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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622535/vitamin-d-mediates-the-relationship-between-placental-cathelicidin-and-group-b-streptococcus-colonization-during-pregnancy
#2
Christine C Akoh, Eva K Pressman, Corrie M Whisner, Carrie Thomas, Chang Cao, Tera Kent, Elizabeth Cooper, Kimberly O O'Brien
Vitamin D is thought to modulate innate immune responses, and recent studies have highlighted the autocrine and paracrine functions of vitamin D in the placenta. Our objective was to determine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and placental antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression in a group of racially and ethnically diverse pregnant adolescents. In this study, 158 pregnant adolescents were recruited from the Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program (RAMP) in Rochester, NY. Maternal serum concentrations of the vitamin D biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), were measured at mid-gestation (∼26 weeks) and at delivery...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617561/cervicovaginal-bacteria-and-fungi-in-pregnant-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-women-a-multicenter-observational-cohort-study
#3
A Lukic, A Napoli, I Santino, P Bianchi, F Nobili, G Ciampittiello, M R Nardone, M Santomauro, M Di Properzio, D Caserta
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the prevalence of cervicovaginal Bacteria, group B Streptococcus (GBS), Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), Candida spp., Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma hominis (MH) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in pregnant women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cervicovaginal swabs were gathered from 473 pregnant patients divided into 127 diabetic and 346 non-diabetic. The results were correlated to gestational age, parity and glycemic control...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575919/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-and-microcephaly
#4
Geraldo Duarte, Antonio Fernandes Moron, Artur Timerman, César Eduardo Fernandes, Corintio Mariani Neto, Gutemberg Leão de Almeida Filho, Heron Werner Junior, Hilka Flavia Barra do Espírito Santo, João Alfredo Piffero Steibel, João Bortoletti Filho, Juvenal Barreto Borriello de Andrade, Marcelo Burlá, Marcos Felipe Silva de Sá, Newton Eduardo Busso, Paulo César Giraldo, Renato Augusto Moreira de Sá, Renato Passini Junior, Rosiane Mattar, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
From the discovery of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in 1947 in Uganda (Africa), until its arrival in South America, it was not known that it would affect human reproductive life so severely. Today, damage to the central nervous system is known to be multiple, and microcephaly is considered the tip of the iceberg. Microcephaly actually represents the epilogue of this infection's devastating process on the central nervous system of embryos and fetuses. As a result of central nervous system aggression by the ZIKV, this infection brings the possibility of arthrogryposis, dysphagia, deafness and visual impairment...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570820/human-milk-oligosaccharides-exhibit-antimicrobial-and-anti-biofilm-properties-against-group-b-streptococcus
#5
Dorothy L Ackerman, Ryan S Doster, Jörn-Hendrik Weitkamp, David Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy, Steven D Townsend
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes invasive infections of both children and adults. During pregnancy, GBS is a significant cause of infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis), which can lead to intra-amniotic infection, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Recently, breastfeeding has been thought to represent a potential mode of GBS transmission from mother to newborn, which might increase the risk for late-onset sepsis...
June 1, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562753/group-b-streptococcus-detection-in-pregnant-women-via-culture-and-pcr-methods
#6
Cláudia Wollheim, Rosa Dea Sperhacke, Sabrina Kahler Ribeiro Fontana, Andréa Cristina Vanni, Sérgio Kakuta Kato, Patricia Regina de Araújo, Afonso Luis Barth, José Mauro Madi
INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population...
March 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491217/-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-diabetic-acido-ketotic-decompensation-during-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Lilia Affes, Mouna Elleuch, Fatma Mnif, Faten Hadj Kacem, Dhouha Ben Salah, Mouna Mnif, Nadia Charfi, Nabila Rekik, Mohamed Abid
A 27-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to the resuscitation department with severe spontaneous acute ketoacidosis as early symptom of type 1 diabetes. The patient underwent resuscitation and insulin treatment with good clinical and biological evolution. On day 4, the patient had polyradiculoneuritis characterised by acute onset. Additional emergency examinations were negative. Lumbar cytopunction showed albuminocytologic dissociation. Electromyogram confirmed the diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS)...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463661/group-b-streptococcal-bacteriuria-during-pregnancy-as-a-risk-factor-for-maternal-intrapartum-colonization-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
Mar Olga Pérez-Moreno, Ester Picó-Plana, Jesús Grande-Armas, Mª José Centelles-Serrano, Mercé Arasa-Subero, Núria Colomé- Ochoa, Members Of The Study Group Gessagte Led By Mo Pérez-Moreno
PURPOSE: Current evidence is inconclusive regarding the intrapartum administration of chemoprophylaxis, merely based on the presence of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria of any colony count, in the prevention of early-onset neonatal GBS infection. The aim of this study was to assess whether GBS bacteriuria is a risk factor for intrapartum colonization (IPC) regardless of urinary concentration or the results of late third-trimester rectovaginal screening cultures (RVSCs). METHODOLOGY: Six hundred and eight pregnant women, with urine specimens cultured between May 2011 and May 2013, were enrolled in this prospective cohort study...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444557/overview-on-the-current-status-of-zika-virus-pathogenesis-and-animal-related-research
#9
REVIEW
Shashank S Pawitwar, Supurna Dhar, Sneham Tiwari, Chet Raj Ojha, Jessica Lapierre, Kyle Martins, Alexandra Rodzinski, Tiyash Parira, Iru Paudel, Jiaojiao Li, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Monica R Silva, Ajeet Kaushik, Nazira El-Hage
There is growing evidence that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is linked with activation of Guillan-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults infected with the virus and microcephaly in infants following maternal infection. With the recent outpour in publications by numerous research labs, the association between microcephaly in newborns and ZIKV has become very apparent in which large numbers of viral particles were found in the central nervous tissue of an electively aborted microcephalic ZIKV-infected fetus. However, the underlying related mechanisms remain poorly understood...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438080/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy-a-case-report
#10
Misai Hukuimwe, Tawanda T Matsa, Muchabayiwa F Gidiri
Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare condition in pregnancy which is characterised by symmetrical progressive ascending polyneuropathy. A case of a 16-year-old nulliparous woman who presented with rapidly progressive limb paralysis following an upper respiratory tract infection a week prior to presentation is discussed. She was intubated as she had developed respiratory failure and managed in the intensive care unit by a multidisciplinary team. Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin were not readily available so she was managed conservatively...
April 2017: Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397205/assessment-of-the-implementation-of-the-infectious-diseases-screening-programmes-among-pregnant-women-in-the-lesser-poland-region-and-comparison-with-similar-programmes-conducted-in-other-european-union-countries
#11
Małgorzata Radoń-Pokracka, Maciej Piasecki, Alicja Lachowska, Sebastian Baczkowski, Joanna Spaczyńska, Magdalena Górecka, Magdalena Nowak, Hubert Huras
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the level of implementation of recommendations of the Ministry of Health regarding infectious disease screening during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 477 patients who were admitted to the delivery room between December 2015 and February 2016. Data on screening test results were collected based on medical records covering the period before the admission. RESULTS: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening was conducted in 410 (86%)...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395627/advice-against-gbs-screening-approval
#12
(no author information available yet)
The government has been recommended not to approve screening for Group B Streptococcus (GBS) at 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy so that the bacterium can be treated with antibiotics.
April 11, 2017: Nursing Children and Young People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393598/-zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy
#13
Gabriella Varjasi, Róbert Póka
The Zika virus is a flavivirus spread by mosquitoes. Its primary vectors are the Aedes aegypti and the Aedes albopictus. Before 2007 it sporadically caused benign morbidity. Since 2015, it started spreading "explosively" in America, especially in Brazil. In August 2016 they reported cases from New York and Poland, too. Most of the infections don't produce any symptoms, but can cause grave complications. The most important lesion is microcephalia that forms in fetuses. Microcephalia's most serious consequence is mental retardation, which puts great burden on both the family and the society...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375541/unravelling-the-paediatric-and-perinatal-zika-virus-epidemic-through-population-based-research
#14
Cdc Christie, C Giaquinto
Zika virus epidemic now involves 72 countries, worldwide. Transmission is multimodal through mosquito bites and blood and body fluids. Zika virus causes Guillain Barre Syndrome syndrome and pregnancy complications including perinatal microcephaly. Diagnosis is complicated by subclinical infection in 80%, co-circulation with dengue and chikungunya fevers with similar presentations and cross-reactivity in serological tests. There is no cure, or preventive vaccine. Large population-based studies will help to elucidate ZIKV epidemiology, vertical transmission, risks to the fetus of maternal ZIKV infection and natural history of congenital and non-congenital ZIKV infection as provided by the activities in the "ZIKAction" research consortium in Latin America, Europe and the Caribbean, which was recently funded by the European Commission...
September 19, 2016: West Indian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370966/zika-infection-and-the-development-of-neurological-defects
#15
REVIEW
Fabiele Baldino Russo, Patricia Jungmann, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Starting with the outbreak in Brazil, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been correlated with severe syndromes such as congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here, we review the status of Zika virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). One of the main concerns about ZIKV exposure during pregnancy is abnormal brain development, which results in microcephaly in newborns. Recent advances in in vitro research show that ZIKV can infect and obliterate cells from the CNS, such as progenitors, neurons, and glial cells...
June 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367139/antibiotic-prevention-for-maternal-group-b-streptococcal-colonization-on-neonatal-gbs-related-adverse-outcomes-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Shunming Li, Jingya Huang, Zhiyao Chen, Dan Guo, Zhenjiang Yao, Xiaohua Ye
Maternal colonization with group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal infection by vertical transmission. However, it remains unclear whether treating all colonized women during labor exposes a large number of their neonates to possible adverse effects without benefit. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on neonatal adverse outcomes. We identified studies by searching several English and Chinese electronic databases and reviewing relevant articles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358795/zika-virus-transmission-region-of-the-americas-may-15-2015-december-15-2016
#17
Juniorcaius Ikejezie, Craig N Shapiro, Jisoo Kim, Monica Chiu, Maria Almiron, Ciro Ugarte, Marcos A Espinal, Sylvain Aldighieri
Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause rash with fever, emerged in the Region of the Americas on Easter Island, Chile, in 2014 and in northeast Brazil in 2015 (1). In response, in May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), which serves as the Regional Office of the Americas for the World Health Organization (WHO), issued recommendations to enhance surveillance for Zika virus. Subsequently, Brazilian investigators reported Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which had been previously recognized among some patients with Zika virus disease, and identified an association between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and congenital microcephaly (2)...
March 31, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#18
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330900/adaptive-immune-responses-to-zika-virus-are-important-for-controlling-virus-infection-and-preventing-infection-in-brain-and-testes
#19
Clayton W Winkler, Lara M Myers, Tyson A Woods, Ronald J Messer, Aaron B Carmody, Kristin L McNally, Dana P Scott, Kim J Hasenkrug, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#20
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
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