origin H5N1 viruses. We detected fewer airborne infectious particles in simulated processing of infected ducks. Influenza virus-naive chickens and ferrets exposed to the air space in which virus-infected chickens were processed became infected and died, suggesting that the slaughter of infected chickens is an efficient source of airborne virus that can infect birds and mammals...
November 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042201/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-recombinant-expressing-the-hemagglutinin-of-h7n9-avian-influenza-virus-protects-chickens-against-ndv-and-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-a-h7n9-virus-challenges
#7
Zenglei Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Xinan Jiao, Xiufan Liu
The emerged highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N9) (HPAI) viruses in China pose a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. Thus H7N9 vaccines are in an urgent need. In this study, we constructed a Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored vaccine (rLXHAF) expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) of H7N9 virus fused with the transmembrane/cytoplasmic tail domain of the NDV fusion protein. rLXHAF stably expressed the HA protein, exhibited similar growth kinetics and pathogenicity as the parental virus...
October 14, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031164/productive-replication-of-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chicken-endothelial-cells-is-determined-by-hemagglutinin-cleavability-and-is-related-to-innate-immune-escape
#8
Adrien Lion, Mathilde Richard, Evelyne Esnault, Emmanuel Kut, Denis Soubieux, Vanaïque Guillory, Mélody Germond, Caroline Blondeau, Rodrigo Guabiraba, Kirsty R Short, Daniel Marc, Pascale Quéré, Sascha Trapp
Endotheliotropism is a hallmark of gallinaceous poultry infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and a feature that distinguishes HPAI from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. Here, we used chicken aortic endothelial cells (chAEC) as a novel in vitro infection model to assess the susceptibility, permissiveness, and host response of chicken endothelial cells (EC) to infections with avian influenza (AI) viruses. Our data show that productive replication of AI viruses in chAEC is critically determined by hemagglutinin cleavability, and is thus an exclusive trait of HPAI viruses...
October 11, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024492/experimental-infection-of-clade-1-1-2-h5n1-clade-2-3-2-1c-h5n1-and-clade-2-3-4-4-h5n6-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-viruses-in-dogs
#9
K S Lyoo, W Na, L V Phan, S W Yoon, M Yeom, D Song, D G Jeong
Since the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Asia, the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of this virus lineage has continued to evolve in avian populations, and H5N1 lineage viruses now circulate concurrently worldwide. Dogs may act as an intermediate host, increasing the potential for zoonotic transmission of influenza viruses. Virus transmission and pathologic changes in HPAI clade 1.1.2 (H5N1)-, 2.3.2.1c (H5N1)- and 2.3.4.4 (H5N6)-infected dogs were investigated. Mild respiratory signs and antibody response were shown in dogs intranasally infected with the viruses...
October 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020163/influenza-a-h5n1-virus-infection-in-a-child-with-encephalitis-complicated-by-obstructive-hydrocephalus
#10
Gannon Chun Kit Mak, Mike Yat-Wah Kwan, Chris Ka Pun Mok, Janice Yee Chi Lo, Malik Peiris, Chi Wai Leung
A two-year-old boy with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus infection with minimal respiratory symptoms developed encephalitis complicated by obstructive hydrocephalus. Viral RNA was detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The virus belonged to H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1b and had acquired a mammalian adaptation mutation PB2 Q591K.
August 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957014/clinical-and-pathologic-characterization-of-an-outbreak-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h7n8-in-commercial-turkeys-in-southern-indiana
#11
Grant N Burcham, José A Ramos-Vara, Duane A Murphy
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a systemic lethal disease of poultry caused by several subtypes of influenza A virus and classified on the basis of serologic reactions to hemagglutinin and neuraminidase surface glycoproteins. In January 2016, a novel subtype of HPAI-H7N8-was diagnosed in a commercial turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) flock in southern Indiana. Clinical signs and history included increased mortality, dyspnea, head tremors, recumbency, and somnolent or unaware birds. Postmortem examination of six recently dead birds showed red-tinged mucous in the choana and trachea and marked pulmonary edema...
September 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956760/genesis-and-spread-of-newly-emerged-highly-pathogenic-h7n9-avian-viruses-in-mainland-china
#12
Lei Yang, Wenfei Zhu, Xiyan Li, Minmei Chen, Jie Wu, Pengbo Yu, Shunxiang Qi, Yiwei Huang, Weixian Shi, Jie Dong, Xiang Zhao, Weijuan Huang, Zi Li, Xiaoxu Zeng, Hong Bo, Tao Chen, Wenbing Chen, Jia Liu, Ye Zhang, Zhenli Liang, Wei Shi, Yuelong Shu, Dayan Wang
The novel low pathogenic H7N9 avian influenza A viruses (LPAI H7N9) have caused a threat to public health for their high mortality and morbidity since their emergence in 2013. Recently, highly pathogenic variants of these H7N9 viruses (HPAI H7N9) have emerged and caused human infections and poultry outbreaks in Mainland China. However, it is still unclear how the HPAI H7N9 virus was generated and how it evolved and spread in China. Here, we show that the ancestor virus of the HPAI H7N9 viruses originated in the Yangtze Delta Region and spread southward to the Pearl Delta Region, possibly through live poultry trades...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941132/infectious-dose-dependent-accumulation-of-live-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n1-virus-in-chicken-skeletal-muscle-implications-for-public-health
#13
G Vasudevan, P R Vanamayya, S Nagarajan, K Rajukumar, S Suba, G Venketash, C Tosh, R Sood, R H Nissly, S V Kuchipudi
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry meat. Skeletal muscle is the largest soft tissue in chicken that has been shown to contain virus during systemic HPAIV infection and supports productive virus infection...
September 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934458/risk-of-human-infections-with-highly-pathogenic-h5n2-and-low-pathogenic-h7n1-avian-influenza-strains-during-outbreaks-in-ostriches-in-south-africa
#14
Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Rudo Samudzi, Johanna McAnerney, Charlene A Jacobs, Juno Thomas, Lucille Blumberg
Background: Risk factors for human infection with highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H5N2 and H7N1 were investigated during outbreaks in ostriches in the Western Cape province, South Africa. Methods: Serum surveys were conducted for veterinarians, farmworkers, and laboratory and abattoir workers involved in 2 AI outbreaks in the Western Cape province: (1) controlling and culling of 42000 ostriches during (HPAI)H5N2 outbreaks in ostriches (2011) (n = 207); (2) movement control during (LPAI)H7N1 outbreaks in 2012 (n = 66)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931689/vaccination-with-recombinant-parainfluenza-virus-5-expressing-neuraminidase-protects-against-homologous-and-heterologous-influenza-virus-challenge
#15
Alaina J Mooney, Jon D Gabbard, Zhuo Li, Daniel A Dlugolenski, Scott K Johnson, Ralph A Tripp, Biao He, S Mark Tompkins
Seasonal human influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality annually, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) along with other emerging influenzas continue to pose pandemic threats. Vaccination is considered the most effective measure for controlling influenza; however, current strategies rely on a precise vaccine match with currently circulating virus strains for efficacy, requiring constant surveillance and regular development of matched vaccines. Current vaccines focus on eliciting specific antibody responses against the hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein; however, the diversity of HAs across species and antigenic drift of circulating strains enables evasion of virus-inhibiting antibody responses, resulting in vaccine failure...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931674/natural-reassortants-between-potentially-zoonotic-avian-influenza-viruses-h5n1-and-h9n2-from-egypt-display-distinct-pathogenic-phenotypes-in-experimentally-infected-chickens-and-ferrets
#16
Mahmoud M Naguib, Reiner Ulrich, Elisa Kasbohm, Christine L P Eng, Donata Hoffmann, Christian Grund, Martin Beer, Timm C Harder
Co-circulation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 and AIV of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least six years should render this country a hypothetical hotspot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants between Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 and H9N2 of the G1-B lineage can be generated by co-amplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and had acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903072/the-role-of-nuclear-ns1-protein-in-highly-pathogenic-h5n1-influenza-viruses
#17
Bobo Wing-Yee Mok, Honglian Liu, Pin Chen, Siwen Liu, Siu-Ying Lau, Xiaofeng Huang, Yen-Chin Liu, Pui Wang, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Honglin Chen
The non-structural protein (NS1) of influenza A viruses (IAV) performs multiple functions during viral infection. NS1 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLS): NLS1 and NLS2. The NS1 protein is located predominantly in the nucleus during the early stages of infection and subsequently exported to the cytoplasm. A nonsense mutation that results in a large deletion in the carboxy-terminal region of the NS1 protein that contains the NLS2 domain was found in some IAV subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 and H5N1 viruses...
September 10, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895870/protection-of-commercial-turkeys-following-inactivated-or-recombinant-h5-vaccine-application-against-the-2015u-s-h5n2-clade-2-3-4-4-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus
#18
Darrell R Kapczynski, Matthew J Sylte, Mary L Killian, Mia K Torchetti, Klaudia Chrzastek, David L Suarez
Between December 2014 and June 2015, North America experienced the largest recorded foreign animal disease outbreak with over 47 million poultry dead or euthanized from viral exposure to a clade 2.3.4.4 H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic. Soon after the epizootic began, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) began testing the efficacy of different vaccines as a possible future control strategy. The aim of these studies were to evaluate the efficacy three H5 vaccines to aid in control of HPAI in commercial turkeys...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889970/genomic-signature-analysis-of-the-recently-emerged-highly-pathogenic-a-h5n8-avian-influenza-virus-implying-an-evolutionary-trend-for-bird-to-human-transmission
#19
Wei Xu, Yanyan Dai, Chen Hua, Qian Wang, Peng Zou, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
In early 2014, a novel subclade (2.3.4.4) of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N8) virus caused the first outbreak in domestic ducks and migratory birds in South Korea. Since then, it has spread to 44 countries and regions. To date, no human infections with A(H5N8) virus have been reported, but the possibility cannot be excluded. By analyzing the genomic signatures of A(H5N8) strains, we found that among the 47 species-associated signature positions, three positions exhibited human-like signatures (HLS), including PA-404S, PB2-613I and PB2-702R and that mutation trend of host signatures of avian A(H5N8) is different before and after 2014...
September 7, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884667/influenza-virus-replication-in-macrophages-balancing-protection-and-pathogenesis
#20
Troy D Cline, Donald Beck, Elizabeth Bianchini
Macrophages are essential for protection against influenza A virus infection, but are also implicated in the morbidity and mortality associated with severe influenza disease, particularly during infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. While influenza virus infection of macrophages was once thought to be abortive, it is now clear that certain virus strains can replicate productively in macrophages. This may have important consequences for the antiviral functions of macrophages, the course of disease and the outcome of infection for the host...
September 8, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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