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Insect Bioassay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330080/transgenic-rice-plants-expressing-synthetic-cry2ax1-gene-exhibits-resistance-to-rice-leaffolder-cnaphalocrosis-medinalis
#1
R Manikandan, N Balakrishnan, D Sudhakar, V Udayasuriyan
Bacillus thuringiensis is a major source of insecticidal genes imparting insect resistance in transgenic plants. Level of expression of transgenes in transgenic plants is important to achieve desirable level of resistance against target insects. In order to achieve desirable level of expression, rice chloroplast transit peptide sequence was fused with synthetic cry2AX1 gene to target its protein in chloroplasts. Sixteen PCR positive lines of rice were generated by Agrobacterium mediated transformation using immature embryos...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321527/effects-of-site-mutations-within-the-22%C3%A2-kda-no-core-fragment-of-the-vip3aa11-insecticidal-toxin-of-bacillus-thuringiensis
#2
Ming Liu, Rongmei Liu, Guoxing Luo, Haitao Li, Jiguo Gao
Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are not homologous to other known Cry proteins, and they act against lepidopteran larvae via a unique process. All reported studies on the mode of action of Vip3 proteins have been performed on the Vip3A family, mostly on the Vip3Aa subfamily. Vip3Aa proteins are activated by midgut proteases, and they cross the peritrophic membrane and bind specific proteins in apical membrane epithelial midgut cells, which results in pore formation and, eventually, death to the insects...
March 20, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316131/evaluation-of-potential-rna-interference-target-genes-to-control-cotton-mealybug-phenacoccus-solenopsis-hemiptera-pseudococcuidae
#3
Arif M Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Azhar A Khan, Muhammad T Naseem, Shahid Mansoor
RNA interference (RNAi) of vital insect genes is a potential tool for targeted pest control. However, selection of the right target genes is a challenge because the RNAi efficacy is known to vary among insect species. Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis, is a phloem-feeding economically important crop pest. We evaluated the RNAi of two vital genes, Bursicon (PsBur) and V-ATPase (PsV-ATPase) as potential targets in P. solenopsis for its control. PCR fragments of PsBur and PsV-ATPase were amplified using cDNA synthesized from the total RNA...
March 18, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303034/searching-for-wheat-resistance-to-aphids-and-wheat-bulb-fly-in-the-historical-watkins-and-gediflux-wheat-collections
#4
G I Aradottir, J L Martin, S J Clark, J A Pickett, L E Smart
Insect pests can reduce wheat yield by direct feeding and transmission of plant viruses. Here we report results from laboratory and field phenotyping studies on a wide range of wheat, including landraces from the Watkins collection deriving from before the green revolution, more modern cultivars from the Gediflux collection (north-western Europe) and modern UK Elite varieties, for resistance to the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae)...
March 2017: Annals of Applied Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279191/effectiveness-of-autodissemination-stations-containing-pyriproxyfen-in-reducing-immature-aedes-albopictus-populations
#5
Isik Unlu, Devi S Suman, Yi Wang, Kim Klingler, Ary Faraji, Randy Gaugler
BACKGROUND: Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito, is an aggressive, highly anthropophilic, day-biting mosquito with an expanding geographic range. Suppression of Ae. albopictus is difficult because of the abundance and prevalence of larval habitats within peridomestic environments, particularly cryptic habitats such as corrugated extension spouts, fence post openings, discarded food containers, etc. Because of the challenges of eliminating or treating larval habitats of this species, we tested an autodissemination concept to contaminate these habitats with the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen...
March 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266104/larvicidal-activity-of-synthetic-tropane-alkaloids-against-ascia-monuste-orseis-lepidoptera-pieridae
#6
Simone Z Mairink, Luiz Ca Barbosa, Eduardo Vv Varejão, Elizeu S Farias, Márcio Lm Santos, Marcelo C Picanço
BACKGROUND: Tropane alkaloids are well known to play a role in plant defense. By blocking acetylcholine receptors, they exert insecticidal and deterrent effects against herbivore insects. Carbamates are an important class of chemical insecticides that also inhibit acetyl cholinesterase. The objective of this work was to synthesize a series of tropane alkaloids bearing a carbamate group, and to evaluate their effects against the pest Ascia monuste. The effects of the most active compounds were evaluated on the A...
March 6, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258772/insect-deterrent-and-nematicidal-screening-of-microfungi-from-mexico-and-anti-aphid-compounds-from-gliomastix-masseei
#7
Ana L Ruiz-Jiménez, Azucena González-Coloma, Mari Fe Andrés-Yeves, Esaú Ruiz-Sánchez, Gabriela Heredia, Sergio R Peraza-Sánchez, Irma L Medina-Baizabal, Manuela Reyes-Estebanez, Blondy Canto-Canché, Marcela Gamboa-Angulo
Fungal metabolites are promising alternatives for the development of biorational pesticides. In this sense, microfungi from tropical regions are valuable sources of natural compounds for pest management. With the aim of broadening the search for new eco-friendly products to manage plant pests, this study was carried out to evaluate the biological activity of 23 tropical fungal extracts on three species of phytophagous insects and a plant parasitic nematode. In addition, the active principles of the most effective extract were identified...
February 28, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247562/design-synthesis-and-insecticidal-activity-of-novel-hydrocarbylidene-nitrohydrazinecarboximidamides
#8
Yong Xu, Dong-Yan Yang, Xiang-Gao Zou, Chang-Hui Rui, Zi-Yuan Zhou, Yong-Qiang Ma, Zhao-Hai Qin
BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoids, as one of the most important pesticides in recent decades, have played pivotal roles in controlling of agricultural pests. However, the toxicity to some environmental beneficial insects has been alerting people. The development of novel insecticides safer to these insects is increasingly urgent. RESULTS: A novel series of hydrocarbylidene nitrohydrazinecarboximidamides were designed and synthesized starting from S-methylisothiourea sulfate...
March 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247468/discovery-and-quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-study-of-lepidopteran-hmg-coa-reductase-inhibitors-as-selective-insecticides
#9
Yang-Yang Zang, Yuan-Mei Li, Yue Yin, Shan-Shan Chen, Zhen-Peng Kai
BACKGROUND: In the previous study, we have demonstrated that insect 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) can be a potential selective insecticide target. Three series of inhibitors were designed based on the difference of HMGR structures from Homo sapiens and Manduca sexta with the aim for discovering potent selective insecticide candidate. RESULTS: Bioassay in vitro showed that gem-difluoromethylenated statin analogs have potent effects on JH biosynthesis of M...
March 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215855/cloning-and-expression-of-cry2aa-from-native-bacillus-thuringiensis-strain-sy49-1-and-its-insecticidal-activity-against-culex-pipiens-diptera-culicidae
#10
Semih Yilmaz, Ugur Azizoglu, Abdurrahman Ayvaz, Ridvan Temizgul, Zehra Büşra Atciyurt, Salih Karabörklü
Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) is well known for having toxicity against pest insects because of their ability to form endospores and broad-range activity of their parasporal inclusions. In this study, a new member of cry2A gene from previously characterized native B. thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and used for its activity against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae. The sequence analysis of the cloned cry2A gene revealed that it encodes a polypeptide of 633 aa residues with 99% identity to Cry2Aa protein with expected molecular weight of 70...
February 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213547/laboratory-selection-and-characterization-of-resistance-to-the-bacillus-thuringiensis-vip3aa-toxin-in-heliothis-virescens-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#11
Brian R Pickett, Asim Gulzar, Juan Ferré, Denis J Wright
Laboratory selection with Vip3Aa of a field-derived population of Heliothis virescens produced >2040-fold resistance in 12 generations of selection. The Vip-Sel resistant population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Resistance was unstable after 15 generations without exposure to the toxin. F1 reciprocal crosses between Vip-Unsel and Vip-Sel indicated a strong paternal influence on the inheritance of resistance. Resistance ranged from almost completely recessive (mean h = 0...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207862/breeding-matters-natal-experience-influences-population-state-dependent-host-acceptance-by-an-eruptive-insect-herbivore
#12
Jordan Lewis Burke, Allan L Carroll
Eruptive forest insects are highly influential agents of change in forest ecosystems, and their effects have increased with recent climate change. State-dependent life histories contribute significantly to the population dynamics of eruptive forest insect herbivores; however, the proximate mechanisms by which these species shift between states is poorly understood. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) to determine the effect of maternal host selection on offspring host preferences, as they apply to population state-dependent behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206856/effect-of-photoperiod-on-permethrin-resistance-in-aedes-aegypti
#13
O Karina Villanueva, Gustavo Ponce, Beatriz Lopez, Selene M Gutierrez, Iram P Rodriguez, Guadalupe Reyes, Karla J Saavedra, William C Black, Julian Garcia, Barry Beaty, Lars Eisen, Adriana E Flores
Living organisms have been exposed to light-dark cycles that allowed them to adapt to different ecological niches. Circadian cycles affect hormone release, metabolism, and response to xenobiotic compounds. Current studies have shown that insect susceptibility to toxic agents depends on circadian cycles, mainly because the biochemical processes involved in detoxification and responses to oxidative stress are modulated by this process. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of photoperiod on resistance to permethrin in Aedes aegypti ...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193253/artemisia-spp-essential-oils-against-the-disease-carrying-blowfly-calliphora-vomitoria
#14
Stefano Bedini, Guido Flamini, Francesca Cosci, Roberta Ascrizzi, Maria Cristina Echeverria, Lucia Guidi, Marco Landi, Andrea Lucchi, Barbara Conti
BACKGROUND: Synanthropic flies play a considerable role in the transmission of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms. In this work, the essential oil (EO) of two aromatic plants, Artemisia annua and Artemisia dracunculus, were evaluated for their abilities to control the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Artemisia annua and A. dracunculus EOs were extracted, analysed and tested in laboratory bioassays. Besides, the physiology of EOs toxicity and the EOs antibacterial and antifungal properties were evaluated...
February 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187835/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-the-chitin-synthesis-inhibitor-chlorfluazuron-on-bradysia-odoriphaga-yang-and-zhang-diptera-sciaridae
#15
Peng Zhang, Yun-He Zhao, Qiu-Hong Wang, Wei Mu, Feng Liu
Bradysia odoriphaga Yang and Zhang is the primary insect pest that affects Chinese chive in northern China. Nevertheless, very few studies have been conducted on the use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) for the control of B. odoriphaga. Here, lethal and sublethal effects of the CSI chlorfluazuron on B. odoriphaga were studied to explore the use for integrated pest management (IPM) of B. odoriphaga. A contact and ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorfluazuron was more active against B. odoriphaga than three other CSIs, with a 72h LC50 of 0...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187825/characterization-of-acetylcholinesterase-from-elm-left-beetle-xanthogaleruca-luteola-and-qsar-of-temephos-derivatives-against-its-activity
#16
Mahboobeh Sharifi, Mohammad Ghadamyari, Khodayar Gholivand, Ali Asghar Ebrahimi Valmoozi, Reza H Sajedi
Insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the principal target for organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides. In this research, an AChE from third instar larvae of elm left beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola was purified by affinity chromatography. The enzyme was purified 75.29-fold with a total yield of 8.51%. As shown on denaturing SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of purified AChE was 70kDa. The enzyme demonstrated maximum activity at pH7 and 35°C. Furthermore, a series of temephos (Tem) derivatives with the general structure of P(O)XP(O) (1-44) were prepared, synthesized and characterized by (31)P, (13)C, (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectral techniques...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187824/expression-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cytolytic-toxin-cyt2ca1-in-citrus-roots-to-control-diaprepes-abbreviatus-larvae
#17
Sulley Ben Mahmoud, John E Ramos, Robert G Shatters, David G Hall, Stephen L Lapointe, Randall P Niedz, Pierre Rougé, Ronald D Cave, Dov Borovsky
Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of D. abbreviatus exist in citriculture, and new methods of control are desperately sought. To protect citrus against D. abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin protein, was developed using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of 'Carrizo' citrange [Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck Poncirus trifoliate (L) Raf]. The transgenic citrus root stock expressed the cytolytic toxin Cyt2Ca1 constitutively under the control of a 35S promoter in the transgenic Carrizo citrange trifoliate hybrid including the roots that are the food source of larval D...
March 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174591/development-of-a-triple-gene-cry1ac-cry2ab-epsps-construct-and-its-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-for-insect-resistance-and-herbicide-tolerance-in-plants
#18
Rubab Z Naqvi, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Saeed, Shaheen Asad, Asia Khatoon, Imran Amin, Zahid Mukhtar, Aftab Bashir, Shahid Mansoor
Insect pest complex, cotton leaf curl disease and weeds pose major threat to crop production worldwide, including Pakistan. To address these problems, in the present study a triple gene construct harboring Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, and EPSPS cassettes has been developed for plant specifically in cotton transformation against lepidopteron insect-pests and weeds. Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) was used as a model system for characterization of this triple gene construct. The construct has been assembled in plant expression vector and transformed in N...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167952/interactions-between-nitrogen-and-silicon-in-rice-and-their-effects-on-resistance-toward-the-brown-planthopper-nilaparvata-lugens
#19
Xiaoying Wu, Yaoguang Yu, Scott R Baerson, Yuanyuan Song, Guohua Liang, Chaohui Ding, Jinbo Niu, Zhiqiang Pan, Rensen Zeng
Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) are two important nutritional elements required for plant growth, and both impact host plant resistance toward insect herbivores. The interaction between the two elements may therefore play a significant role in determining host plant resistance. We investigated this interaction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its effect on resistance to the herbivore brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH). Our results indicate that high-level (5.76 mM) N fertilization reduced Si accumulation in rice leaves, and furthermore, this decrease was likely due to decreased expression of Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132659/long-chain-alkanes-and-fatty-acids-from-ludwigia-octovalvis-weed-leaf-surface-waxes-as-short-range-attractant-and-ovipositional-stimulant-to-altica-cyanea-weber-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#20
S Mitra, N Sarkar, A Barik
The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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