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Insect Bioassay

Yan Feng, Jian Chen, Aijun Zhang
Benzyl methyl ester, also known as methyl benzoate (MB), is a volatile organic compound that exists naturally as a floral fragrance in many plants. Our behavioral bioassays show that MB and some of its naturally occurring and synthetic analogs kill insects at different life stages. Compared to commercial pesticides containing pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid, MB and some analogs are 1.3 to 3.4 times more toxic to gypsy moth larvae and brown marmorated stinkbug nymphs. The arthropod repellent DEET is also a benzyl ester, and shares the same chemical skeleton with MB...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandra G Duffy, Gabriel P Hughes, Matthew D Ginzel, Douglas S Richmond
Beetles in the genus Sphenophorus Schönherr, or billbugs, potentially utilize both volatile and non-volatile behavior-modifying chemical signals. These insects are widely distributed across North America, often occurring in multi-species assemblages in grasses. However, details about their host- and mate-finding behavior are poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that volatile organic compounds from host-plants and conspecifics direct the dispersal behavior of hunting billbug S. venatus Say. Further, we characterized the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of two widespread pest species, S...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Erandi Vargas-Ortiz, Itay Gonda, John R Smeda, Martha A Mutschler, James J Giovannoni, Georg Jander
The Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say), the most economically important insect pest on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), also feeds on other Solanaceae, including cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). We used tomato genetic mapping populations to investigate natural variation in CPB resistance. CPB bioassays with 74 tomato lines carrying introgressions of Solanum pennellii in S. lycopersicum cv. M82 identified introgressions from S. pennellii on chromosomes 1 and 6 conferring CPB susceptibility, whereas introgressions on chromosomes 1, 8 and 10 conferred higher resistance...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lex Flagel, Young Wha Lee, Humphrey Wanjugi, Shilpa Swarup, Alana Brown, Jinling Wang, Edward Kraft, John Greenplate, Jeni Simmons, Nancy Adams, Yanfei Wang, Samuel Martinelli, Jeffrey A Haas, Anilkumar Gowda, Graham Head
The use of Bt proteins in crops has revolutionized insect pest management by offering effective season-long control. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt proteins threatens their utility and durability. A recent example is field-evolved resistance to Cry1Fa and Cry1A.105 in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). This resistance has been detected in Puerto Rico, mainland USA, and Brazil. A S. frugiperda population with suspected resistance to Cry1Fa was sampled from a maize field in Puerto Rico and used to develop a resistant lab colony...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
G V Silva, A F Bueno, B M Favetti, P M O J Neves
Successful parasitoid rearing is crucial for augmentative biological control. A low temperature preservation protocol allowing the availability of host and parasitoid year-round was evaluated in this study in four bioassays: (1) host eggs [Euschistus heros (Fabricius)] stored at - 196, - 80, and - 20°C for up to 70 days prior to exposure to Telenomus podisi Ashmead parasitism; (2) Euschistus heros eggs removed from storage at - 196°C after 70 days and kept at 5°C for up to 9 days prior to exposure to T...
May 3, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Stefanie Schlaeger, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
Whitefly (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) pests are economically important in agriculture, including the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Whiteflies are mainly controlled by synthetic insecticides but resistance to these insecticides is rapidly evolving. A semiochemical-based management strategy could provide an alternative to the use of insecticides, by exploiting natural volatile signalling processes to manipulate insect behaviour. Whitefly behaviour is affected by differences in plant odour blends...
May 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Yonghong Zhou, Pasco B Avery, Daniel Carrillo, Rita H Duncan, Alison Lukowsky, Ronald D Cave, Nemat O Keyhani
Ambrosia beetles harbor fungal symbionts that serve as food sources for larvae and adults. These beetles lay their eggs along tunnels in xylem sapwood, which is the substrate for fungal growth. Symbiotic fungi of the genus Raffaelea found in invasive and indigenous ambrosia beetles include the highly virulent plant pathogen Raffaelea lauricola affecting members of the Lauraceae family. R. lauricola is responsible for the deaths of > 500 million trees since 2005. Infection by as few as 100 spores can kill a healthy tree within months...
May 2, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gulamnabi L Vanti, Ishwarappa S Katageri, Shashikala R Inamdar, Vamadevaiah Hiremathada, Bale M Swamy
Cotton is an important crop that is continuously cultivated around the world. However, its production has decreased in recent times due to wide ranging insects and also current practices of using synthetic insecticides that are not precise and their residues impairing the biodiversity. Hence, the search for newer classes of efficient entomotoxic proteins continues. Genetically modified cotton crops with cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, have been cultivated across the world, which overcome the chewing type insect menace...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Yanru Du, Kai Jin, Yuxian Xia
Flo8/Som1, which functions downstream from the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, plays important roles in hyphal development, spore formation, and virulence in yeast and several filamentous fungi. However, the functions of Som1 in entomopathogenic fungi are still a mystery. In this study, MaSom1, a Flo8/Som1 homolog, was identified and functionally characterized in a model entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum. Similar to Flo8/Som1 in other fungi, MaSom1 mainly localized to the nucleus in M...
May 1, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yung-Yu Liu, Yi-Siou Lin, Chia-Hung Yen, Chang-Ling Miaw, Ting-Chien Chen, Meng-Chun Wu, Chi-Ying Hsieh
We assessed 22 selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) and other emerging, potentially endocrine-active compounds with estrogenic activity from the waters of the Wuluo River, southern Taiwan. This watershed receives high amounts of livestock and untreated household wastewaters. The river is surrounded by concentrated animal feedlot operations (CAFOs). River water samples were analyzed for selected compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay, and E-screen cell proliferation in vitro bioassay...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jannicke Gallinger, Jürgen Gross
Plant sap feeding insects like psyllids are known to be vectors of phloem dwelling bacteria (' Candidatus Phytoplasma' and ' Ca . Liberibacter'), plant pathogens which cause severe diseases and economically important crop damage. Some univoltine psyllid species have a particular life cycle, within one generation they alternate two times between different host plant species. The plum psyllid Cacopsylla pruni , the vector of European Stone Fruit Yellows (ESFY), one of the most serious pests in European fruit production, migrates to stone fruit orchards ( Prunus spp...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yuanhang Ren, Na Yang, Ying Yue, Hong Jin, Ke Tao, Taiping Hou
Novel pyrazole carboxamides with a diarylamine-modified scaffold were modified based on the bixafen (Bayer) fungicide, which has excellent activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. To discover the potential insecticidal activity of these novel pyrazole carboxamides, the present study explored their possible cytoactivity on the insect neuronal cells (RP-HzVNC-AW1) in Helicoverpa zea. The preliminary bioassays showed that some of the target compounds exhibited good cytoactivity against AW1 cells...
March 8, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Kavita Nair, Roda Al-Thani, Dhabia Al-Thani, Fatima Al-Yafei, Talaat Ahmed, Samir Jaoua
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based insecticidal formulations have been recognized as one of the most successful, environmentally safe and sustainable method of controlling insect pests. Research teams worldwide are in search of Bt diversity giving more choices of bio-insecticides and alternatives to address insect resistance. In fact, there are many unexplored ecologies that could harbor novel Bt strains. This study is the first initiative to explore Bt strain diversity in Qatar. A collection of 700 Bt isolates was constructed...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Olivier Christiaens, Myriam G Tardajos, Zarel L Martinez Reyna, Mamoni Dash, Peter Dubruel, Guy Smagghe
Lepidoptera comprise some of the most devastating herbivorous pest insects worldwide. One of the most promising novel pest control strategies is exploiting the RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism to target essential genes for knockdown and incite toxic effects in the target species without harming other organisms in the ecosystem. However, many insects are refractory to oral RNAi, often due to rapid degradation of ingested dsRNA in their digestive system. This is the case for many lepidopteran insects, including the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua , which is characterized by a very alkaline gut environment (pH > 9...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dong H Cha, Gregory M Loeb, Charles E Linn, Stephen P Hesler, Peter J Landolt
Fermentation volatiles attract a wide variety of insects and are used for integrated pest management. However, identification of the key behavior modifying chemicals has often been challenging due to the time consuming nature of thorough behavioral tests and unexpected discrepancies between laboratory and field results. Thus we report on a multiple-choice bioassay approach that may expedite the process of identifying field-worthy attractants in the laboratory. We revisited the four-component key chemical blend (acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol) identified from 12 antennally active wine and vinegar chemicals for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ke Li, Tyler J Buchinger, Weiming Li
Covering: up to 2018Fish use a diverse collection of molecules to communicate with conspecifics. Since Karlson and Lüscher termed these molecules 'pheromones', chemists and biologists have joined efforts to characterize their structures and functions. In particular, the understanding of insect pheromones developed at a rapid pace, set, in part, by the use of bioassay-guided fractionation and natural product chemistry. Research on vertebrate pheromones, however, has progressed more slowly. Initially, biologists characterized fish pheromones by screening commercially available compounds suspected to act as pheromones based upon their physiological function...
April 17, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Haichao Jiang, Jie Hu, Zhi Li, Jia Liu, Guanjun Gao, Qinglu Zhang, Jinghua Xiao, Yuqing He
BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper (BPH), an insect species that feeds on rice plants (Oryza sativa L.), is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. BPH can be controlled with chemical pesticides, but they are expensive in terms of the cost and environmental hazards. Hence, utilization of resistance genes in resistant varieties is considered as a more economical and eco-friendly effective method for control. RESULTS: In this study, six dominant BPH-resistance genes (Bph3, Bph14, Bph15, Bph18, Bph20 and Bph21) were introduced into an elite indica rice cultivar Jin 23B using the marker-assisted selection (MAS) method of breeding...
April 11, 2018: Rice
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Sonia Ares Gomez, Javier Lucientes Curdi, Juan Antonio Castillo Hernandez, Paz Peris Peris, Adriana Esteban Gil, Ronald Vladimir Oropeza Velasquez, Paula Ortega Hernandez, Albert Picado
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum is an important disease in humans and dogs. Different mammal species are reservoirs but dogs are considered to be the main one. Phlebotomine sand flies are the proven vector. Four systemic insecticides approved for their use in dogs were previously selected based on their potential to be used in endemic countries as part of the control programs of ZVL. These insecticides are proved to be safe and effective against the on-label insects and parasites, but there is no information about their activity against phlebotomine sand flies...
April 5, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jesus Davila-Barboza, O Karina Villanueva-Segura, Beatriz Lopez-Monroy, Gustavo Ponce-Garcia, Cristina Bobadilla-Utrera, Mayela Montes-Rincon, Zinnia J Molina-Garza, Juan I Arredondo-Jimenez, Iram P Rodriguez-Sanchez, Pablo C Manrique-Saide, Adriana E Flores
Although having five different ways of transmission the vector-borne is the principal way of transmission of Chagas disease, which involves insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Nineteen of the 31 species that occur in Mexico are associated with humans, and all are capable of transmitting the disease. Pyrethroids are the insecticides recommended for the control of these vectors in Mexico. We determined the susceptibility to the pyrethroids deltamethrin and permethrin of peridomestic populations of Triatoma mazzottii Usinger and two populations of Triatoma longipennis Usinger in comparison with a reference strain for each species...
April 2, 2018: Insect Science
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