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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#1
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330900/adaptive-immune-responses-to-zika-virus-are-important-for-controlling-virus-infection-and-preventing-infection-in-brain-and-testes
#2
Clayton W Winkler, Lara M Myers, Tyson A Woods, Ronald J Messer, Aaron B Carmody, Kristin L McNally, Dana P Scott, Kim J Hasenkrug, Sonja M Best, Karin E Peterson
The recent association between Zika virus (ZIKV) and neurologic complications, including Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and CNS abnormalities in fetuses, highlights the importance in understanding the immunological mechanisms controlling this emerging infection. Studies have indicated that ZIKV evades the human type I IFN response, suggesting a role for the adaptive immune response in resolving infection. However, the inability of ZIKV to antagonize the mouse IFN response renders the virus highly susceptible to circulating IFN in murine models...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304326/group-b-streptococcus-colonization-and-hiv-in-pregnancy-a-cohort-study-in-nigeria
#3
R Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, O Olaleye Atinukek, F Adefusi Olorunwa, A Adeyemi Babalola, O Onipede Anthony, M Loto Olabisi, O Imaralu John
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. AIM: To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293228/prevention-and-control-strategies-to-counter-zika-epidemic
#4
REVIEW
Irfan A Rather, Sanjay Kumar, Vivek K Bajpai, Jeongheui Lim, Yong-Ha Park
ZIKA virus (ZIKA) has now become a global phenomenon. Since 2007, evidence of ZIKA transmission has been reported over 72 countries and territories. The transmission of ZIKA has made World Health Organization to categorize the situation under the ambit of a health emergency. This situation is serious because there appears to be a highly tangible link between infection during pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the context of this emergency situation, this review article intends to discuss the prevention and control strategies such as avoiding travel to infected area, being careful from mosquito bites, take precautions to reduce the risk of sexual transmission, and seek medical care for any acute illness with rash or fever...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280063/surveillance-report-of-zika-virus-among-canadian-travellers-returning-from-the-americas
#5
Andrea K Boggild, Jennifer Geduld, Michael Libman, Cedric P Yansouni, Anne E McCarthy, Jan Hajek, Wayne Ghesquiere, Yazdan Mirzanejad, Jean Vincelette, Susan Kuhn, Pierre J Plourde, Sumontra Chakrabarti, David O Freedman, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Widespread transmission of Zika virus in the Americas has occurred since late 2015. We examined demographic and travel-related characteristics of returned Canadian travellers with Zika infection acquired in the Americas to illuminate risk factors for acquisition and the clinical spectrum. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and travel-related data for returned Canadian travellers who presented to a CanTravNet site between October 2015 and September 2016 for care of Zika virus acquired in the Americas...
March 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243937/zika-virus-an-emerging-flavivirus
#6
REVIEW
Sang-Im Yun, Young-Min Lee
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a previously little-known flavivirus closely related to Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue, and yellow fever viruses, all of which are primarily transmitted by blood-sucking mosquitoes. Since its discovery in Uganda in 1947, ZIKV has continued to expand its geographic range, from equatorial Africa and Asia to the Pacific Islands, then further afield to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Currently, ZIKV is actively circulating not only in much of Latin America and its neighbors but also in parts of the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia...
March 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241773/zika-virus-infection-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-of-disease-course-and-complications
#7
REVIEW
Ezinne C Chibueze, Veronika Tirado, Katharina da Silva Lopes, Olukunmi O Balogun, Yo Takemoto, Toshiyuki Swa, Amarjargal Dagvadorj, Chie Nagata, Naho Morisaki, Clara Menendez, Erika Ota, Rintaro Mori, Olufemi T Oladapo
OBJECTIVES: To characterize maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and complement the evidence base for the WHO interim guidance on pregnancy management in the context of ZIKV infection. METHODS: We searched the relevant database from inception until March 2016. Two review authors independently screened and assessed full texts of eligible reports and extracted data from relevant studies. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the National Institute of Health (NIH) tool for observational studies and case series/reports, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231312/analysis-of-the-t-cell-response-to-zika-virus-and-identification-of-a-novel-cd8-t-cell-epitope-in-immunocompetent-mice
#8
Ryan D Pardy, Maaran M Rajah, Stephanie A Condotta, Nathan G Taylor, Selena M Sagan, Martin J Richer
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family. Although ZIKV infection is typically mild and self-limiting in healthy adults, infection has been associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, and a causal link has been established between fetal microcephaly and ZIKV infection during pregnancy. These risks, and the magnitude of the ongoing ZIKV pandemic, have created an urgent need for the development of animal models to study the immune response to ZIKV infection...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217608/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy-a-conservatively-managed-case
#9
T N M S Fernando, A M A S Ambanwala, Probhodana Ranaweera, Athula Kaluarachchi
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease. Estimated population incidence ranges from 0.62 to 2.66 cases per 100,000 person-years across all age groups. We report a case of GBS in a 22-year-old primigravida who presented at 36 weeks of the period of gestation (POG), with complaints of bilateral progressive lower limb numbness and weakness for 2 weeks duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was done to exclude other possible causes. Diagnosis of GBS was made according to the Brighton criteria, which our patient falls into Level 2...
July 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217556/group-b-streptococcus-induces-neutrophil-recruitment-to-gestational-tissues-and-elaboration-of-extracellular-traps-and-nutritional-immunity
#10
Vishesh Kothary, Ryan S Doster, Lisa M Rogers, Leslie A Kirk, Kelli L Boyd, Joann Romano-Keeler, Kathryn P Haley, Shannon D Manning, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy
Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148798/animal-models-of-zika-virus-infection-pathogenesis-and-immunity
#11
Thomas E Morrison, Michael S Diamond
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has reached global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147379/decidualization-mediated-by-steroid-hormones-modulates-the-innate-immunity-in-response-to-group-b-streptococcal-infection-in-vitro
#12
Violeta Castro-Leyva, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Aurora Espejel-Nuñez, Rodrigo Vega-Sanchez, Arturo Flores-Pliego, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz, Silvia Giono-Cerezo, Sonia Nava-Salazar, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Decidual cells play a role in the modulation of the innate immune response to protect pregnancy against infection. Steroid hormones regulate the innate immune response in different tissues, and they are involved in several biological processes like decidualization. The aim of this study was to assess if steroid hormones modulate the innate immunity in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) in response to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in vitro...
February 2, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120587/identification-of-group-b-streptococci-using-16s-rrna-cfb-scpb-and-atr-genes-in-pregnant-women-by-pcr
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Streptococcus agalactiae is acommensalorganism, but it may cause infection in susceptible hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assay compared with conventional culture method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. Total of 203 paired low vaginal swabs were collected from women at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy from June 2013 through February 2014 for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA, cfb, scpB, and atr genes and culture method following broth enrichment...
December 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069378/role-of-n-glycosylation-on-zika-virus-e-protein-secretion-viral-assembly-and-infectivity
#14
M Mossenta, S Marchese, M Poggianella, J L Slon Campos, O R Burrone
Zika virus has rapidly spread reaching a global distribution pattern similar to that of dengue virus, and has been associated with serious neurological and developmental pathologies, like congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sequence analysis of different clinical and laboratory isolates has shown the existence of mutants with loss of the conserved N-glycosylation motif on domain I of protein E that is common to all flaviviruses. We found that loss of E N-linked glycosylation leads to compromised expression and secretion of E ectodomain from mammalian cells...
January 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#15
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045901/zika-virus-infection-as-a-cause-of-congenital-brain-abnormalities-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-systematic-review
#16
Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T Oladapo, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Teegwendé V Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J Broutet, Nicola Low
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034741/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-against-ns2b-ns3-serine-protease-from-zika-virus
#17
Hyun Lee, Jinhong Ren, Salvatore Nocadello, Amy J Rice, Isabel Ojeda, Samuel Light, George Minasov, Jason Vargas, Dhanapalan Nagarathnam, Wayne F Anderson, Michael E Johnson
Zika flavivirus infection during pregnancy appears to produce higher risk of microcephaly, and also causes multiple neurological problems such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The Zika virus is now widespread in Central and South America, and is anticipated to become an increasing risk in the southern United States. With continuing global travel and the spread of the mosquito vector, the exposure is expected to accelerate, but there are no currently approved treatments against the Zika virus. The Zika NS2B/NS3 protease is an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral replication...
March 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027278/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-among-pregnant-women-in-delhi-india
#18
Manu Chaudhary, Marcia A Rench, Carol J Baker, Pushpa Singh, Charoo Hans, Morven S Edwards
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. METHODS: Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth™ and subcultured onto GBS Detect™ plates...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973991/neonatal-protection-and-preterm-birth-reduction-following-maternal-group-b-streptococcus-vaccination-in-a-mouse-model
#19
R Bernardini, R Aufieri, A Detcheva, S Recchia, R Cicconi, M Amicosante, C Montesano, P Rossi, H K Tchidjou, B Petrunov, G Orefici, M Mattei
PURPOSE: Evaluate effects of maternal immunization in a mouse model of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal colonization using clinical isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female pregnant mice were immunized with heat-killed GBS 21 days before pregnancy and were inoculated intravaginally with GBS cultures (5 × 10(7) CFU twice a day for three days) from the 16th day of pregnancy. Gestation period and mice survival were monitored. Maternal anti-GBS IgG levels have been determined by ELISA analysis in vaccinated, unvaccinated mothers and newborns...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926650/group-b-streptococci-screening-before-repeat-cesarean-delivery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#20
Catherine M Albright, Caitlin MacGregor, Desmond Sutton, Meena Theva, Brenna L Hughes, Erika F Werner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal group B streptococci (GBS) screening in women with a singleton pregnancy planning a repeat cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a decision analysis from a health care perspective to compare the cost-effectiveness of GBS screening for women planning a repeat cesarean delivery. With universal screening, all GBS-positive women who labored before a scheduled cesarean delivery received antibiotic prophylaxis...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
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