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Insect Bioassay

Alemayehu Teressa Negawo, Linda Baranek, Hans-Jörg Jacobsen, Fathi Hassan
Transgenic pea lines transformed with the cry1Ac gene were characterized at molecular (PCR, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR and immunostrip assay) and functional levels (leaf paint and insect feeding bioassays). The results showed the presence, expression, inheritance and functionality of the introduced transgene at different progeny levels. Variation in the expression of the cry1Ac gene was observed among the different transgenic lines. In the insect bioassay studies using the larvae of Heliothis virescens, both larval survival and plant damage were highly affected on the different transgenic plants...
October 20, 2016: GM Crops & Food
Rebecca A Schmidt-Jeffris, Brian A Nault
Many vegetable insect pests are managed using neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. Unfortunately, these insecticides are toxic to many bees and natural enemies and no longer control some pests that have developed resistance. Anthranilic diamide insecticides provide systemic control of many herbivorous arthropod pests, but exhibit low toxicity to beneficial arthropods and mammals, and may be a promising alternative to neonicotinoids and pyrethroids. Anthranilic diamides may be delivered to vegetable crops via seed, in-furrow, or foliar treatments; therefore, it would be desirable to identify which application method provides high levels of pest control while minimizing the amount of active ingredient...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Gillian Hertlein, Marlene Seiffert, Sebastian Gensel, Eva Garcia-Gonzalez, Julia Ebeling, Ranko Skobalj, Anja Kuthning, Roderich D Süssmuth, Elke Genersch
The Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is the causative agent of a deadly honey bee brood disease called American Foulbrood (AFB). AFB is a notifiable epizootic in most countries and, hence, P. larvae is of considerable relevance for veterinarians and apiculturists alike. Over the last decade, much progress has been made in the understanding of the (patho)biology of P. larvae. Recently, several non-ribosomally produced peptides (NRP) and peptide/polyketide (NRP/PK) hybrids produced by P...
2016: PloS One
Madeleine Berger, Alin Mirel Puinean, Emma Randall, Christoph T Zimmer, Wellington M Silva, Pablo Bielza, Linda M Field, David Hughes, Ian Mellor, Keywan Hassani-Pak, Herbert A A Siqueira, Martin S Williamson, Chris Bass
Many genes increase coding capacity by alternate exon usage. The gene encoding the insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit, target of the bio-insecticide spinosad, is one example of this and expands protein diversity via alternative splicing of mutually exclusive exons. Here we show that spinosad resistance in the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta is associated with aberrant regulation of splicing of Taα6 resulting in a novel form of insecticide resistance mediated by exon skipping. Sequencing of the α6 subunit cDNA from spinosad selected and unselected strains of T...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Charles Lowell Cantrell, Andrew Maxwell Phineas Jones, Abbas Ali
Hierochloë odorata (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae), commonly known as sweetgrass, has documented use as an insect repellent by the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta. Both the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta would use braided plant material in a sachet in clothing or burn them from one end as incense, air/clothing freshener, and insect repellent. This study evaluated the insect repellent properties of this plant using an in vitro mosquito Aedes aegypti feeding bioassay-directed approach to identify the compound(s) responsible for the observed activities...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Saif Ullah, Rizwan Mustafa Shah, Sarfraz Ali Shad
Dusky cotton bug (DCB), Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera) is a serious pest of cotton and other malvaceous plants. Chlorfenapyr, a broad spectrum, N-substituted, halogenated pyrrole insecticide is used extensively to control many insect pests in cotton, including DCB. In this study, we investigated a field strain of DCB to assess its potential to develop resistance to chlorfenapyr. After six generations of continuous selection pressure with chlorfenapyr, DCB had a 7.24-fold and 149.06-fold resistance ratio (RR) at G1 and G6, respectively...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram
Developing resistance management strategies for eco-friendly insecticides is essential for the management of insect pests without harming the environment. Cyromazine is a biorational insecticide with very low mammalian toxicity. Resistance to cyromazine has recently been reported in house flies from Punjab, Pakistan. In order to propose a resistance management strategy for cyromazine, experiments were planned to study risk for resistance development, possibility of cross-resistance and bio-chemical mechanisms...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Zhangjiang He, Linli Luo, Nemat O Keyhani, Xiaodong Yu, Shenghua Ying, Yongjun Zhang
Protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) belong to a highly conserved protein family responsible for the initiation of O-glycosylation of many proteins. Pmts contain one dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferases (PMT) domain and three MIR motifs (mannosyltransferase, inositol triphosphate, and ryanodine receptor) that are essential for activity in yeast. We report that in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, deletion of the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region (Pmt1∆ (311-902)) does not alter O-mannosyltransferase activity, but does increase total cell wall protein O-mannosylation levels and results in phenotypic changes in fungal development and cell wall stability...
October 8, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Cintia A Oi, Jocelyn G Millar, Jelle S van Zweden, Tom Wenseleers
Social insects are known for their reproductive division of labor between queens and workers, whereby queens lay the majority of the colony's eggs, and workers engage mostly in non-reproductive tasks. Queens produce pheromones that signal their presence and fertility to workers, which in turn generally remain sterile. Recently, it has been discovered that specific queen-characteristic cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) function as queen pheromones across multiple lineages of social insects. In the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris, several long-chain linear alkanes and 3-methylalkanes were shown to act as queen signals...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sufen Cui, Lei Wang, Jiangping Qiu, Zhicheng Liu, Xueqing Geng
BACKGOUND: The tolerance to low oxygen (hypoxia) and high carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) is criticalfor insect control. On the basis of bioassay, metabolism profiles were built to dissect adaptive mechanism in bean weevil under hypoxia, hypoxia/hypercapnia, and normoxia usinggas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). RESULT: The growth and development of bean weevils were suppressed significantly by two hypoxia situations, and hypercapnia enhanced the mortality, but after 24-d exposure, the surviving insects emerged adults earlier than those under hypoxia only...
October 8, 2016: Pest Management Science
William K Heve, Fahiem E El-Borai, Daniel Carrillo, Larry W Duncan
BACKGROUND: Caribbean fruit fly (Caribfly) is a serious economic insect pest because of development of larvae that hatch from eggs oviposited into fruits by female adults. This study assessed virulence of at least 10 entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) to Caribfly in laboratory bioassays as a starting point toward evaluation of management strategies for the fruit-to-soil-dwelling stages of A. suspensa in fields infested by Caribfly. RESULTS: Inoculation of A. suspensa with 1 ml of ca...
September 22, 2016: Pest Management Science
Mohammad M Hossain, Ian M Scott, Franco Berruti, Cedric Briens
Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR)...
August 12, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
S Lujo, E Hartman, K Norton, E A Pregmon, B B Rohde, R W Mankin
Severe economic damage from citrus greening disease, caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' bacteria, has stimulated development of methods to reduce mating and reproduction in populations of its insect vector, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Male D. citri find mating partners by walking on host plants, intermittently producing vibrational calls that stimulate duetting replies by receptive females. The replies provide orientational feedback, assisting the search process. To test a hypothesis that D...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Yeisson Gutiérrez, Hudson V V Tomé, Raul N C Guedes, Eugênio E Oliveira
Backswimmers (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae) are insect predators in a wide variety of freshwater habitats. These insects are well known due to their role as mosquito biocontrol agents, their capability of preying on immature fishes and frogs, and because they are often the first to colonize aquatic habitats. As a consequence, these predators may face intended or unintended insecticide (e.g., insecticides) exposures that may lead to death or to impairment of essential behaviors (e.g., swimming and position in the water column)...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Ana Paula Scaramal Ricietto, Joaquín Gomis-Cebolla, Gislayne Trindade Vilas-Bôas, Juan Ferré
The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of fruit trees worldwide, such as peach and apple. Bacillus thuringiensis has been shown to be an efficient alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of many agricultural pests. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis individual toxins and their mixtures for the control of G. molesta. Bioassays were performed with Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Vip3Aa, Vip3Af and Vip3Ca, as well as with the commercial products DiPel® and XenTari®...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ping-Li Dai, Hui-Ru Jia, Cameron J Jack, Li-Li Geng, Feng Liu, Chun-Sheng Hou, Qing-Yun Diao, James D Ellis
The cry1Ie gene may be a good candidate for the development of Bt maize because over-expression of Cry1Ie is highly toxic to Lepidopteran pests such as Heliothis armigera Hübner and Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée. The Bt cry1Ie gene also has no cross resistance with other insecticidal proteins such as Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ah, or Cry1F. Chinese honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) are potentially exposed to insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops expressing Cry1Ie toxin via the collection of IRGM crop pollen...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Anirudh Dhammi, Jaap B van Krestchmar, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Jack S Bacheler, Dominic D Reisig, Ames Herbert, Alejandro I Del Pozo-Valdivia, R Michael Roe
Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Corine Ngufor, Raphael N'Guessan, Josias Fagbohoun, Damien Todjinou, Abibath Odjo, David Malone, Hanafy Ismail, Martin Akogbeto, Mark Rowland
Olyset Duo is a new long-lasting insecticidal net treated with permethrin (a pyrethroid) and pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator that disrupts the maturation of oocytes in mosquitoes exposed to the net. We tested the Olyset Duo net against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, which transmit malaria parasites, in laboratory bioassays and in a trial in Benin using experimental huts that closely resemble local habitations. Host-seeking mosquitoes that entered to feed were free to contact the occupied nets and were collected the next morning from exit traps...
September 14, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
Miroslav Mišík, Georg Krupitza, Katarina Mišíková, Karol Mičieta, Armen Nersesyan, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Knasmueller
Environmental contamination with radioactive materials of geogenic and anthropogenic origin is a global problem. A variety of mutagenicity test procedures has been developed which enable the detection of DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation which plays a key role in the adverse effects caused by radioisotopes. In the present study, we investigated the usefulness of the Tradescantia micronucleus test (the most widely used plant based genotoxicity bioassay) for the detection of genetic damage caused by environmental samples and a human artifact (ceramic plate) which contained radioactive elements...
September 7, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Lian Xu, Zhi-Zhen Pan, Jing Zhang, Bo Liu, Yu-Jing Zhu, Qing-Xi Chen
Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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