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transverse myelitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639937/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-compared-with-standard-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-transverse-myelitis-in-adults-and-children-strive
#1
Michael Absoud, Peter Brex, Olga Ciccarelli, Onyinye Diribe, Gavin Giovannoni, Jennifer Hellier, Rosemary Howe, Rachel Holland, Joanna Kelly, Paul McCrone, Caroline Murphy, Jackie Palace, Andrew Pickles, Michael Pike, Neil Robertson, Anu Jacob, Ming Lim
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord that affects adults and children and that causes motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. There is a prolonged recovery phase, which may continue for many years. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an uncommon relapsing inflammatory central nervous system condition in which TM can be the first presenting symptom. As TM and NMO affect many patients in the prime of their working life, the disorder can impose a significant demand on health resources...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537458/chiari-i-malformation-in-children-with-transverse-myelitis
#2
Sathya Vadivelu, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Maureen Mealy, Smurti Patel, Libby Kosnik-Infinger, Daniel Becker
PURPOSE: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an acute inflammatory spinal cord injury. Asymptomatic Chiari I malformation (CMI) management is highly controversial, particularly when associated with a spinal syrinx. Here, we assess the occurrence of CMI in the pediatric TM population and management outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 61 consecutively identified pediatric TM cases over an -8-year period. We reviewed demographic characteristics, radiographic findings, presenting symptoms, and long-term outcomes...
May 24, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509337/impact-of-induction-chemotherapy-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-thiotepa-on-brain-volume-loss-and-functional-status-of-children-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour
#3
Elwira Szychot, Kiran Seunarine, Kshitij Mankad, Steffi Thust, Chris Clark, Mark N Gaze, Antony Michalski
BACKGROUND: The introduction of aggressive chemo-radiotherapy regimens has improved overall survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET). However, these combinations may result in neurotoxicity. Previously reported magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children receiving intensive sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) and high-dose thiotepa prompted us to investigate the degree of brain volume loss and patients' functional status after therapy...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460008/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#4
P N Britton, C C Blyth, K Macartney, R C Dale, J Li-Kim-Moy, G Khandaker, N Crawford, H Marshall, J Clark, E Elliott, R Booy, A C Cheng, C A Jones
Background.: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern hemisphere. Methods.: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from two studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416784/longitudinal-extensive-transverse-myelitis-letm-in-children-a-twenty-year-study-from-oman
#5
Roshan Koul, Amna M Alfutaisi, Renjith Mani, Rana A Abdel Rahim, Dilip K Sankhla, Faisal M Al Azri
OBJECTIVE: The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#6
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Marrie, Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153851/transverse-myelitis-as-manifestation-of-celiac-disease-in-a-toddler
#7
Hilde Krom, Fleur Sprangers, René van den Berg, Marc Alexander Benninga, Angelika Kindermann
We present a 17-month-old girl with rapidly progressive unwillingness to sit, stand, play, and walk. Furthermore, she lacked appetite, vomited, lost weight, and had an iron deficiency. Physical examination revealed a cachectic, irritable girl with a distended abdomen, dystrophic legs with paraparesis, disturbed sensibility, and areflexia. An MRI scan revealed abnormal high signal intensity on T2-weighted images in the cord on the thoracic level, without cerebral abnormalities, indicating transverse myelitis (TM)...
March 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000111/uncommon-disorders-masquerading-as-acute-flaccid-paralysis-in-children
#8
Meenal Garg, Shilpa D Kulkarni, Varsha Patil, Rafat Sayed, Anaita Udwadia Hegde
The syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a common medical emergency in children. In the era of poliomyelitis eradication, the common causes of AFP include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis and traumatic neuritis. However, many common diseases can uncommonly present as AFP and some uncommon diseases may also masquerade like it. Uncommon causes of AFP seen at a tertiary care pediatric hospital are discussed along with relevant points in diagnosis and management. Also, common pitfalls in diagnosis of pediatric AFP and an approach to investigations are discussed...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994362/serological-markers-associated-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-south-india
#9
Lekha Pandit, Douglas Kazutoshi Sato, Sharik Mustafa, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Anitha D'Cunha, Chaithra Malli, Akshatha Sudhir, Kazuo Fujihara
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) represent 20% of all demyelinating disorders in South India. No studies have determined the seroprevalence to both antibodies against aquaporin-4* and antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (anti-MOG+) in this population. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize seropositive patients for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (anti-AQP4+) and anti-MOG+ in South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 125 consecutive patients (15 children) who were serologically characterized using live transfected cells to human M23-AQP4 or full-length MOG...
October 2016: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913754/neurological-manifestations-in-children-with-dengue-fever-an-indian-perspective
#10
Archan Sil, Tamoghna Biswas, Moumita Samanta, Mithun Chandra Konar, Arun Kumar De, Jasodhara Chaudhuri
Ours was a descriptive observational cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary care hospital in eastern India over a period of one year to study the profile of neurological involvement in paediatric dengue patients. Of 71 laboratory-confirmed cases, 20 (28.17%) had neurological involvement. Common forms observed were acute encephalopathy (40%), encephalitis (30%), pure motor weakness (15%), transverse myelitis (5%), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (5%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (5%). The dengue IgM antibody could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of only two patients with encephalitis...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883372/a-case-of-transverse-myelitis-caused-by-varicella-zoster-virus-in-an-immunocompetent-older-patient
#11
Jeong Eun Lee, Shinwon Lee, Kye Hyung Kim, Hee Ryeong Jang, Young Joo Park, Jin Suk Kang, Sung Yong Han, Sun Hee Lee
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox (varicella) in children. VZV reactivation may lead to neurological complications, including transverse myelitis. However, transverse myelitis caused by VZV reactivation is rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we report a case of transverse myelitis caused by VZV in an immunocompetent older patient, and confirmed this case by polymerase chain reaction. A 79-year-old woman visited our service with complaints of weakness in the right lower leg, generalized vesicular eruptions, and throbbing pain in the right flank for ten days...
December 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572861/pediatric-transverse-myelitis
#12
REVIEW
Michael Absoud, Benjamin M Greenberg, Ming Lim, Tim Lotze, Terrence Thomas, Kumaran Deiva
Pediatric acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an immune-mediated CNS disorder and contributes to 20% of children experiencing a first acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). ATM must be differentiated from other presentations of myelopathy and may be the first presentation of relapsing ADS such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The tenets of the diagnostic criteria for ATM established by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group can generally be applied in children; however, a clear sensory level may not be evident in some...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452920/acute-flaccid-weakness-with-myelopathy-and-peripheral-nerve-involvement-in-2-children-recent-characterization-of-a-previously-observed-phenomenon
#13
Gemma Olive, Antonia Clarke, Katja Doerholt, Vasantha Gowda, Atta Siddiqui, Ming J Lim
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid weakness may be the first presentation of acute transverse myelitis (ATM), an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder or may be the first presentation of anterior horn cell syndrome or peripheral nervous system disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe two previously healthy female infants who presented with acute flaccid paralysis and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging revealed central cord signal changes in both cases and surprisingly electrophysiological studies performed revealed a generalized axonal motor neuropathy as well...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299367/neurological-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-hospitalized-children-and-their-long-term-follow-up
#14
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245861/enterovirus-infections-in-singaporean-children-an-assessment-of-neurological-manifestations-and-clinical-outcomes
#15
Wen Yi Thong, Audrey Han, S J Furene Wang, Jeremy Lin, Mas Suhaila Isa, Evelyn Siew Chuan Koay, Stacey Kiat-Hong Tay
INTRODUCTION: Enterovirus infections in childhood can be associated with significant neurological morbidity. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and range of neurological manifestations, determine the clinical characteristics and assess differences in clinical outcomes for Singaporean children diagnosed with enterovirus infections. METHODS: In this single-centre, case-control study, clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients admitted to National University Hospital, Singapore, from August 2007 to October 2011 and diagnosed with enterovirus infection, based on the enterovirus polymerase chain reaction test, or cultures from throat and rectal swabs or cerebrospinal fluid samples...
April 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242065/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-paediatric-neurology-safety-adherence-to-guidelines-and-long-term-outcome
#16
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Russell C Dale
AIM: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an expensive therapy used in immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders. Increasing demands and consequent shortages result in a need for usage to conform to guidelines. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated IVIG use for neuroimmunological indications and adherence to existing guidelines in a major Australian paediatric hospital between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-six children (96 male, 100 female; mean age at disease onset 6y 5mo [range 3mo-15y 10mo], mean age at first IVIG dose 7y 2mo [range 3mo-16y 5mo]) received IVIG for neuroimmunological indications during the study period (28...
November 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237752/neuromyelitis-optica-relapses-race-and-rate-immunosuppression-and-impairment
#17
George Tackley, Fanny O'Brien, João Rocha, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Saleel Chandratre, Christopher Halfpenny, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Warren Wasiewski, Maria Isabel Leite, Jacqueline Palace
OBJECTIVE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare antibody-mediated CNS disease characterised by disabling relapses leading to high morbidity and mortality. Understanding relapse activity and severity is important for treatment decisions and clinical trial design. We assessed (1) whether clinical and demographic factors associate with different relapse rates and (2) the relative impact of immunosuppressive treatments on relapse rates and on attack-related residual disability. METHODS: Clinical, demographic and treatment data were prospectively collected from 79 consecutive aquaporin 4 antibody positive patients seen in the nationally commissioned Oxford NMO service...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128728/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-associated-pediatric-central-nervous-system-demyelination-clinical-course-neuroimaging-findings-and-response-to-therapy
#18
Salini Thulasirajah, Daniela Pohl, Jorge Davila-Acosta, Sunita Venkateswaran
Under the umbrella of pediatric-acquired demyelinating syndromes, there is a multitude of disorders, including optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), multiple sclerosis (MS), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Due to overlapping clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, it can be challenging to provide an accurate diagnosis. In view of therapeutic and prognostic implications, an early and reliable diagnosis is however of utmost importance...
August 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924166/acute-transverse-myelitis-in-childhood-a-single-centre-experience-from-north-india
#19
Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan, Jitendra K Sahu, Niranjan K Khandelwal, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi
BACKGROUND: Acute transvers myelitis (ATM) is a rare and disabling condition in childhood. There are only few reports of clinical profile, prognosis and predictors of ATM from developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of children with ATM and predictors of its outcome. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of children <12 years of age diagnosed with ATM over a period of 6 years from a tertiary care institute. RESULTS: Thirty six children (21 boys, median age-7...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780026/myeloradicular-form-of-neuroschistosomiasis-in-a-six-year-old-boy-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni
#20
João Victor Salgado, Izabel Athayde da Silva Cruz Salgado, Leônidas Lopes Braga Júnior, Silane Calland Marques Serra, Verbena Maria de Carvalho Barros, Maria José Alves Silva, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Neuroschistosomiasis is a severe disease caused by the presence of Schistosoma eggs and/or adult worms in the central nervous system. Schistosomal transverse myelitis represents a rare clinical form with nonspecific clinical findings, and it is thus underdiagnosed, especially in children. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old patient with the myeloradicular form of neuroschistosomiasis.
December 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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