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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148798/animal-models-of-zika-virus-infection-pathogenesis-and-immunity
#1
Thomas E Morrison, Michael S Diamond
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that now causes epidemics affecting millions of people on multiple continents. The virus has reached global attention because of some of its unusual epidemiological and clinical features including persistent infection in the male reproductive tract and sexual transmission, an ability to cross the placenta during pregnancy and infect the developing fetus to cause congenital malformations, and its association with Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147379/decidualization-mediated-by-steroid-hormones-modulates-the-innate-immunity-in-response-to-group-b-streptococcal-infection-in-vitro
#2
Violeta Castro-Leyva, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Aurora Espejel-Nuñez, Rodrigo Vega-Sanchez, Arturo Flores-Pliego, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz, Silvia Giono-Cerezo, Sonia Nava-Salazar, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Decidual cells play a role in the modulation of the innate immune response to protect pregnancy against infection. Steroid hormones regulate the innate immune response in different tissues, and they are involved in several biological processes like decidualization. The aim of this study was to assess if steroid hormones modulate the innate immunity in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) in response to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in vitro...
February 2, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120587/identification-of-group-b-streptococci-using-16s-rrna-cfb-scpb-and-atr-genes-in-pregnant-women-by-pcr
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Streptococcus agalactiae is acommensalorganism, but it may cause infection in susceptible hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assay compared with conventional culture method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. Total of 203 paired low vaginal swabs were collected from women at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy from June 2013 through February 2014 for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA, cfb, scpB, and atr genes and culture method following broth enrichment...
December 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069378/role-of-n-glycosylation-on-zika-virus-e-protein-secretion-viral-assembly-and-infectivity
#4
M Mossenta, S Marchese, M Poggianella, J L Slon Campos, O R Burrone
Zika virus has rapidly spread reaching a global distribution pattern similar to that of dengue virus, and has been associated with serious neurological and developmental pathologies, like congenital malformation during pregnancy and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sequence analysis of different clinical and laboratory isolates has shown the existence of mutants with loss of the conserved N-glycosylation motif on domain I of protein E that is common to all flaviviruses. We found that loss of E N-linked glycosylation leads to compromised expression and secretion of E ectodomain from mammalian cells...
January 6, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063544/the-prevention-of-early-onset-neonatal-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#5
Deborah Money, Victoria M Allen
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. OUTCOMES: Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use...
December 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045901/zika-virus-infection-as-a-cause-of-congenital-brain-abnormalities-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-systematic-review
#6
Fabienne Krauer, Maurane Riesen, Ludovic Reveiz, Olufemi T Oladapo, Ruth Martínez-Vega, Teegwendé V Porgo, Anina Haefliger, Nathalie J Broutet, Nicola Low
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) stated in March 2016 that there was scientific consensus that the mosquito-borne Zika virus was a cause of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and of microcephaly and other congenital brain abnormalities based on rapid evidence assessments. Decisions about causality require systematic assessment to guide public health actions. The objectives of this study were to update and reassess the evidence for causality through a rapid and systematic review about links between Zika virus infection and (a) congenital brain abnormalities, including microcephaly, in the foetuses and offspring of pregnant women and (b) GBS in any population, and to describe the process and outcomes of an expert assessment of the evidence about causality...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034741/identification-of-novel-small-molecule-inhibitors-against-ns2b-ns3-serine-protease-from-zika-virus
#7
Hyun Lee, Jinhong Ren, Salvatore Nocadello, Amy J Rice, Isabel Ojeda, Samuel Light, George Minasov, Jason Vargas, Dhanapalan Nagarathnam, Wayne F Anderson, Michael E Johnson
Zika flavivirus infection during pregnancy appears to produce higher risk of microcephaly, and also causes multiple neurological problems such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. The Zika virus is now widespread in Central and South America, and is anticipated to become an increasing risk in the southern United States. With continuing global travel and the spread of the mosquito vector, the exposure is expected to accelerate, but there are no currently approved treatments against the Zika virus. The Zika NS2B/NS3 protease is an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral replication...
March 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027278/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-among-pregnant-women-in-delhi-india
#8
Manu Chaudhary, Marcia A Rench, Carol J Baker, Pushpa Singh, Charoo Hans, Morven S Edwards
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. METHODS: Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth™ and subcultured onto GBS Detect™ plates...
December 23, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973991/neonatal-protection-and-preterm-birth-reduction-following-maternal-group-b-streptococcus-vaccination-in-a-mouse-model
#9
R Bernardini, R Aufieri, A Detcheva, S Recchia, R Cicconi, M Amicosante, C Montesano, P Rossi, H K Tchidjou, B Petrunov, G Orefici, M Mattei
PURPOSE: Evaluate effects of maternal immunization in a mouse model of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal colonization using clinical isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Female pregnant mice were immunized with heat-killed GBS 21 days before pregnancy and were inoculated intravaginally with GBS cultures (5 × 10(7) CFU twice a day for three days) from the 16th day of pregnancy. Gestation period and mice survival were monitored. Maternal anti-GBS IgG levels have been determined by ELISA analysis in vaccinated, unvaccinated mothers and newborns...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926650/group-b-streptococci-screening-before-repeat-cesarean-delivery-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#10
Catherine M Albright, Caitlin MacGregor, Desmond Sutton, Meena Theva, Brenna L Hughes, Erika F Werner
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal group B streptococci (GBS) screening in women with a singleton pregnancy planning a repeat cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a decision analysis from a health care perspective to compare the cost-effectiveness of GBS screening for women planning a repeat cesarean delivery. With universal screening, all GBS-positive women who labored before a scheduled cesarean delivery received antibiotic prophylaxis...
January 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911391/a-murine-model-of-group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-colonization
#11
Kathryn A Patras, Kelly S Doran
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a Gram-positive, asymptomatic colonizer of the human gastrointestinal tract and vaginal tract of 10 - 30% of adults. In immune-compromised individuals, including neonates, pregnant women, and the elderly, GBS may switch to an invasive pathogen causing sepsis, arthritis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Because GBS is a leading bacterial pathogen of neonates, current prophylaxis is comprised of late gestation screening for GBS vaginal colonization and subsequent peripartum antibiotic treatment of GBS-positive mothers...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908907/importance-of-diagnostic-work-up-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-pregnancy
#12
Elza Pollak-Christian, Kyong-Soon Lee
We report a full-term neonate presenting with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection with hepatosplenomegaly, 'blueberry muffin' rash, intracranial calcifications, thrombocytopenia and respiratory distress. Maternal history was relevant for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) during the first trimester of pregnancy. CMV infection is an important cause of GBS; thus, women presenting GBS during pregnancy should be screened for CMV infection. If positive, they may benefit from specialised monitoring and treatment in the antenatal period, which may decrease the risk of major neurodevelopmental sequelae of congenital CMV in the neonate...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902502/zika-virus-and-patient-blood-management
#13
Lawrence T Goodnough, Marisa B Marques
Sporadic Zika virus infections had only occurred in Africa and Asia until an outbreak in Micronesia (Oceania) in 2007. In 2013 to 2014, several outer Pacific Islands reported local outbreaks. Soon thereafter, the virus was likely introduced in Brazil from competing athletes from French Polynesia and other countries that participated in a competition there. Transmission is thought to have occurred through mosquito bites and spread to the immunologically naive population. Being also a flavivirus, the Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito that is endemic in South and Central America that is also the vector of West Nile virus, dengue, and chikungunya...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893080/travel-associated-zika-virus-disease-acquired-in-the-americas-through-february-2016-a-geosentinel-analysis
#15
Davidson H Hamer, Kira A Barbre, Lin H Chen, Martin P Grobusch, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Abraham Goorhuis, Perry J J van Genderen, Israel Molina, Hilmir Asgeirsson, Phyllis E Kozarsky, Eric Caumes, Stefan H Hagmann, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Gilles Eperon, Elizabeth D Barnett, Emmanuel Bottieau, Andrea K Boggild, Philippe Gautret, Noreen A Hynes, Susan Kuhn, R Ryan Lash, Karin Leder, Michael Libman, Denis J M Malvy, Cecilia Perret, Camilla Rothe, Eli Schwartz, Annelies Wilder-Smith, Martin S Cetron, Douglas H Esposito
Background: Zika virus has spread rapidly in the Americas and has been imported into many nonendemic countries by travelers. Objective: To describe clinical manifestations and epidemiology of Zika virus disease in travelers exposed in the Americas. Design: Descriptive, using GeoSentinel records. Setting: 63 travel and tropical medicine clinics in 30 countries. Patients: Ill returned travelers with a confirmed, probable, or clinically suspected diagnosis of Zika virus disease seen between January 2013 and 29 February 2016...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879969/factors-associated-with-choice-of-approach-for-group-b-streptococcus-screening
#16
H Sefty, A Klivitsky, M Bromberg, R Dichtiar, M Ben Ami, T Shohat, A Glatman-Freedman
BACKGROUND: The crude rate of early-onset Group B streptococcus disease (EOGBS) in Israel has been consistently under 0.5 for 1000 live births for the past 8 years. The Israeli Ministry of Health has adapted the risk factor based approach for preventing EOGBS and universal bacteriological screening for GBS is not recommended. In spite of this policy, there are indications that many pregnant women in Israel undergo bacteriological screening for GBS. The objective of this study is to assess the rate and characteristics of pregnant women who undergo screening for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in Israel...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845968/epidemiology-of-zika
#17
Carmen C Deseda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus (ZIKV) is the latest 'emerging virus' that has affected the Americas. First identified in the mid-20th century in Uganda, it was described as a vector arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) and subsequently found capable of producing illness in humans. The illness was not different from other flavivirus infections and caused a relatively mild disease characterized by low-grade fever, nonspecific exanthem, nonpurulent conjunctivitis, and mild to moderate arthralgia...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832051/incidence-of-zika-virus-disease-by-age-and-sex-puerto-rico-november-1-2015-october-20-2016
#18
Matthew Lozier, Laura Adams, Mitchelle Flores Febo, Jomil Torres-Aponte, Melissa Bello-Pagan, Kyle R Ryff, Jorge Munoz-Jordan, Myriam Garcia, Aidsa Rivera, Jennifer S Read, Stephen H Waterman, Tyler M Sharp, Brenda Rivera-Garcia
Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes; symptoms of infection include rash, arthralgia, fever, and conjunctivitis.*(,)(†) Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies (1), and in rare cases, Zika virus infection has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (2) and severe thrombocytopenia (3). This report describes the incidence of reported symptomatic Zika virus disease in the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico by age and sex...
November 11, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819066/group-b-streptococcus-circumvents-neutrophils-and-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-during-amniotic-cavity-invasion-and-preterm-labor
#19
Erica Boldenow, Claire Gendrin, Lisa Ngo, Craig Bierle, Jay Vornhagen, Michelle Coleman, Sean Merillat, Blair Armistead, Christopher Whidbey, Varchita Alishetti, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Jason Ogle, Michael Gough, Sengkeo Srinouanprachanh, James W MacDonald, Theo K Bammler, Aasthaa Bansal, H Denny Liggitt, Lakshmi Rajagopal, Kristina M Adams Waldorf
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) is associated with the majority of early preterm births, the temporal events that occur during MIAC and preterm labor are not known. Group B Streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria, which commonly colonize the vagina but have been recovered from the amniotic fluid in preterm birth cases. To understand temporal events that occur during MIAC, we utilized a unique chronically catheterized nonhuman primate model that closely emulates human pregnancy...
October 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780533/activation-of-the-il-1%C3%AE-cxcl1-mmp-10-axis-in-chorioamnionitis-induced-by-inactivated-group-b-streptococcus
#20
Julie Bergeron, Noha Gerges, Clémence Guiraut, Djordje Grbic, Marie-Julie Allard, Louis-Charles Fortier, Cathy Vaillancourt, Guillaume Sébire
Infection or inflammation during pregnancy is known to lead to maternal immune activation triggering a fetal inflammatory response syndrome associated with deleterious effects, such as brain injury and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) - one of the most common bacterium colonizing pregnant women - can be responsible for chorioamnionitis. Given that interleukin (IL)-1β has a major role in anti-GBS host defense, we hypothesized that IL-1β-driven innate immune response is implicated in GBS-induced chorioamnionitis...
November 2016: Placenta
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