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transverse myelitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773357/acute-transverse-myelitis-following-an-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-an-unusual-presentation
#1
Thomas Simon, Emmanuel Cheuret, Léa Fiedler, Catherine Mengelle, Eloïse Baudou, Kumaran Deiva
Opso-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare and severe condition. Ataxia, opsoclonus, myoclonus and/or behavioral and sleeping disturbances define that autoimmune disorder syndrome which is paraneoplastic or triggered by an infection. Here, we report a 3 year-old immunocompetent boy who developed an atypical OMS which was later complicated by an acute transverse myelitis. Screening for neuroblastoma was negative and extensive infectious screening revealed an active HHV-6 infection confirmed by blood and cerebrospinal fluid PCR...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721683/pediatric-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Grace Y Gombolay, Tanuja Chitnis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a group of inflammatory and demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system that can occur in children and adults. The classic presentation of NMOSD is characterized by optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, but other presentations are also recognized, expanding the disease as NMO spectrum disorders. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical features, along with management and treatment options, including potential future therapeutic options, in pediatric NMOSD...
May 2, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696041/acute-transverse-myelitis-in-children-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Azita Tavasoli, Aidin Tabrizi
Objective: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder characterized by relatively acute onset of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. Children comprise 20% of total cases of ATM. In this review, we described the current literature on childhood ATM, focusing on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, approach to diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and outcome in the pediatric population. Materials &Methods: We searched the related articles in electronic databases such as Scopus, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and PubMed...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692631/pediatric-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-a-nationwide-validation-study-of-the-danish-national-patient-register
#4
Magnus Spangsberg Boesen, Melinda Magyari, Alfred Peter Born, Lau Caspar Thygesen
Objective: To validate the Danish National Patient Register's (NPR) diagnoses of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) including multiple sclerosis (MS). Study design and setting: We identified ADS diagnostic groups using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes and reviewed medical records to validate the NPR diagnoses during 2008-2015. Results: Among 409 children in the study, 184 children had a validated and final ADS diagnosis after reviewing medical records as follows: optic neuritis (ON; n=46), transverse myelitis (TM; n=16), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM; n=50), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) including dissemination in space (CIS [DIS]) but not dissemination in time (n=6), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOsd; n=5), and MS (n=61)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602529/neurosyphilis-as-a-cause-of-transverse-myelitis-in-a-teenage-girl
#5
Karen Kim Jo Yaphockun, Shannon Wai
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that was nearly eradicated in 2001 but is now making a resurgence. It has a wide range of clinical manifestations depending on disease stage. Neurosyphilis is an infrequently seen infectious disease with central nervous system involvement that can occur in either early- or late-stage syphilis. The diagnosis of neurosyphilis is challenging, primarily because Treponema pallidum, the infecting organism, cannot be cultured in vitro...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423614/mri-of-the-first-event-in-pediatric-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-with-antibodies-to-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein
#6
Matthias Baumann, Astrid Grams, Tanja Djurdjevic, Eva-Maria Wendel, Christian Lechner, Bettina Behring, Astrid Blaschek, Katharina Diepold, Astrid Eisenkölbl, Joel Fluss, Michael Karenfort, Johannes Koch, Bahadir Konuşkan, Steffen Leiz, Andreas Merkenschlager, Daniela Pohl, Mareike Schimmel, Charlotte Thiels, Barbara Kornek, Kathrin Schanda, Markus Reindl, Kevin Rostásy
Antibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-Ab) can be detected in various pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Here, we analyze the spectrum of neuroradiologic findings in children with MOG-Ab and a first demyelinating event. The cerebral and spinal MRI of 69 children with different ADS was assessed in regard to the distribution and characteristics of lesions. Children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 36) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (n = 5) presented an imaging pattern characterized predominantly by poorly demarcated lesions with a wide supra- and infratentorial distribution...
April 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288492/-leukodystrophy-like-phenotype-in-children-with-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibody-associated-disease
#7
Yael Hacohen, Thomas Rossor, Kshitij Mankad, Wk 'Kling' Chong, Andrew Lux, Evangeline Wassmer, Ming Lim, Frederik Barkhof, Olga Ciccarelli, Cheryl Hemingway
AIM: To review the demographics and clinical and paraclinical parameters of children with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated relapsing disease. METHOD: In this UK-based, multicentre study, 31 children with MOG antibody-associated relapsing disease were studied retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the 31 children studied, 14 presented with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM); they were younger (mean 4.1y) than the remainder (mean 8...
April 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249004/leber-hereditary-optic-neuropathy-and-longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis
#8
C Bursle, K Riney, J Stringer, D Moore, G Gole, L S Kearns, D A Mackey, D Coman
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy is an inherited optic neuropathy caused by mitochondrial DNA point mutations leading to sudden, painless loss of vision. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy presenting with a radiological phenotype of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis on a background of severe visual impairment secondary to Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). He was found to have dual mitochondrial DNA mutations at 14484 (MTND6 gene) and 4160 (MTND1 gene) in a family with a severe form of LHON characterised by not only an unusually high penetrance of optic neuropathy, but also severe extra-ocular neurological complications...
December 17, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181601/acute-flaccid-myelitis-etiologic-challenges-diagnostic-and-management-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Sarah E Hopkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purpose of review Acute flaccid myelitis is a polio-like illness defined by the acute onset of flaccid paralysis in the setting spinal MRI demonstrating a longitudinal lesion in the gray matter of the cord. This paper aims to review the current state of knowledge and key clinical points for the diagnosis and management of acute flaccid myelitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings There were clusters of AFM noted in California and Colorado in 2014, with additional cases across the USA that year, and another spike in cases in 2016...
November 28, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103426/the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-acquired-demyelinating-syndromes-in-children
#10
Rinze Neuteboom, Colin Wilbur, Danielle Van Pelt, Moses Rodriguez, Ann Yeh
Acquired demyelinating syndromes in childhood comprise a spectrum of monophasic and recurrent inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system. Examples of monophasic conditions include, clinically isolated syndromes such as optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, as well as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, whereas recurrent disorders include entities such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Knowledge about these disorders has expanded due to rigorously evaluated diagnostic criteria, magnetic resonance imaging features, outcomes, and serum biomarkers in these disorders...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049805/health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-patients-with-demyelinating-diseases-relevance-of-disability-relapsing-presentation-and-fatigue
#11
Mariella M Self, Aaron Fobian, Katherine Cutitta, Arianne Wallace, Timothy E Lotze
Objective: Decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis is established, but little research has examined HRQOL in the broader pediatric demyelinating disease population, and predictors of reduced HRQOL are largely unexplored. We sought to (1) compare generic HRQOL and fatigue of pediatric patients with relapsing (i.e., multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica) versus monophasic demyelinating diseases (i.e., acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, clinically isolated syndrome) and (2) examine the extent to which disability, relapsing disease, and fatigue predict HRQOL...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#12
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017268/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#13
Philip N Britton, Christopher C Blyth, Kristine Macartney, Russell C Dale, Jean Li-Kim-Moy, Gulam Khandaker, Nigel W Crawford, Helen Marshall, Julia E Clark, Elizabeth J Elliott, Robert Booy, Allen C Cheng, Cheryl A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza-associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern Hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from 2 studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756061/assessment-of-acute-motor-deficit-in-the-pediatric-emergency-room
#14
REVIEW
Marcio Moacyr Vasconcelos, Luciana G A Vasconcelos, Adriana Rocha Brito
OBJECTIVES: This review article aimed to present a clinical approach, emphasizing the diagnostic investigation, to children and adolescents who present in the emergency room with acute-onset muscle weakness. SOURCES: A systematic search was performed in PubMed database during April and May 2017, using the following search terms in various combinations: "acute," "weakness," "motor deficit," "flaccid paralysis," "child," "pediatric," and "emergency"...
November 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639937/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-intravenous-immunoglobulin-compared-with-standard-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-transverse-myelitis-in-adults-and-children-strive
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Michael Absoud, Peter Brex, Olga Ciccarelli, Onyinye Diribe, Gavin Giovannoni, Jennifer Hellier, Rosemary Howe, Rachel Holland, Joanna Kelly, Paul McCrone, Caroline Murphy, Jackie Palace, Andrew Pickles, Michael Pike, Neil Robertson, Anu Jacob, Ming Lim
BACKGROUND: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an immune-mediated disorder of the spinal cord that affects adults and children and that causes motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. There is a prolonged recovery phase, which may continue for many years. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an uncommon relapsing inflammatory central nervous system condition in which TM can be the first presenting symptom. As TM and NMO affect many patients in the prime of their working life, the disorder can impose a significant demand on health resources...
May 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537458/chiari-i-malformation-in-children-with-transverse-myelitis
#16
Sathya Vadivelu, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Maureen Mealy, Smurti Patel, Libby Kosnik-Infinger, Daniel Becker
PURPOSE: Transverse myelitis (TM) is an acute inflammatory spinal cord injury. Asymptomatic Chiari I malformation (CMI) management is highly controversial, particularly when associated with a spinal syrinx. Here, we assess the occurrence of CMI in the pediatric TM population and management outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on 61 consecutively identified pediatric TM cases over an -8-year period. We reviewed demographic characteristics, radiographic findings, presenting symptoms, and long-term outcomes...
May 24, 2017: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509337/impact-of-induction-chemotherapy-hyperfractionated-accelerated-radiotherapy-and-high-dose-thiotepa-on-brain-volume-loss-and-functional-status-of-children-with-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumour
#17
Elwira Szychot, Kiran Seunarine, Kshitij Mankad, Steffi Thust, Chris Clark, Mark N Gaze, Antony Michalski
BACKGROUND: The introduction of aggressive chemo-radiotherapy regimens has improved overall survival in children with primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET). However, these combinations may result in neurotoxicity. Previously reported magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in children receiving intensive sequential chemotherapy, hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (HART) and high-dose thiotepa prompted us to investigate the degree of brain volume loss and patients' functional status after therapy...
November 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460008/the-spectrum-and-burden-of-influenza-associated-neurological-disease-in-children-combined-encephalitis-and-influenza-sentinel-site-surveillance-from-australia-2013-2015
#18
P N Britton, C C Blyth, K Macartney, R C Dale, J Li-Kim-Moy, G Khandaker, N Crawford, H Marshall, J Clark, E Elliott, R Booy, A C Cheng, C A Jones
Background: There are few longitudinal studies of seasonal influenza associated neurological disease (IAND) and none from the Southern hemisphere. Methods: We extracted prospectively acquired Australian surveillance data from two studies nested within the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network: the Influenza Complications Alert Network (FluCAN) study and the Australian Childhood Encephalitis (ACE) study between 2013 and 2015. We described the clinical features and severity of IAND in children, including influenza associated encephalitis/encephalopathy (IAE)...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416784/longitudinal-extensive-transverse-myelitis-letm-in-children-a-twenty-year-study-from-oman
#19
Roshan Koul, Amna M Alfutaisi, Renjith Mani, Rana A Abdel Rahim, Dilip K Sankhla, Faisal M Al Azri
OBJECTIVE: The data on children with diagnosis of idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM) was searched to find the pattern of myelitis in Oman. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out from January1995 to December 2014. Electronic medical records and patient medical files were seen to get the complete data of the children with ITM. This work was carried out at Sultan Qaboos University hospital, Muscat, Oman. The ethical committee of the hospital had approved the study...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334875/white-matter-changes-in-paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-monophasic-demyelinating-disorders
#20
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
See Hacohen et al. (doi:10.1093/awx075) for a scientific commentary on this article. Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4...
May 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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