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Insect Bioassay

Ravi Prakash Saini, Venkat Raman, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Era Vaidya Malhotra, Rohini Sreevathsa, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Tilak R Sharma, Debasis Pattanayak
The polyphagous insect-pest, Helicoverpa armigera, is a serious threat to a number of economically important crops. Chemical application and/or cultivation of Bt transgenic crops are the two strategies available now for insect-pest management. However, environmental pollution and long-term sustainability are major concerns against these two options. RNAi is now considered as a promising technology to complement Bt to tackle insect-pests menace. In this study, we report host-delivered silencing of HaAce1 gene, encoding the predominant isoform of H...
2018: PloS One
Frederico Hickmann, Alexssandro F de Morais, Eduarda S Bronzatto, Tiago Giacomelli, Jerson V C Guedes, Oderlei Bernardi
The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Xueping Hu, Bin Yin, Kaat Cappelle, Luc Swevers, Guy Smagghe, Xinling Yang, Li Zhang
Insect growth is regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which works via the ecdysone receptor (EcR). To identify biologically active and novel ecdysone agonists/antagonists, ligand/structure-based virtual screening combined with pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking was performed to identify novel nonsteroidal lead compounds. Nine molecules were screened and selected for an in vitro cell-based reporter bioassay. The results showed that VS-006 and VS-009 exhibited antagonistic activity in S2 cells, whereas only VS-006 exhibited antagonistic activity in Bm5 cells...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ayan Das, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Transgenic Brassica juncea plants expressing Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA) shows the non-allergenic nature of the expressed protein leading to enhanced mortality and reduced fecundity of mustard aphid-Lipaphis erysimi. Lipaphis erysimi (common name: mustard aphid) is the most devastating sucking insect pest of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Colocasia esculenta tuber agglutinin (CEA), a GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin)-related lectin has previously been reported by the present group to be effective against a wide array of hemipteran insects in artificial diet-based bioassays...
March 8, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Marilene Fancelli, Miguel Borges, Raul A Laumann, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett, Maria C Blassioli-Moraes
Diaphorina citri is a vector of the bacterial causative agent of Huanglongbing (HLB = Citrus greening), a severe disease affecting citrus crops. As there is no known control for HLB, manipulating insect behaviour through deployment of semiochemicals offers a promising opportunity for protecting citrus crops. The behavioural responses of D. citri to plant volatiles, and the identity of these plant volatiles were investigated. Volatiles were collected from host plants Murraya paniculata, Citrus sinensis, C...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Tae-Kyun Hong, Haribalan Perumalsamy, Kyoung-Hwa Jang, Eun-Shik Na, Young-Joon Ahn
Bradysia procera is a serious insect pest of Panax ginseng plants. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of three phenylpropanoids, three terpenoids, and a ketone from Syzygium aromaticum bud methanol extract and hydrodistillate against third-instar larvae and eggs of B. procera. In a filter-paper mortality bioassay, methyl salicylate (LC50 , 5.26μg/cm2 ) was the most toxic compound, followed by 2-nonanone, eugenol, and eugenyl acetate (8.77-15.40μg/cm2 ). These compounds were significantly less toxic than either thiamethoxam, clothianidin, or cypermethrin...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Artur Campos Dália Maia, Geanne Karla Novais Santos, Eduardo Gomes Gonçalves, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Luis Alberto Nuñez
BACKGROUND: 2-Alkyl-3-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are naturally occuring aromatic compounds involved in insect chemical communication as both pheromones and allelochemicals. Although rarely characterized in floral scents, they have been identified as major constituents in headspace samples from palm inflorescences and evidence pointed towards their function as attractive cues for scent-oriented pollinators, as well as florivores. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of MPs in economically exploitable palms belonging to Acrocomia and Attalea through headspace floral scent analysis and assessed their role in the selective attraction of flower-feeding cyclocephaline scarabs (Melolonthidae, Cyclocephalini) in field bioassays conducted in Brazil and Colombia...
February 25, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jacqueline M Serrano, R Maxwell Collignon, Yunfan Zou, Jocelyn G Millar
To date, all known or suspected pheromones of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) have been identified solely from species native to Europe and Asia; reports of identifications from North American species dating from the 1970s have since proven to be incorrect. While conducting bioassays of pheromones of a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), we serendipitously discovered that males of Cardiophorus tenebrosus L. and Cardiophorus edwardsi Horn were specifically attracted to the cerambycid pheromone fuscumol acetate, (E)-6,10-dimethylundeca-5,9-dien-2-yl acetate, suggesting that this compound might also be a sex pheromone for the two Cardiophorus species...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mónica D Germano, María I Picollo
Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is the main vector of Chagas disease in Latin America. This insect has been controlled with pyrethroids since the 1980s, although the emergence of resistance to deltamethrin has decreased control success in some areas of the Gran Chaco ecoregion. The response of T. infestans to deltamethrin was evaluated per developmental stage. In addition, we evaluated the possible stage-dependent expression of deltamethrin resistance. The bioassays were conducted by topical application of the insecticide in acetone...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Gabriela de Azambuja Garcia, Mariana Rocha David, Ademir de Jesus Martins, Rafael Maciel de Freitas, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt Linss, Simone Costa Araújo, José Bento Pereira Lima, Denise Valle
BACKGROUND: In the tropics, the utilization of insecticides is still an important strategy for controlling Aedes aegypti, the principle vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. However, increasing insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations might hinder insecticide efficacy on a long-term basis. It will be important to understand the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance by assessing its frequency and the mechanisms by which it occurs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The insecticide resistance status of four Brazilian Ae...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chengyu Chen, Cuicui Wang, Ying Liu, Xueyan Shi, Xiwu Gao
Pesticide tolerance poses many challenges for pest control, particularly for destructive pests such as Bradysia odoriphaga. Imidacloprid has been used to control B. odoriphaga since 2013, however, imidacloprid resistance in B. odoriphaga has developed in recent years. Identifying actual and potential genes involved in detoxification metabolism of imidacloprid could offer solutions for controlling this insect. In this study, RNA-seq was used to explore differentially expressed genes in B. odoriphaga that respond to imidacloprid treatment...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eirini Anastasaki, Fryni Drizou, Panagiotis G Milonas
In response to attack by herbivorous insects, plants produce semiochemicals for intra- and interspecific communication. The perception of these semiochemicals by conspecifics of the herbivore defines their choice for oviposition and feeding. We aimed to investigate the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) by Tuta absoluta larvae on the oviposition choice of conspecific females on tomato plants. We performed two- choice and non-choice bioassays with plants damaged by larvae feeding and intact control plants...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Joelle K Lemmen-Lechelt, Tyler J Wist, Maya L Evenden
Volatile chemicals produced by plants mediate host location, mate-finding and oviposition behavior in insects. State-dependent response to plant cues allows for timing of foraging, mating and oviposition on ephemeral host plants or plant parts. Caloptilia fraxinella is a herbivorous specialist on the foliage of ash trees (Fraxinus). Adults are long-lived and undergo a nine-month reproductive diapause over the fall and winter. Mating and oviposition occur in the spring when volatile chemicals released by ash leaves mediate host location...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Eileen Knorr, Elane Fishilevich, Linda Tenbusch, Meghan L F Frey, Murugesan Rangasamy, Andre Billion, Sarah E Worden, Premchand Gandra, Kanika Arora, Wendy Lo, Greg Schulenberg, Pablo Valverde-Garcia, Andreas Vilcinskas, Kenneth E Narva
RNAi shows potential as an agricultural technology for insect control, yet, a relatively low number of robust lethal RNAi targets have been demonstrated to control insects of agricultural interest. In the current study, a selection of lethal RNAi target genes from the iBeetle (Tribolium castaneum) screen were used to demonstrate efficacy of orthologous targets in the economically important coleopteran pests Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Meligethes aeneus. Transcript orthologs of 50 selected genes were analyzed in D...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giulia Giunti, Vincenzo Palmeri, Giuseppe Massimo Algeri, Orlando Campolo
Olfaction is a pivotal sense for insects and granivorous pests may exploit grain volatiles for food selection. Tribolium confusum, is a secondary pest of stored cereals that benefits from primary pests' infestation, as other secondary feeders, triggering competition. This study aimed to evaluate the preferences of T. confusum females toward different-infested paddy rice, highlighting the impact of intra- and interspecific competition. Tribolium confusum showed positive chemotaxis toward rice infested by larvae of a primary pest (Sitophilus zeamais), but not for grain attacked by adults alone...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krzysztof Kowalski, Paweł Marciniak, Grzegorz Rosiński, Leszek Rychlik
Anuran toxins released from the skin glands are involved in defence against predators and microorganisms. Secretion from parotoid macroglands of bufonid toads is a rich source of bioactive compounds with the cytotoxic, cardiotoxic and hemolytic activity. Bufadienolides are considered the most toxic components of the toad poison, whereas the protein properties are largely unknown. In the present work, we analysed the cardio-, myo-, and neurotropic activity of extract and the selected proteins from Bufo bufo parotoids in in vitro physiological bioassays carried out on two standard model organisms: beetles and frogs...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Raquel Camacho-Millán, Elsa Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Héctor Quezada, Óscar Medina-Contreras, Genaro Patiño-López, Héctor Manuel Cárdenas-Cota, Rosalío Ramos-Payán
BACKGROUND: Chemical pesticides, widely used in agriculture and vector-borne disease control, have shown toxic effects on the environment and the people in contact with them. Bacillus thuringiensis is a widely used bacterium for alternative and safer control of insect pests. Its toxins are specific for insects but innocuous for mammals and may be used as powerful adjuvants when applied with vaccines. The objective of this work was to characterize some autochthonous B. thuringiensis strains, which could be used for the control of a local pest (Diatraea considerata Heinrich) that affects sugar cane crops in Sinaloa, Mexico...
May 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
Inmaculada Moreno, Ana Belando, Carolina Grávalos, Pablo Bielza
BACKGROUND: Cyantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that acts on a broad-spectrum of insect pest, exclusively by activating their ryanodine receptors. Cyantraniliprole is very effective against whitefly and it presents a favorable ecotoxicological profile. In this study, the baseline susceptibility to cyantraniliprole of Trialeurodes vaporariorum populations from Mediterranen area was stablished making nymphal systemic uptake bioassays. RESULTS: Bioassays data showed that the susceptibility to cyantraniliprole varied among the strains collected across the Mediterranean basin...
January 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
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