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Insect Bioassay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543984/cycle-affects-imidacloprid-efficiency-by-mediating-cytochrome-p450-expression-in-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#1
K Kang, P Yang, R Pang, L Yue, W Zhang
Circadian clocks influence most behaviours and physiological activities in animals, including daily fluctuations in metabolism. However, how the clock gene cycle influences insects' responses to pesticides has rarely been reported. Here, we provide evidence that cycle affects imidacloprid efficacy by mediating the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice. Survival bioassays showed that the susceptibility of BPH adults to imidacloprid differed significantly between the two time points tested [Zeitgeber Time 8 (ZT8) and ZT4]...
May 23, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533974/foraging-behaviour-of-an-egg-parasitoid-exploiting-plant-volatiles-induced-by-pentatomids-the-role-of-adaxial-and-abaxial-leaf-surfaces
#2
Francesca Frati, Antonino Cusumano, Eric Conti, Stefano Colazza, Ezio Peri, Salvatore Guarino, Letizia Martorana, Roberto Romani, Gianandrea Salerno
Several phases of herbivorous insect attack including feeding and oviposition are known to induce plant defenses. Plants emit volatiles induced by herbivores to recruit insect parasitoids as an indirect defense strategy. So far, volatiles induced by herbivore walking and their putative role in the foraging behavior of egg parasitoids have not been investigated. In this paper we studied the response of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis toward volatiles emitted by Vicia faba plants as consequence of the walking activity of the host Nezara viridula...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498837/whitefly-attraction-to-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinialis-l-is-associated-with-volatile-composition-and-quantity
#3
Dganit Sadeh, Nadav Nitzan, Alona Shachter, David Chaimovitsh, Nativ Dudai, Murad Ghanim
Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is an important insect pest, causing severe damage to agricultural crops. The pest was recorded in a commercial rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae) field, colonizing rosemary variety (var.) '2', but not '11'. A series of field and controlled laboratory choice bioassays confirmed the observed phenomenon. Mature potted plants of the two varieties were randomly organized in a lemon verbena (Lippia citrodora) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.) fields. Seven days later var. '2' was significantly more colonized by whiteflies than var...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492498/assessment-of-inheritance-and-fitness-costs-associated-with-field-evolved-resistance-to-cry3bb1-maize-by-western-corn-rootworm
#4
Aubrey R Paolino, Aaron J Gassmann
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present...
May 11, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482938/rna-interference-mediated-knockdown-of-some-genes-involved-in-digestion-and-development-of-helicoverpa-armigera
#5
M Vatanparast, M Kazzazi, A Mirzaie-Asl, V Hosseininaveh
Helicoverpa armigera is a significant agricultural pest and particularly notorious for its resistance to many types of common insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of post-transcriptional gene silencing and trigged by double-strand RNA (dsRNA), has become a widely used reverse genetics and potent tool for insect pest control. In this study, the effect of ingestion and injection delivery methods of dsRNA related two important enzyme genes, α-amylase (HaAMY48, Ha-AMY49) and juvenile hormone esterase (Ha-JHE), were examined on growth and development of H...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470499/coffee-its-roasted-form-and-their-residues-cause-birth-failure-and-shorten-lifespan-in-dengue-vectors
#6
Hamady Dieng, Salbiah Binti Ellias, Tomomitsu Satho, Abu Hassan Ahmad, Fatimah Abang, Idris Abd Ghani, Sabina Noor, Hamdan Ahmad, Wan Fatma Zuharah, Ronald E Morales Vargas, Noppawan P Morales, Cirilo N Hipolito, Siriluck Attrapadung, Gabriel Tonga Noweg
In dengue mosquitoes, successful embryonic development and long lifespan are key determinants for the persistence of both virus and vector. Therefore, targeting the egg stage and vector lifespan would be expected to have greater impacts than larvicides or adulticides, both strategies that have lost effectiveness due to the development of resistance. Therefore, there is now a pressing need to find novel chemical means of vector control. Coffee contains many chemicals, and its waste, which has become a growing environmental concern, is as rich in toxicants as the green coffee beans; these chemicals do not have a history of resistance in insects, but some are lost in the roasting process...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465519/the-conidial-mucilage-natural-film-coatings-is-involved-in-environmental-adaptability-and-pathogenicity-of-hirsutella-satumaensis-aoki
#7
Jiaojiao Qu, Xiao Zou, Jianping Yu, Yeming Zhou
The Hirsutella genus is very special asexually-reproducing pathogens of insects by reduced sporulation, host specificity and spores covered by a thick mucilage layer. However, the ecological function of conidial mucilage remains elusive. In this study, the possible ecological role of conidial mucilage from the entomopathogenic fungus Hirsutella satumaensis was functionally investigated through tolerance, adherence and insect bioassays involving aerial conidia (AC) and mucilage-free conidia (MFC). Measurements of hydrophobicity using microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) indicated that mucilage is main contributor to the surface hydrophobicity of AC...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456308/functional-characterization-of-two-acetylcholinesterase-genes-in-the-brown-citrus-aphid-aphis-toxoptera-citricidus-kirkaldy-using-heterologous-expression-and-rna-interference
#8
Xing Mou, Guo-Rui Yuan, Hong-Bo Jiang, Zhao Liu, Jin-Jun Wang
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphate- and carbamate-based insecticides. We sequenced the full-length cDNAs of two AChE genes from the brown citrus aphid Aphis (Toxoptera) citricidus (Kirkaldy). These two genes, Tcace1 and Tcace2, which encode TcAChE1 and TcAChE2, respectively, had a shared amino acid identity of 29% and were highly similar to other insect ace1 and ace2 genes, respectively, having specific functional motifs. Potential differences in enzymatic function were characterized by the heterologous expression of the two genes using a baculovirus system in Sf9 insect cells...
May 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454584/direct-expression-of-active-human-tissue-inhibitors-of-metalloproteinases-by-periplasmic-secretion-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Ki Baek Lee, Dong Hyun Nam, Jacob A M Nuhn, Juan Wang, Ian C Schneider, Xin Ge
BACKGROUND: As regulators of multifunctional metalloproteinases including MMP, ADAM and ADAMTS families, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) play a pivotal role in extracellular matrix remodeling, which is involved in a wide variety of physiological processes. Since abnormal metalloproteinase activities are related to numerous diseases such as arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurological disorders, TIMPs and their engineered mutants hold therapeutic potential and thus have been extensively studied...
April 28, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451986/bt-proteins-have-no-detrimental-effects-on-larvae-of-the-green-lacewing-chrysopa-pallens-rambur-neuroptera-chrysopidae
#10
I Ali, S Zhang, M S Muhammad, M Iqbal, J-J J-J Cui
Biosafety of a genetically modified crop is required to be assessed prior to its commercialization. For this, a suitable artificial diet was developed and used to establish a dietary exposure test for assessing the toxicity of midgut-active Bt insecticidal proteins on Chrysopa pallens (Rambur). Subsequently, this dietary exposure test was used to evaluate the toxicity of the proteins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ah, Cry1Ca, Cry1F, Cry2Aa, Cry2Ab, and Vip3Aa on C. pallens larvae. Temporal stability, bioactivity, and the intake of the insecticidal proteins were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a sensitive-insect bioassay...
April 28, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447782/does-waterborne-exposure-explain-effects-caused-by-neonicotinoid-contaminated-plant-material-in-aquatic-systems
#11
Dominic Englert, Jochen P Zubrod, Moritz Link, Saskia Mertins, Ralf Schulz, Mirco Bundschuh
Neonicotinoids are increasingly applied on trees as protection measure against insect pests. Consequently, neonicotinoids are inevitably transferred into aquatic environments either via spray drift or surface runoff or (due to neonicotinoids' systemic nature) via senescent leaves. There particularly leaf-shredding invertebrates may be exposed to neonicotinoids through both the water phase and the consumption of contaminated leaves. In 7 day bioassays (n = 30), we examined ecotoxicological differences between these two exposure scenarios for an amphipod and an insect nymph with their feeding rate as the response variable...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428873/a-maize-landrace-that-emits-defense-volatiles-in-response-to%C3%A2-herbivore-eggs-possesses-a-strongly-inducible-terpene-synthase-gene
#12
Amanuel Tamiru, Toby J A Bruce, Annett Richter, Christine M Woodcock, Charles A O Midega, Jörg Degenhardt, Segenet Kelemu, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 possessing stemborer Chilo partellus egg inducible defense trait, in comparison with the European maize line Delprim and North American inbred line B73...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424845/the-regulatory-role-of-the-transcription-factor-crz1-in-stress-tolerance-pathogenicity-and-its-target-gene-expression-in-metarhizium-acridum
#13
Xing Chen, Yuanze Liu, Nemat O Keyhani, Yuxian Xia, Yueqing Cao
In fungi, the Ca(2+)/calcineurin signaling pathway is critical in mediating growth, morphology, stress responses, and pathogenicity. Crz1 is a calcineurin-responsive zinc finger transcription factor. Here, MaCrz1 was identified and functionally characterized in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum by characterization of a targeted gene knockout strain. Conidia of the ΔMacrz1 mutant were aberrant in cell surface features and lacked the characteristic hydrophobic rodlet layer, and the mutant displayed increased sensitivity to oxidative stress, cell wall perturbing agents, heat stress, and ultraviolet irradiation as compared to the wild-type and complemented strains...
April 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423427/influence-of-temperature-and-relative-humidity-on-the-insecticidal-efficacy-of-metarhizium-anisopliae-against-larvae-of-ephestia-kuehniella-lepidoptera-pyralidae-on-wheat
#14
Christos G Athanassiou, Nickolas G Kavallieratos, Christos I Rumbos, Demetrius C Kontodimas
A series of laboratory bioassays were conducted for the evaluation of the insecticidal efficacy of an isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against larvae of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), under various temperature-relative humidity (r.h.) conditions. The fungus was applied at four doses (0, 8 × 106, 8 × 108, and 8 × 1010 conidia ml-1) on wheat and insect mortality was assessed after exposure of 1, 2, 7, and 14 d...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417946/essential-oils-of-hyptis-pectinata-chemotypes-isolation-binary-mixtures-and-acute-toxicity-on-leaf-cutting-ants
#15
Rosana B Feitosa-Alcantara, Leandro Bacci, Arie F Blank, Péricles B Alves, Indira Morgana de A Silva, Caroline A Soares, Taís S Sampaio, Paulo Cesar de L Nogueira, Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank
Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this work was to evaluate the formicidal activity of the essential oils of two Hyptis pectinata genotypes (chemotypes) and their major compounds on the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex balzani Emery and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel. Bioassays of exposure pathways (contact and fumigation) and binary mixtures of the major compounds were performed...
April 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398263/efficacy-of-ozone-against-phosphine-susceptible-and-resistant-strains-of-four-stored-product-insect-species
#16
Xinyi E, Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Beibei Li
The efficacy of ozone was evaluated against four economically-important stored-product insect species at 27.2 C and 20.4% r.h. Adults of phosphine-susceptible laboratory strains and phosphine-resistant field strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (Linnaeus), maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, and rice weevil, Sitophilusoryzae (Linnaeus), were exposed in vials to an ozone concentration of 0.42 g/m³ (200 ppm) for 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h with 0 and 10 g of wheat...
April 11, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383719/phosphine-resistance-in-cryptolestes-ferrugineus-coleoptera-laemophloeidae-collected-from-grain-storage-facilities-in-oklahoma-usa
#17
C E Konemann, Z Hubhachen, G P Opit, S Gautam, N S Bajracharya
Phosphine gas (PH3) is one of the most commonly used fumigants for controlling stored-grain pests worldwide. We estimated the discriminating dose for Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae) adult insects using a laboratory susceptible strain. This discriminating dose was then used to determine presence or absence of PH3 resistance (resistance frequencies) in 19 field-collected populations of C. ferrugineus from Oklahoma, United States. The discriminating dose was estimated as 56.2 ppm of PH3 over a 20-h exposure period at 25 °C...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369429/geographic-variation-in-phosphine-resistance-among-north-american-populations-of-the-red-flour-beetle-coleoptera-tenebrionidae
#18
A J Cato, Brent Elliott, Manoj K Nayak, Thomas W Phillips
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), is a common stored-product pest found worldwide. Phosphine, hydrogen phosphide (PH3), is the most commonly used fumigant for stored grains, for which genetically based resistance has been recorded for several pest species. This study assessed phosphine resistance in 25 T. castaneum populations from across the United States and Canada using a discriminating dose bioassay. Dose-mortality assays were conducted with adults from seven of these populations to categorize weak and strong resistance phenotypes...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369319/thiamethoxam-toxicity-and-effects-on-consumption-behavior-in-orius-insidiosus-hemiptera-anthocoridae-on-soybean
#19
Carolina Camargo, Thomas E Hunt, Loren J Giesler, Blair D Siegfried
Neonicotinoid residues can be present in soybean vegetative tissue, prey insects, and flower tissues, possibly making them toxic to pollinators and natural enemies. Baseline information on the toxicity of neonicotinoids to beneficial insects other than pollinators through multiple routes of insecticide exposure is limited. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the toxicity of thiamethoxam to the hemipteran predator, Orius insidiosus Say, exposed to residues through treated vegetative tissue and insect prey, and 2) to evaluate the effect of thiamethoxam on the abundance of this predator species in soybean fields...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363958/toxicity-and-binding-studies-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1ac-cry1f-cry1c-and-cry2a-proteins-in-the-soybean-pests-anticarsia-gemmatalis-and-chrysodeixis-pseudoplusia-includens
#20
Yolanda Bel, Joel J Sheets, Sek Yee Tan, Kenneth E Narva, Baltasar Escriche
Anticarsia gemmatalis (velvetbean caterpillar) and Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper, formerly named Pseudoplusia includens) are two important defoliating insects of soybean. Both lepidopteran pests are controlled mainly with synthetic insecticides. Alternative control strategies such as biopesticides based on the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins or transgenic plants expressing Bt toxins can be used and are increasingly being adopted. Studies on the insect susceptibility and mode of action of the different Bt toxins are crucial to determine management strategies to control the pests and to delay outbreaks of insect resistance...
March 31, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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