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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909443/mighty-dwarfs-arabidopsis-autoimmune-mutants-and-their-usages-in-genetic-dissection-of-plant-immunity
#1
REVIEW
Rowan van Wersch, Xin Li, Yuelin Zhang
Plants lack the adaptive immune system possessed by mammals. Instead they rely on innate immunity to defend against pathogen attacks. Genomes of higher plants encode a large number of plant immune receptors belonging to different protein families, which are involved in the detection of pathogens and activation of downstream defense pathways. Plant immunity is tightly controlled to avoid activation of defense responses in the absence of pathogens, as failure to do so can lead to autoimmunity that compromises plant growth and development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898839/ap2-erf-transcription-factors-involved-in-response-to-tomato-yellow-leaf-curly-virus-in-tomato
#2
Ying Huang, Bao-Long Zhang, Sheng Sun, Guo-Ming Xing, Feng Wang, Meng-Yao Li, Yong-Sheng Tian, Ai-Sheng Xiong
Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV), transmitted by the whitefly (), causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.). The APETALA2 (AP2) and ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF) TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato...
July 2016: Plant Genome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886559/ectopic-expression-of-ga-2-oxidase-6-from-rapeseed-brassica-napus-l-causes-dwarfism-late-flowering-and-enhanced-chlorophyll-accumulation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Jindong Yan, Xiaoying Liao, Reqing He, Ming Zhong, Panpan Feng, Xinmei Li, Dongying Tang, Xuanming Liu, Xiaoying Zhao
Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development...
November 15, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882938/neutral-sphingomyelinase-smpd3-deficiency-disrupts-the-golgi-secretory-pathway-and-causes-growth-inhibition
#4
Wilhelm Stoffel, Ina Hammels, Bitta Jenke, Erika Binczek, Inga Schmidt-Soltau, Susanne Brodesser, Astrid Schauss, Julia Etich, Juliane Heilig, Frank Zaucke
Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus-pituitary-somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3-/- mouse mutant and derived smpd3-/- primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment...
November 24, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864442/two-trichome-birefringence-like-proteins-mediate-xylan-acetylation-which-is-essential-for-leaf-blight-resistance-in-rice
#5
Yaping Gao, Congwu He, Dongmei Zhang, Xiangling Liu, Zuopeng Xu, Tian Yanbao, Xue-Hui Liu, Shanshan Zang, Markus Pauly, Yihua Zhou, Baocai Zhang
Acetylation is a ubiquitous modification on cell wall polymers, which play a structural role in plant growth and stress defenses. However, the mechanisms for how crop plants accomplish cell-wall polymer O-acetylation are largely unknown. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of two trichome birefringence-like (tbl) mutants in rice, which are affected in xylan O-acetylation. ostbl1 and ostbl2 single mutant and the tbl1 tbl2 double mutant displayed a stunted growth phenotype with varied degree of dwarfism...
November 18, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837313/cosmetic-lengthening-what-are-the-limits
#6
F Guerreschi, H Tsibidakis
OBJECTIVES: In the last decades, limb lengthening has not been limited to the treatment of patients with dwarfism and deformities resulting from congenital anomalies, trauma, tumor and infections, but, has also been used for aesthetic reasons. Cosmetic lengthening by the Ilizarov method with circular external fixation has been applied to individuals with constitutional short stature who wish to be taller. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 1985 to December 2010, the medical records of 63 patients with constitutional short stature (36 M, 27F; 126 legs) who underwent cosmetic bilateral leg lengthening using a hybrid advanced fixator according to the Ilizarov method, were reviewed, retrospectively...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833291/a-case-report-of-acampomelic-campomelic-dysplasia-and-operative-difficulties-in-cleft-palate-reconstruction
#7
M Pasupathy, Vasant Radhakrishnan, Hirji Sorab Adenwalla, Puthucode V Narayanan
Acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a type of CD (CD; OMIM #114290), a rare form of congenital short-limbed dwarfism and is due to mutations in SOX9 gene family. Characteristic phenotypes of CD include bowing of the lower limbs, a narrow thoracic cage, 11 pairs of ribs, hypoplastic scapulae, macrocephaly, flattened supraorbital ridges and nasal bridge, cleft palate and micrognathia. The bending of the long bones is not an obligatory feature and is absent in about 10% of cases, referred to as acampomelic CD...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815670/novel-rice-mutants-overexpressing-the-brassinosteroid-catabolic-gene-cyp734a4
#8
Wenjing Qian, Chao Wu, Yaping Fu, Guocheng Hu, Zhengquan He, Wenzhen Liu
Moderate overexpression of CYP734A4 improves grain number per main panicle and seed setting rate. Brassinosteroid (BR) homeostasis and signaling are crucial for plant growth and development. CYP734A genes encode cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that control the level of bioactive BRs by degrading BRs. However, fertile plants overexpressing CYP734As have not been reported in rice. Here, we isolated a novel semi-dominant mutant brd3-D, in which T-DNA was inserted approximately 4 kb upstream of the CYP734A4 gene (GenBank Accession AB488667), causing its overexpression...
November 4, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802841/misexpression-of-attx12-encoding-a-toll-interleukin-1-receptor-domain-induces-growth-defects-and-expression-of-defense-related-genes-partially-independently-of-eds1-in-arabidopsis
#9
Sang-Kee Song
To identify functions of uncharacterized genes in Arabidopsis, tissue-specific GAL4/UAS activation tags were introduced into the Q2610 enhancer trap line, highly active in post-embryonic roots, and a dominant mutant exhibiting stunted growth named defective root development 1-D (drd1-D) was isolated. The T-DNA tag was located within the promoter region of AtTX12, which is predicted to encode a truncated nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein, containing a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
November 2, 2016: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793082/dwarfism-with-joint-laxity-in-friesian-horses-is-associated-with-a-splice-site-mutation-in-b4galt7
#10
Peter A Leegwater, Manon Vos-Loohuis, Bart J Ducro, Iris J Boegheim, Frank G van Steenbeek, Isaac J Nijman, Glen R Monroe, John W M Bastiaansen, Bert W Dibbits, Leanne H van de Goor, Ids Hellinga, Willem Back, Anouk Schurink
BACKGROUND: Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short and the ribs are protruding inwards at the costochondral junction, while the head and back appear normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to identify the gene defect that causes the recessively inherited trait in Friesian horses to understand the disease process at the molecular level...
October 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764161/polycomb-protein-osfie2-affects-plant-height-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#11
Xianbo Liu, Xiangjin Wei, Zhonghua Sheng, Guiai Jiao, Shaoqing Tang, Ju Luo, Peisong Hu
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have been shown to affect growth and development in plants. To further elucidate their role in these processes in rice, we isolated and characterized a rice mutant which exhibits dwarfism, reduced seed setting rate, defective floral organ, and small grains. Map-based cloning revealed that abnormal phenotypes were attributed to a mutation of the Fertilization Independent Endosperm 2 (OsFIE2) protein, which belongs to the PcG protein family. So we named the mutant as osfie2-1. Histological analysis revealed that the number of longitudinal cells in the internodes decreased in osfie2-1, and that lateral cell layer of the internodes was markedly thinner than wild-type...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762067/sumo-e3-ligases-gmsiz1a-and-gmsiz1b-regulate-vegetative-growth-in-soybean
#12
Bin Cai, Xiangxiong Kong, Chao Zhong, Suli Sun, Xiao Feng Zhou, Yin Hua Jin, Youning Wang, Xia Li, Zhendong Zhu, Jing Bo Jin
SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, ABA, and NaCl treatment...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752260/a-novel-two-step-method-for-screening-shade-tolerant-mutant-plants-via-dwarfism
#13
Wei Li, Lorenzo Katin-Grazzini, Sanalkumar Krishnan, Chandra Thammina, Rania El-Tanbouly, Huseyin Yer, Emily Merewitz, Karl Guillard, John Inguagiato, Richard J McAvoy, Zongrang Liu, Yi Li
When subjected to shade, plants undergo rapid shoot elongation, which often makes them more prone to disease and mechanical damage. Shade-tolerant plants can be difficult to breed; however, they offer a substantial benefit over other varieties in low-light areas. Although perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is a popular species of turf grasses because of their good appearance and fast establishment, the plant normally does not perform well under shade conditions. It has been reported that, in turfgrass, induced dwarfism can enhance shade tolerance...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717457/the-agrobacterium-rhizogenes-oncogenes-rolb-and-orf13-increase-formation-of-generative-shoots-and-induce-dwarfism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-l-heynh
#14
Nete Kodahl, Renate Müller, Henrik Lütken
Plant transformation with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is a promising method for breeding of compact plants and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, knowledge concerning the isolated functions of single genes and ORFs from the plasmid is limited. The rolB and ORF13 oncogenes of A. rhizogenes show considerable promise in plant breeding, but have not been comprehensively studied. Detailed information regarding the morphological impact of specific genes of the Ri plasmid will allow for optimized targeted breeding of plants transformed with the wild type Ri plasmid T-DNA...
November 2016: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713155/chicken-ghr-natural-antisense-transcript-regulates-ghr-mrna-in-lmh-cells
#15
Li Zhang, Shudai Lin, Lilong An, Jinge Ma, Fengfang Qiu, Rumin Jia, Qinghua Nie, Dexiang Zhang, Qingbin Luo, Ting Li, Zhang Wang, Xiquan Zhang
Growth hormone receptor (GHR) played key roles in human and animal growth. Both human laron type dwarfism and sex linked dwarf chicken were caused by the mutation of GHR gene. In this study, we identified an endogenously expressed long non-coding natural antisense transcript, GHR-AS, which overlapped with the GHR mRNA (GHR-S) in a tail to tail manner. Spatial and temporal expression analyses indicated that GHR-AS were highly expressed in chicken liver and displayed ascending with the development of chicken from E10 to 3 w of age...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709641/chemotherapy-dosing-in-achondroplastic-dwarfism-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
R Elsoueidi, C Gresham, L Michael, D Chaney, H Mourad
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: CASE DESCRIPTION: A 74-year-old female with achondroplastic dwarfism was diagnosed with ER-, BR- and HER2- breast cancer. No guideline currently exists to direct chemotherapy dosing in this population. She received neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on body surface area utilizing actual height and weight with dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Satisfactory clinical response and remission were achieved, and treatment proceeded without any significant toxicity or delays...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668833/the-notochord-curvature-in-medaka-oryzias-latipes-embryos-as-a-response-to-ultraviolet-a-irradiation
#17
Alaa El-Din Hamid Sayed, Hiroshi Mitani
In the present work, the destructive effects of ultraviolet A (UVA; 366nm) irradiation on the developmental stages of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) are revealed in terms of hatching success, mortality rate, and morphological malformations (yolk sac edema, body curvature, fin blistering, and dwarfism). Fertilized eggs in stage 4 were exposed to 15, 30, and 60min/day UVA for 3days in replicates. Fish were staged and aged following the stages established by Iwamatsu [1]. We observed and recorded the hatching time and deformed and dead embryos continuously...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665332/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-with-jeune-syndrome-the-first-reported-case
#18
Osman Güvenç, Saime Sündüs Uygun, Derya Çimen, Eyüp Aslan, Ali Annagür
Jeune syndrome (Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia) is a rare dystrophy of the skeleton, inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. Patients develop a narrowed thorax, rhizomelic dwarfism, and hepatic, renal, and pancreatic abnormalities. High rates of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension have been reported. Some patients die in early stages of life due to respiratory failure. The case of a patient referred with a history of severe asphyxiating birth, who had been diagnosed with Jeune syndrome and later hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) upon echocardiographic examination is described in the present report...
September 2016: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649665/the-correlation-of-leptin-leptin-receptor-gene-polymorphism-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-and-their-impact-on-childhood-growth-hormone-deficiency
#19
J-S He, C-W Lian, H-W Zhou, X-F Lin, H-C Yang, X-L Ye, S-B Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most common cause for childhood dwarfism. Currently, the significance of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diagnosis of GHD is still debatable. Due to the possible correlation between leptin (LEP) and GHD pathogenesis, this study investigated the gene polymorphism of LEP and its receptor (LEPR) genes, along with serum IGF-1 and LEP levels in GHD patients. This study attempted to illustrate the correlation between gene polymorphism and GHD pathogenesis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645547/ep10-04-congenital-dwarfism-with-renal-dysplasia-case-report
#20
S Lee, W Tan, D K Chan, H Tan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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