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Paediatric soft tissue cancers

Claudio Spinelli
Thyroid tumors affect all age groups, including children and adolescents. Malignant cancer of the thyroid is a relatively uncommon disease in pediatric age. In the recent decades the incidence of paediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) has increased. DTC in paediatric age is rare and has an excellent prognosis. Compared to adult counterpart, DTC in childhood presents some different features as follows: larger volume at the diagnosis, more frequent multicentricity (both mono- and bilateral), earlier local involvement of soft tissue of the neck, earlier lymph node involvement, distant metastases 3-4 times more frequent (most often in the lungs and almost always functional) and more common post-operatory recurrence; nevertheless, the prognosis of DTC in childhood is better and the survival greater than in adult...
October 13, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
George Jour, Lu Wang, Sumit Middha, Ahmet Zehir, Wen Chen, Justyna Sadowska, John Healey, Narasimhan P Agaram, Lisa Choi, Khedoudja Nafa, Meera Hameed
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma (ESOSA) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm representing <5% of osteosarcomas and <1% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. Herein, we investigate the clinicopathological and molecular features of ESOSA and explore potential parameters that may affect outcome. Thirty-two cases were retrieved and histomorphology was reviewed. Clinical history and follow-up were obtained through electronic record review. DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was extracted and processed from 27 cases...
January 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
J L Carreras-Delgado, V Pérez-Dueñas, C Riola-Parada, L García-Cañamaque
PET/MRI is a new multimodality technique with a promising future in diagnostic imaging. Technical limitations are being overcome. Interference between the two systems (PET and MRI) seems to have been resolved. MRI-based PET attenuation correction can be performed safely. Scan time is acceptable and the study is tolerable, with claustrophobia prevalence similar to that of MRI. Quantification with common parameters, such as Standardized Uptake Value (SUV), shows a fairly good correlation between both systems...
September 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Ian J Robertson, Fadel Bennani, Ronan S Ryan, Waqar Khan, M Kevin Barry
BACKGROUND: Paediatric undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas are a group of tumours that have remained diagnostically challenging. Recently, a subgroup of undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas with a round to plump spindle cell morphology, expressing the CIC-DUX4 fusion transcript as a result of the t(4;19) or t(10;19) translocation have been identified. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the first case of a CIC-DUX4 positive EWSR-1 negative undifferentiated small blue round cell sarcoma arising clinically in the scalp of an eight-year old boy...
2016: Diagnostic Pathology
Georg Seifert, Volker Budach, Ulrich Keilholz, Peter Wust, Angelika Eggert, Pirus Ghadjar
Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy...
2016: Radiation Oncology
Bernadette Brennan, Gian Luca De Salvo, Daniel Orbach, Angela De Paoli, Anna Kelsey, Peter Mudry, Nadine Francotte, Max Van Noesel, Gianni Bisogno, Michela Casanova, Andrea Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Extracranial malignant rhabdoid tumours (MRT) are rare lethal childhood cancers that often occur in infants and have a characteristic genetic mutation in the SMARCB1 gene. The European Paediatric Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) conducted a multinational prospective study of registered cases of extracranial MRT to test an intensive multimodal approach of treatment for children with newly diagnosed extracranial MRT. METHODS: Between December 2005 and June 2014, we prospectively registered 100 patients from 12 countries with a diagnosis of MRT tumour at an extracranial site on the EpSSG Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma 2005 Study (NRSTS 2005)...
June 2016: European Journal of Cancer
T Valentin, A Le Cesne, I Ray-Coquard, A Italiano, G Decanter, E Bompas, N Isambert, J Thariat, C Linassier, F Bertucci, J O Bay, A Bellesoeur, N Penel, S Le Guellec, T Filleron, C Chevreau
BACKGROUND: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are a rare subtype of soft tissue sarcoma. They can arise in irradiated fields, in patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), or sporadically. MPNST exhibit an aggressive behaviour, and their optimal management remains controversial. An unsolved issue is whether NF1-related and sporadic forms of MPNST have a different prognosis, and should be managed differently. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Adult and paediatric patients with histologically confirmed MPNST treated between 1990 and 2013 in French cancer centres of the GSF/GETO network, were included in this retrospective study...
March 2016: European Journal of Cancer
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: The SCAN sarcoma workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for the initial evaluation, diagnosis, and management of extremity soft tissue sarcoma and osteosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The workgroup utilised a consensus approach to create high quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines suited for our local setting. RESULTS: Various international guidelines from the fields of radiology, pathology, orthopaedic surgery, medical, radiation and paediatric oncology were reviewed, including those developed by von Mehren Metal (J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2014), the National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (2006), the European Sarcoma Network Working Group (2012) and Grimer RJ et al (Sarcoma 2008)...
October 2015: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Christian Kreis, Michael Grotzer, Heinz Hengartner, Ben Daniel Spycher
The aetiology of childhood cancers remains largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that infections may be involved and that mini-epidemics thereof could result in space-time clustering of incident cases. Most previous studies support spatio-temporal clustering for leukaemia, while results for other diagnostic groups remain mixed. Few studies have corrected for uneven regional population shifts which can lead to spurious detection of clustering. We examined whether there is space-time clustering of childhood cancers in Switzerland identifying cases diagnosed at age <16 years between 1985 and 2010 from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry...
May 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Rutger A J Nievelstein, Annemieke S Littooij
Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography. These later techniques are often combined with CT allowing for simultaneous acquisition of image data on the biological behaviour of tumour, as well as the anatomical localisation and extent of tumour spread...
May 2016: La Radiologia Medica
L Feuvret, V Calugaru, R Ferrand
Hadron therapy (including protons and ions) is still expanding worldwide, although still limited by the cost and thus the number of available facilities. If the historical indications remain eye melanomas, skull base tumours and paediatric tumours for protontherapy; and salivary glands, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity tumours, and soft tissue sarcomas for carbon ions, no conclusion can be drawn about the role of these modalities for other tumours, such as prostate, lung cancers. Since 2013, more than 100 clinical trials are on-going, including comparisons between advanced photons modalities, protontherapy and carbon ions therapy...
October 2015: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Florencia Moreno, Moreno Florencia, Veronica Dussel, Dussel Veronica, Liliana Orellana, Orellana Liliana
INTRODUCTION: Information on the epidemiology of childhood cancer in Latin America is limited. The Argentinean Oncopaediatric Registry (ROHA) is a population-based registry active since 2000. This paper describes the 3-year survival experience of children diagnosed with cancer in Argentina during 2000-2007 by major morphological subgroup, age, sex, and geographical region of residence. METHODS: Newly diagnosed paediatric cancer cases are registered in ROHA (estimated coverage is 93% of the country's cases)...
August 2015: Cancer Epidemiology
Hamid Zia, Graeme I Murray, Carrie A Vyhlidal, J Steven Leeder, Ahmed E Anwar, Marilyn M Bui, Atif A Ahmed
Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive malignancy of bone and soft tissue with high incidence of metastasis and resistance to chemotherapy. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases are a family of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, including anti-cancer drugs, and have been implicated in the aggressive behaviour of various malignancies. Tumour samples and clinical information including age, sex, tumour site, tumour size, clinical stage and survival were collected from 36 adult and paediatric patients with Ewing's sarcoma family tumours...
April 2015: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Daniela Cristina Stefan, Bjorn Baadjes, Mariana Kruger
INTRODUCTION: Childhood cancer is rare and comprises only 1% of all cancers. The current incidence of childhood cancer in Namibia, as in many other African countries, is not known. The aim of this research was to assess the paediatric cancer incidence between 2003-2010 at Windhoek Central Hospital, the only pediatric oncology-referring centre in Namibia and to compare with the previous calculated incidence in the country 20 years ago. METHODS: A retrospective, descriptive review of the paediatric oncology cases presenting to Windhoek Central Hospital between 2003 and 2010 was undertaken, and data regarding age, sex, cancer type, area of residence were extrapolated...
2014: Pan African Medical Journal
Manuela Salerno, Sofia Avnet, Gloria Bonuccelli, Shigekuni Hosogi, Donatella Granchi, Nicola Baldini
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents, with a high rate of relapse that dramatically affects the clinical outcome. Multiagent chemotherapy, in combination with surgery and/or radiation therapy, is the treatment of choice. However, the relapse rate is disappointingly high and identification of new therapeutic tools is urgently needed. Under this respect, the selective block of key features of cancer stem cells (CSC) appears particularly promising. In this study, we isolated rhabdomyosarcoma CSC with stem-like features (high expression of NANOG and OCT3/4, self-renewal ability, multipotency)...
2014: PloS One
Amreeta Dhanoa, Tze Lek Yong, Stephanie Jin Leng Yeap, Isaac Shi Zhung Lee, Vivek Ajit Singh
BACKGROUND: Although studies have shown that a large proportion of cancer patients use CAM, no study on CAM use amongst orthopaedic oncology patients has been published. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with CAM use amongst orthopaedic oncology patients. METHODS: All consecutive consenting patients/parents who presented at the Orthopaedic Oncology Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (1st January to 31st December 2013) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire...
2014: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Daniel Orbach, Sabine Sarnacki, Hervé J Brisse, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Pierre-Henri Jarreau, Vassilis Tsatsaris, André Baruchel, Michel Zerah, Etienne Seigneur, Michel Peuchmaur, François Doz
Neonatal cancer is rare and comprises a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with substantial histological diversity. Almost all types of paediatric cancer can occur in fetuses and neonates; however, the presentation and behaviour of neonatal tumours often differs from that in older children, leading to differences in diagnosis and management. The causes of neonatal cancer are unclear, but genetic factors probably have a key role. Other congenital abnormalities are frequently present. Teratoma and neuroblastoma are the most common histological types of neonatal cancer, with soft-tissue sarcoma, leukaemia, renal tumours, and brain tumours also among the more frequent types...
December 2013: Lancet Oncology
Iman Ali Ba-Saddik
BACKGROUND: Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. METHODS: Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer <15 years age registered in Aden Caner Registry (ACR), Yemen, from 1997 to 2006...
December 2013: Cancer Epidemiology
S A Adewuyi, H Musa, M O Samaila, G O Ogunrinde, E A Ameh, O B Popoola
UNLABELLED: Summary AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Pattern of Paediatric solid cancers seen over 5 years in the Radiotherapy and Oncology Department of Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria-Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved patients aged 16 years and below diagnosed with solid cancers referred to the Radiotherapy and Oncology Centre for further management. Between January 2006 and December 2010, a total of 136 new patients with paediatric solid cancers were seen and evaluated...
June 2013: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Ewa Bien, Malgorzata Krawczyk, Ewa Izycka-Swieszewska, Piotr Trzonkowski, Bernarda Kazanowska, Elzbieta Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Anna Balcerska
CONTEXT: The roles of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and IL-12 in regulation of cancer growth and Th1/Th2 immune responses towards cancer are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To establish the prognostic significance of serum IL-10 and IL-12 in paediatric soft tissue sarcomas (STS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: ELISA determinations of cytokines were performed as pre-treatment in 59 children with STS and 30 healthy controls. RESULTS: Elevated IL-10 and decreased IL-12 serum levels correlated with advanced disease, poor response to chemotherapy and poor outcome...
May 2013: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
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