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transverse myelitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883372/a-case-of-transverse-myelitis-caused-by-varicella-zoster-virus-in-an-immunocompetent-older-patient
#1
Jeong Eun Lee, Shinwon Lee, Kye Hyung Kim, Hee Ryeong Jang, Young Joo Park, Jin Suk Kang, Sung Yong Han, Sun Hee Lee
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a human neurotropic alphaherpesvirus that causes chickenpox (varicella) in children. VZV reactivation may lead to neurological complications, including transverse myelitis. However, transverse myelitis caused by VZV reactivation is rare in immunocompetent patients. Herein, we report a case of transverse myelitis caused by VZV in an immunocompetent older patient, and confirmed this case by polymerase chain reaction. A 79-year-old woman visited our service with complaints of weakness in the right lower leg, generalized vesicular eruptions, and throbbing pain in the right flank for ten days...
November 11, 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572861/pediatric-transverse-myelitis
#2
Michael Absoud, Benjamin M Greenberg, Ming Lim, Tim Lotze, Terrence Thomas, Kumaran Deiva
Pediatric acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an immune-mediated CNS disorder and contributes to 20% of children experiencing a first acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS). ATM must be differentiated from other presentations of myelopathy and may be the first presentation of relapsing ADS such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or multiple sclerosis (MS). The tenets of the diagnostic criteria for ATM established by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium Working Group can generally be applied in children; however, a clear sensory level may not be evident in some...
August 30, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452920/acute-flaccid-weakness-with-myelopathy-and-peripheral-nerve-involvement-in-2-children-recent-characterization-of-a-previously-observed-phenomenon
#3
Gemma Olive, Antonia Clarke, Katja Doerholt, Vasantha Gowda, Atta Siddiqui, Ming J Lim
BACKGROUND: Acute flaccid weakness may be the first presentation of acute transverse myelitis (ATM), an immune-mediated central nervous system disorder or may be the first presentation of anterior horn cell syndrome or peripheral nervous system disease. CASE REPORTS: We describe two previously healthy female infants who presented with acute flaccid paralysis and encephalopathy. Neuroimaging revealed central cord signal changes in both cases and surprisingly electrophysiological studies performed revealed a generalized axonal motor neuropathy as well...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299367/neurological-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-hospitalized-children-and-their-long-term-follow-up
#4
Jessica Kammer, Stefan Ziesing, Lukas Aguirre Davila, Eva Bültmann, Sabine Illsinger, Anibh M Das, Dieter Haffner, Hans Hartmann
Objective In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess frequency, types, and long-term outcome of neurological disease during acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods Medical records of patients hospitalized with acute M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed. Possible risk factors were analyzed by uni- and multivariate regression. Patients with neurological symptoms were followed up by expanded disability status score (EDSS) and the cognitive problems in children and adolescents (KOPKJ) scale...
October 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245861/enterovirus-infections-in-singaporean-children-an-assessment-of-neurological-manifestations-and-clinical-outcomes
#5
Wen Yi Thong, Audrey Han, S J Furene Wang, Jeremy Lin, Mas Suhaila Isa, Evelyn Siew Chuan Koay, Stacey Kiat-Hong Tay
INTRODUCTION: Enterovirus infections in childhood can be associated with significant neurological morbidity. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and range of neurological manifestations, determine the clinical characteristics and assess differences in the clinical outcomes for Singaporean children diagnosed with enterovirus infections. METHODS: In this single-centre, case-control study, clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients admitted from August 2007 to October 2011 to National University Hospital, Singapore, and diagnosed with enterovirus infection based on the enterovirus polymerase chain reaction test or cultures from throat and rectal swabs or cerebrospinal fluid samples...
June 1, 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242065/intravenous-immunoglobulin-in-paediatric-neurology-safety-adherence-to-guidelines-and-long-term-outcome
#6
Margherita Nosadini, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Agnese Suppiej, Stefano Sartori, Russell C Dale
AIM: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an expensive therapy used in immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders. Increasing demands and consequent shortages result in a need for usage to conform to guidelines. METHOD: We retrospectively evaluated IVIG use for neuroimmunological indications and adherence to existing guidelines in a major Australian paediatric hospital between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: One-hundred and ninety-six children (96 male, 100 female; mean age at disease onset 6y 5mo [range 3mo-15y 10mo], mean age at first IVIG dose 7y 2mo [range 3mo-16y 5mo]) received IVIG for neuroimmunological indications during the study period (28...
May 31, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27237752/neuromyelitis-optica-relapses-race-and-rate-immunosuppression-and-impairment
#7
George Tackley, Fanny O'Brien, João Rocha, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Saleel Chandratre, Christopher Halfpenny, Cheryl Hemingway, Evangeline Wassmer, Warren Wasiewski, Maria Isabel Leite, Jacqueline Palace
OBJECTIVE: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare antibody-mediated CNS disease characterised by disabling relapses leading to high morbidity and mortality. Understanding relapse activity and severity is important for treatment decisions and clinical trial design. We assessed (1) whether clinical and demographic factors associate with different relapse rates and (2) the relative impact of immunosuppressive treatments on relapse rates and on attack-related residual disability. METHODS: Clinical, demographic and treatment data were prospectively collected from 79 consecutive aquaporin 4 antibody positive patients seen in the nationally commissioned Oxford NMO service...
May 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128728/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-associated-pediatric-central-nervous-system-demyelination-clinical-course-neuroimaging-findings-and-response-to-therapy
#8
Salini Thulasirajah, Daniela Pohl, Jorge Davila-Acosta, Sunita Venkateswaran
Under the umbrella of pediatric-acquired demyelinating syndromes, there is a multitude of disorders, including optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), multiple sclerosis (MS), and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Due to overlapping clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, it can be challenging to provide an accurate diagnosis. In view of therapeutic and prognostic implications, an early and reliable diagnosis is however of utmost importance...
August 2016: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924166/acute-transverse-myelitis-in-childhood-a-single-centre-experience-from-north-india
#9
Renu Suthar, Naveen Sankhyan, Jitendra K Sahu, Niranjan K Khandelwal, Sunit Singhi, Pratibha Singhi
BACKGROUND: Acute transvers myelitis (ATM) is a rare and disabling condition in childhood. There are only few reports of clinical profile, prognosis and predictors of ATM from developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical profile of children with ATM and predictors of its outcome. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of children <12 years of age diagnosed with ATM over a period of 6 years from a tertiary care institute. RESULTS: Thirty six children (21 boys, median age-7...
May 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26780026/myeloradicular-form-of-neuroschistosomiasis-in-a-six-year-old-boy-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni
#10
João Victor Salgado, Izabel Athayde da Silva Cruz Salgado, Leônidas Lopes Braga Júnior, Silane Calland Marques Serra, Verbena Maria de Carvalho Barros, Maria José Alves Silva, Valério Monteiro-Neto
Neuroschistosomiasis is a severe disease caused by the presence of Schistosoma eggs and/or adult worms in the central nervous system. Schistosomal transverse myelitis represents a rare clinical form with nonspecific clinical findings, and it is thus underdiagnosed, especially in children. In this report, we describe a 6-year-old patient with the myeloradicular form of neuroschistosomiasis.
December 2015: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26651911/-demyelinating-diseases-in-children-with-acute-neurological-symptoms
#11
Isa Amalie Olofsson, Liselotte Skov, Maria Jose Miranda
Demyelinating diseases in children is a broad group of illnesses, which affect the central nervous system. Demyelinating diseases can be monophasic or chronic and comprise acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Demyelinating diseases are rare, but it is important for the physician to recognize these diseases, as well as to understand the differential diagnoses. This review summarizes the current knowledge of demyelinating disorders in children, focusing on an approach to diagnosis and management...
December 7, 2015: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645082/antibodies-to-mog-and-aqp4-in-children-with-neuromyelitis-optica-and-limited-forms-of-the-disease
#12
Christian Lechner, Matthias Baumann, Eva-Maria Hennes, Kathrin Schanda, Klaus Marquard, Michael Karenfort, Steffen Leiz, Daniela Pohl, Sunita Venkateswaran, Martin Pritsch, Johannes Koch, Mareike Schimmel, Martin Häusler, Andrea Klein, Astrid Blaschek, Charlotte Thiels, Thomas Lücke, Ursula Gruber-Sedlmayr, Barbara Kornek, Andreas Hahn, Frank Leypoldt, Torsten Sandrieser, Helge Gallwitz, Johannes Stoffels, Christoph Korenke, Markus Reindl, Kevin Rostásy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and clinical-radiological associations of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in children presenting with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and limited forms. METHODS: Children with a first event of NMO, recurrent (RON), bilateral ON (BON), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) or brainstem syndrome (BS) with a clinical follow-up of more than 12 months were enrolled. Serum samples were tested for MOG- and AQP4-antibodies using live cell-based assays...
August 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26616865/increased-interleukin-6-correlates-with-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-pediatric-monophasic-demyelinating-diseases-and-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Philippe Horellou, Min Wang, Vixra Keo, Pascale Chrétien, Ché Serguera, Patrick Waters, Kumaran Deiva
Acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) in children evolve either as a monophasic disease diagnosed as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM), transverse myelitis (TM) or optic neuritis (ON), or a multiphasic one with several relapses most often leading to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). These neuroinflammatory disorders are increasingly associated with autoantibodies against proteins such as aquaporin-4 in rare instances, and more frequently against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)...
December 15, 2015: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511720/neurologic-complications-caused-by-epstein-barr-virus-in-pediatric-patients
#14
Katarzyna Mazur-Melewska, Iwona Breńska, Katarzyna Jończyk-Potoczna, Paweł Kemnitz, Ilona Pieczonka-Ruszkowska, Anna Mania, Wojciech Służewski, Magdalena Figlerowicz
We retrospectively analyzed the medical documentation of 194 children infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and the presence of the viral capsid antigen IgM antibody. Patients with severe neurologic complications also underwent neurologic examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography (EEG). There were 2 peaks in incidence of infection; the first one in young children aged 1 to 5 years represented 62.0% of cases. The second peak (24.6% of patients) occurred in teenagers...
May 2016: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509120/pain-and-spinal-cord-imaging-measures-in-children-with-demyelinating-disease
#15
REVIEW
Nadia Barakat, Mark P Gorman, Leslie Benson, Lino Becerra, David Borsook
Pain is a significant problem in diseases affecting the spinal cord, including demyelinating disease. To date, studies have examined the reliability of clinical measures for assessing and classifying the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) and also to evaluate SCI-related pain. Most of this research has focused on adult populations and patients with traumatic injuries. Little research exists regarding pediatric spinal cord demyelinating disease. One reason for this is the lack of reliable and useful approaches to measuring spinal cord changes since currently used diagnostic imaging has limited specificity for quantitative measures of demyelination...
2015: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26506737/dengue-with-central-nervous-system-involvement
#16
Usa Thisyakorn, Chule Thisyakorn
Dengue has spread to new geographic areas affecting both children and adults, and it has become a global threat. Dengue with central nervous system involvement includes febrile seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, intracranial hemorrhages, intracranial thrombosis, subdural effusions, mononeuropathies, polyneuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. These manifestations may be associated with co-infections, co-morbidities, or complications of prolonged shock. It is important to consider dengue as a cause for the above neurological presentations, particularly in endemic territories for dengue disease...
2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26496907/therapeutic-approach-to-the-management-of-pediatric-demyelinating-disease-multiple-sclerosis-and-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis
#17
J Nicholas Brenton, Brenda L Banwell
Acquired pediatric demyelinating diseases manifest acutely with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, or with various other acute deficits in focal or polyfocal areas of the central nervous system. Patients may experience a monophasic illness (as in the case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis) or one that may manifest as a chronic, relapsing disease [e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS)]. The diagnosis of pediatric MS and other demyelinating disorders of childhood has been facilitated by consensus statements regarding diagnostic definitions...
January 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449568/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-in-children-with-acute-autoimmune-central-nervous-system-disorders
#18
Agnieszka Prytuła, Johan Vande Walle, Helene Verhelst, Sunny Eloot, Stefaan Claus, Annick De Jaeger, Jo Dehoorne, Ann Raes
BACKGROUND: There is a growing evidence for autoimmunity in acute central nervous system (CNS) disorders and treatment with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) may be considered. The aim was to share our experience on the clinical application of TPE in these disorders and to present a reproducible protocol which can be used even in small children. METHODS: We present a series of 8 children aged 2-12 years with transverse myelitis, Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, neuromyelitis optica, and acute paraneoplastic or unspecified encephalitis in whom TPE was used as a second-line or rescue treatment...
September 2015: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351447/pediatric-acute-longitudinal-extensive-transverse-myelitis-secondary-to-neuroborreliosis
#19
Sana Khan, Neeraj Singh, Amanda Dow, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora
Lyme neuroborreliosis has several different clinical manifestations in children, of which facial nerve palsies, meningitis and radiculopathies are the most common. Transverse myelitis (TM) secondary to Lyme disease has been reported in rare occasions, typically presenting with severe weakness, sensory abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction. We present the case of a 16-year-old male who developed acute left peripheral facial palsy and longitudinal extensive TM secondary to Lyme disease. Remarkably, the patient reported only mild symptoms with severe back pain in the absence of profound signs of myelopathy...
May 2015: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26267704/idiopathic-acute-transverse-myelitis-in-children-a-retrospective-series
#20
Spencer C H Kuo, Wan-Hua Cho, Hsin-I Shih, Yi-Fang Tu
OBJECTIVE: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a focal inflammatory disorder of the spinal cord, resulting in motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction. In this study, we delineate the clinical manifestations, neuroimaging characteristics, and outcome-associated risk factors in children with idiopathic ATM. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and neuroimages in nine children aged younger than 18 years diagnosed with ATM between January 2006 and August 2014...
October 2015: Neuropediatrics
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