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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343192/coverage-and-outcomes-of-antenatal-tests-for-infections-a-population-based-survey-in-the-province-of-trento-italy
#1
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305550/comparison-of-four-serological-methods-and-two-rt-pcr-assays-for-diagnosis-and-surveillance-of-zika
#2
Angel Balmaseda, Jose Victor Zambrana, Damaris Collado, Nadezna Garcia, Saira Saborío, Douglas Elizondo, Juan Carlos Mercado, Karla Gonzalez, Cristhiam Cerpas, Andrea Nuñez, Davide Corti, Jesse J Waggoner, Guillermina Kuan, Raquel Burger-Calderon, Eva Harris
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is responsible for recent explosive epidemics in the Americas. Notably, ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been found to cause congenital birth defects, including microcephaly, and ZIKV has been associated with Guillain Barré Syndrome in adults. Diagnosis and surveillance of Zika in the Americas have been challenging due to similar clinical manifestations and extensive antibody cross-reactivity with endemic flaviviral diseases, like dengue. We evaluated four serological and two RT-PCR methods in acute (mean day 1...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297541/miller-fisher-syndrome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#3
Mustafa Aldag, Sebnem Albeyoglu, Ufuk Ciloglu, Hakan Kutlu, Levent Ceylan
Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is an uncommon neurological disorder that is considered a variant of the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). It is clinically defined by a triad of symptoms, namely ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia. These acute inflammatory polyradiculopathic syndromes can be triggered by viral infections, major surgery, pregnancy or vaccination. While the overall incidence of GBS is 1.2-2.3 per 100 000 per year, MFS is a relatively rare disorder. Only six cases of GBS after cardiac surgery have been reported, and to our knowledge, we describe the first case of MFS after coronary artery bypass surgery...
November 23, 2017: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288700/erythrosin-b-is-a-potent-and-broad-spectrum-orthosteric-inhibitor-of-the-flavivirus-ns2b-ns3-protease
#4
Zhong Li, Srilatha Sakamuru, Ruili Huang, Matthew Brecher, Cheri A Koetzner, Jing Zhang, Haiying Chen, Cheng-Feng Qin, Qing-Yu Zhang, Jia Zhou, Laura D Kramer, Menghang Xia, Hongmin Li
Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. In this study, we found that erythrosin B, an FDA-approved food additive, is a potent inhibitor for flaviviruses, including ZIKV and DENV2...
December 27, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193647/the-incidence-characteristics-managements-and-outcomes-of-anaphylaxis-in-pregnancy-a-population-based-descriptive-study
#5
Stephen J McCall, Kathryn J Bunch, Peter Brocklehurst, Rhiannon D'Arcy, Kim Hinshaw, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, D Nuala Lucas, Benjamin Stenson, Derek Tuffnell, Marian Knight
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of anaphylaxis in pregnancy and describe the management and outcomes in the UK. DESIGN: A population based descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System(UKOSS). SETTING: All consultant-led maternity units in the UK. POPULATION: All pregnant women who had anaphylaxis between 1st October 2012 and 30th September 2015. Anaphylaxis was defined as a severe, life-threatening generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction...
November 29, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184151/association-between-antibodies-against-group-b-streptococcus-surface-proteins-and-recto-vaginal-colonisation-during-pregnancy
#6
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Gaurav Kwatra, Peter V Adrian, Sheila Z Kimaro-Mlacha, Clare L Cutland, Shabir A Madhi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) recto-vaginal colonisation in pregnant women is the major risk factor for early-onset invasive GBS disease in their newborns. We aimed to determine the association between serum antibody levels against 11 GBS surface proteins and recto-vaginal acquisition of GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Sera collected from pregnant women at 20-25 weeks and ≥37 weeks of gestation age were measured for IgG titres against GBS surface proteins using  a multiplex immunoassay. Women were evaluated for recto-vaginal colonisation every 4-5 weeks...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184093/intrapartum-antibiotics-for-gbs-prophylaxis-alter-colonization-patterns-in-the-early-infant-gut-microbiome-of-low-risk-infants
#7
Jennifer C Stearns, Julia Simioni, Elizabeth Gunn, Helen McDonald, Alison C Holloway, Lehana Thabane, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Laura Rossi, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison, Eileen K Hutton
Early life microbial colonization and succession is critically important to healthy development with impacts on metabolic and immunologic processes throughout life. A longitudinal prospective cohort was recruited from midwifery practices to include infants born at full term gestation to women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Here we compare bacterial community succession in infants born vaginally, with no exposure to antibiotics (n = 53), with infants who were exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS; n = 14), and infants born by C-section (n = 7)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181810/imaging-findings-in-congenital-zika-virus-infection-syndrome-an-update
#8
Andrea Silveira de Souza, Patrícia Soares de Oliveira-Szjenfeld, Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo, Luis Alberto Moreira de Souza, Alba Gean Medeiros Batista, Fernanda Tovar-Moll
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotropic and neurotoxic RNA Flavivirus prompt to cause severe fetal brain dysmorphisms during pregnancy, a period of rapid and critical central nervous system development. A wide range of clinico-radiological findings of congenital ZIKV infections were reported in the literature, such as microcephaly, overlapping sutures, cortical migrational and corpus callosum abnormalities, intracranial calcifications, ventriculomegaly, brain stem and cerebellar malformations, spinal cord involvement, and joint contractures...
November 27, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155939/group-b-streptococcus-activates-transcriptomic-pathways-related-to-premature-birth-in-human-extraplacental-membranes-in-vitro
#9
Hae-Ryung Park, Sean M Harris, Erica Boldenow, Richard C McEachin, Maureen Sartor, Mark Chames, Rita Loch-Caruso
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection in pregnant women is the leading cause of infectious neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although inflammation during infection has been associated with preterm birth, the contribution of GBS to preterm birth is less certain. Moreover, the early mechanisms by which GBS interacts with the gestational tissue to affect adverse pregnancy outcomes are poorly understood. We hypothesized that short term GBS inoculation activates pathways related to inflammation and premature birth in human extraplacental membranes...
November 16, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126899/merimepodib-an-impdh-inhibitor-suppresses-replication-of-zika-virus-and-other-emerging-viral-pathogens
#10
Xiao Tong, Jeanon Smith, Natalya Bukreyeva, Takaaki Koma, John T Manning, Raj Kalkeri, Ann D Kwong, Slobodan Paessler
Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has recently been linked to abnormal pregnancies, fetal death, microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Merimepodib (MMPD, VX-497), a potent inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), has shown antiviral activity against HCV and a variety of DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. In this report, we expand the antiviral spectrum of MMPD, and demonstrate that MMPD inhibits ZIKV RNA replication with an EC50 of 0.6 μM. Furthermore, MMPD reduces the virus production of ZIKV as well as several other important emerging viral pathogens such as Ebola, Lassa, Chikungunya, and Junin viruses...
January 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117329/preterm-birth-associated-with-group-b-streptococcus-maternal-colonization-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#11
Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Anna C Seale, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Craig E Rubens
Background: Preterm birth complications are the leading cause of deaths among children <5 years of age. Studies have suggested that group B Streptococcus (GBS) maternal rectovaginal colonization during pregnancy may be a risk factor for preterm delivery. This article is the fifth of 11 in a series. We aimed to assess the association between GBS maternal colonization and preterm birth in order to inform estimates of the burden of GBS. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups on the association of preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) and maternal GBS colonization (GBS isolation from vaginal, cervical, and/or rectal swabs; with separate subanalysis on GBS bacteriuria)...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117328/maternal-disease-with-group-b-streptococcus-and-serotype-distribution-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
Jennifer Hall, Nadine Hack Adams, Linda Bartlett, Anna C Seale, Theresa Lamagni, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Joy E Lawn, Carol J Baker, Clare Cutland, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Michael G Gravett
Background: Infections such as group B Streptococcus (GBS) are an important cause of maternal sepsis, yet limited data on epidemiology exist. This article, the third of 11, estimates the incidence of maternal GBS disease worldwide. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data on invasive GBS disease in women pregnant or within 42 days postpartum...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117323/group-b-streptococcal-disease-worldwide-for-pregnant-women-stillbirths-and-children-why-what-and-how-to-undertake-estimates
#13
Joy E Lawn, Fiorella Bianchi-Jassir, Neal J Russell, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Cally J Tann, Jennifer Hall, Lola Madrid, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Paul T Heath, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Shabir A Madhi, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Anna C Seale
Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098104/late-onset-streptococcus-agalactiae-meningitis-following-early-onset-septicemia-a-preventable-disease
#14
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, King Woon So, Alexander K C Leung
We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096005/management-of-zika-virus-in-pregnancy-a-review
#15
Helen Perry, Asma Khalil, Emma Aarons, Katherine Russell, Patrick O'Brien
Introduction/background: Since 2015, an epidemic of Zika virus spread across the Americas. This coincided with an increased incidence of microcephaly reported at birth in Brazil, with subsequent evidence of a causal association. Sources of data: Systemic reviews, observational studies, public health organizations. Areas of agreement: Zika virus causes microcephaly and brain abnormalities in infants born to mothers infected during or shortly before pregnancy...
October 31, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093650/understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-zika-virus-infection-using-animal-models
#16
REVIEW
Keeton K Krause, Francine Azouz, Ok Sarah Shin, Mukesh Kumar
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of Flaviviridae family that has emerged as a pathogen of significant public health importance. The rapid expansion of ZIKV in the South and Central America has recently gained medical attention emphasizing the capacity of ZIKV to spread to non-endemic regions. ZIKV infection during pregnancy has been demonstrated to cause microcephaly and other fetal developmental abnormalities. An increased incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome, an immune mediated neuropathy of the peripheral nervous system, has also been reported in ZIKV-infected patients in French Polynesia and Brazil...
October 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052561/a-bayesian-stepwise-discriminant-model-for-predicting-risk-factors-of-preterm-premature-rupture-of-membranes-a-case-control-study
#17
Li-Xia Zhang, Yang Sun, Hai Zhao, Na Zhu, Xing-De Sun, Xing Jin, Ai-Min Zou, Yang Mi, Ji-Ru Xu
BACKGROUND: Preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) can lead to serious consequences such as intrauterine infection, prolapse of the umbilical cord, and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Genital infection is a very important risk which closely related with PPROM. The preliminary study only made qualitative research on genital infection, but there was no deep and clear judgment about the effects of pathogenic bacteria. This study was to analyze the association of infections with PPROM in pregnant women in Shaanxi, China, and to establish Bayesian stepwise discriminant analysis to predict the incidence of PPROM...
October 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034376/exploring-the-pregnant-guinea-pig-as-a-model-for-group-b-streptococcus-intrauterine-infection
#18
Maria I Harrell, Kellie Burnside, Christopher Whidbey, Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Infection of the amniotic cavity remains a major cause of preterm birth, stillbirth, fetal injury and early onset, fulminant infections in newborns. Currently, there are no effective therapies to prevent in utero infection and consequent co-morbidities. This is in part due to the lack of feasible and appropriate animal models to understand mechanisms that lead to in utero infections. Use of mouse and rat models do not fully recapitulate human pregnancy, while pregnant nonhuman primate models are limited by ethical considerations, technical constraints, and cost...
September 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029127/antibody-kinetics-and-response-to-routine-vaccinations-in-infants-born-to-women-who-received-an-investigational-trivalent-group-b-streptococcus-polysaccharide-crm197-conjugate-vaccine-during-pregnancy
#19
Shabir A Madhi, Anthonet Koen, Clare L Cutland, Lisa Jose, Niresha Govender, Frederick Wittke, Morounfolu Olugbosi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Sherryl Baker, Peter M Dull, Vas Narasimhan, Karen Slobod
Background: Maternal vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) might provide protection against invasive GBS disease in infants. We investigated the kinetics of transplacentally transferred GBS serotype-specific capsular antibodies in the infants and their immune response to diphtheria toxoid and pneumococcal vaccination. Methods: This phase 1b/2, observer-blind, single-center study (NCT01193920) enrolled infants born to women previously randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either GBS vaccine at dosages of 0...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026553/gitelman-syndrome-a-rare-life-threatening-case-of-hypokalemic-paralysis-mimicking-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-during-pregnancy-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Abdelghafour Elkoundi, Noureddine Kartite, Mustapha Bensghir, Nawfal Doghmi, Salim Jaafar Lalaoui
In rare cases, patients with Gitelman syndrome may present with hypokalemic paralysis mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. The severity of resultant symptoms may be life-threatening. Controversial drugs such as aldactone, amiloride, and eplerenone should be used in this situation despite the lack of safety data.
October 2017: Clinical Case Reports
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