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Pavel Šauer, Alžběta Stará, Oksana Golovko, Olga Valentová, Adam Bořík, Roman Grabic, Hana Kocour Kroupová
Vast numbers of xenobiotics are known still to be present in treated municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Some of these possess endocrine-disrupting potency and pose risks for exposed aquatic animals. We searched for 17 potential environmental contaminants having affinity to the progesterone receptor. Relative potency values of these progesterone receptor-active chemicals were obtained. On the basis of relative potencies and measured environmental concentrations, the contribution of progestins to measured progestagenic activities was evaluated...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Peng Chen, Xiaohu Liu, Garima Goyal, Nhung Thi Tran, James Chin Shing Ho, Yi Wang, Daniel Aili, Bo Liedberg
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) constitutes a versatile technique for biodetection exploiting the sensitivity of plasmonic nanostructures to small changes in refractive index. The optical shift in the LSPR band caused by molecular in-teractions in the vicinity of the nanostructures are typically < 5 nm and can readily be detected using a spectrophotometer. Widespread use of LSPR based sensors require cost effective devices and would benefit from sensing schemes that enables use of very simple spectrophotometers or even naked eye detection...
March 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yuan Zhang, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Yu Cheng, Ren-Guo Yang, Jian-Mei Lin, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of isopropanol-bridged carbazole azoles as potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized from commercial carbazoles. Bioassay revealed that 3,6-dichlorocarbazolyl triazole 3f could effectively inhibit the growth of E. faecalis with minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg/mL. The active molecule 3f showed lower propensity to trigger the development of resistance in bacteria than norfloxacin and exerted rapidly bactericidal ability. Compound 3f also exhibited low cytotoxicity to normal mammalian RAW264...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yong-Zhe Zhu, Jing-Wen Liu, Xue Wang, In-Hong Jeong, Young-Joon Ahn, Chuan-Jie Zhang
The human β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE1) has been considered as an effective drug target for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, Urechis unicinctus (U. unicinctus) , which is a Far East specialty food known as innkeeper worm, ethanol extract was studied by bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation to examine its potential β-site amyloid cleaving enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. The following compounds were characterized: hecogenin, cholest-4- en -3-one, cholesta-4,6- dien -3-ol, and hurgadacin...
March 14, 2018: Marine Drugs
M S Maboeta, O G Oladipo, S M Botha
Earthworms are bioindicators of soil pollution. The ecotoxicity of tailings from selected gold mines in South Africa was investigated utilizing Eisenia andrei bioassays and biomarkers. Samples were obtained from unrehabilitated, rehabilitated and naturally vegetated sites. Biomass, neutral red retention time (NRRT), survival and reproduction were assessed using standardized protocols. Earthworm biomass, NRRT and reproductive success in rehabilitated tailings (comparable to naturally vegetated site) were significantly higher (p < 0...
March 13, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Mathias J Aebersold, Greta Thompson-Steckel, Adriane Joutang, Moritz Schneider, Conrad Burchert, Csaba Forró, Serge Weydert, Hana Han, János Vörös
Bottom-up neuroscience aims to engineer well-defined networks of neurons to investigate the functions of the brain. By reducing the complexity of the brain to achievable target questions, such in vitro bioassays better control experimental variables and can serve as a versatile tool for fundamental and pharmacological research. Astrocytes are a cell type critical to neuronal function, and the addition of astrocytes to neuron cultures can improve the quality of in vitro assays. Here, we present cellulose as an astrocyte culture substrate...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Aymeric Monteillier, Pierre-Marie Allard, Katia Gindro, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Muriel Cuendet
Lung cancer is the most lethal form of cancer in the world. Its development often involves an overactivation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, leading to increased cell proliferation, survival, mobility, and a decrease in apoptosis. Therefore, NF-κB inhibitors are actively sought after for both cancer chemoprevention and therapy, and fungi represent an interesting unexplored reservoir for such molecules. The aim of the present work was to find naturally occurring lung cancer chemopreventive compounds by investigating the metabolites of Penicillium vulpinum , a fungus that grows naturally on dung...
March 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Frederico Hickmann, Alexssandro F de Morais, Eduarda S Bronzatto, Tiago Giacomelli, Jerson V C Guedes, Oderlei Bernardi
The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is considered the primary insect pest in broiler farms in Brazil. In this study, we characterized the susceptibility of A. diaperinus populations from broiler farms of southern Brazil to cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos. Larvae and adults of A. diaperinus were exposed to these technical insecticides diluted in acetone in residual bioassays. A geographic variation in the susceptibility of larvae and adults of A. diaperinus to both insecticides was detected...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
T Vandermarken, K Croes, K Van Langenhove, I Boonen, P Servais, T Garcia-Armisen, N Brion, M S Denison, L Goeyens, M Elskens
The Zenne River, crossing the Brussels region (Belgium) is an extremely urbanized river impacted by both domestic and industrial effluents. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and activity of Endocrine Active Substances (EAS) in river water and sediments in the framework of the Environmental Quality Standards Directive (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EU). Activities were determined using Estrogen and Dioxin Responsive Elements (ERE and DRE) Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression (CALUX) bioassays...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Vivek Krishna Pulakazhi Venu, Mahmoud Saifeddine, Koichiro Mihara, Mahmoud El-Daly, Darrell Belke, Jonathan L E Dean, Edward R O'Brien, Simon A Hirota, Morley D Hollenberg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previously, we demonstrated that exogenous Heat Shock Protein 27 (HSP27/gene, HSPB1) treatment of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) increases the synthesis and secretion of VEGF, improves EPC-migration/re-endothelialization and decreases neo-intima formation, suggesting a role for HSPB1 in regulating EPC function. We hypothesized that HSPB1 could also affect mature endothelial cells (ECs) to alter EC-mediated vasoreactivity in vivo. Our work focused on eNOS/NO-dependent relaxation caused by acetylcholine and the coagulation pathway-activated receptor, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2)...
March 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Paul G Becher, Arne Hagman, Vasiliki Verschut, Amrita Chakraborty, Elżbieta Rozpędowska, Sébastien Lebreton, Marie Bengtsson, Gerhard Flick, Peter Witzgall, Jure Piškur
Yeast volatiles attract insects, which apparently is of mutual benefit, for both yeasts and insects. However, it is unknown whether biosynthesis of metabolites that attract insects is a basic and general trait, or if it is specific for yeasts that live in close association with insects. Our goal was to study chemical insect attractants produced by yeasts that span more than 250 million years of evolutionary history and vastly differ in their metabolism and lifestyle. We bioassayed attraction of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to odors of phylogenetically and ecologically distinct yeasts grown under controlled conditions...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Eric W Riddick, Zhixin Wu, Fred J Eller, Mark A Berhow
Maximizing the reproductive potential of ladybird beetles fed factitious foods or artificial diets, in lieu of natural prey, is a major challenge to cost-effective mass rearing for augmentative biological control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that compounds in redcedar, Juniperus virginiana , stimulate oviposition in the ladybird Coleomegilla maculata . We also tested the prediction that several bioflavonoids, identified in heartwood fractions, elicited this behavioral response. Phenolic compounds were extracted from J...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Jiří Novák, Branislav Vrana, Tatsiana Rusina, Krzysztof Okonski, Roman Grabic, Peta A Neale, Beate I Escher, Miroslava Macová, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Ian Allan, Klára Hilscherová
Many aquatic pollutants can be present at low concentrations, but their mixtures can still affect health or behavior of exposed organisms. In this study, toxicological and chemical analyses were combined for spatial contamination profiling using an innovative passive sampling approach. A novel Dynamic Passive Sampler (DPS) was employed as a mobile sampler from a ship cruising along 2130km of the Danube river during the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3). The sampling was performed in eight subsequent river stretches with two types of complementary passive samplers: silicone rubber sheets (SR) used for non-polar chemicals and SDB-RPS Empore™ disks (ED) for more hydrophilic compounds...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pattana Jaroenlak, Dominic Wiredu Boakye, Rapeepun Vanichviriyakit, Bryony A P Williams, Kallaya Sritunyalucksana, Ornchuma Itsathitphaisarn
BACKGROUND: The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a spore-forming, intracellular parasite that causes an economically debilitating disease (hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis or HPM) in cultured shrimp. HPM is characterized by growth retardation and wide size variation that can result in economic loss for shrimp farmers. Currently, the infection mechanism of EHP in shrimp is poorly understood, especially at the level of host-parasite interaction. In other microsporidia, spore wall proteins have been reported to be involved in host cell recognition...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hua Yu, Jing Han, Shangjie An, Gang Xie, Sanping Chen
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as a new class of porous materials have attracted increasing attention in the field of biomimetic catalysis. This study firstly reports a mixed valence state Ce-MOF possessing intrinsic catalytic activity towards thionine (Thi), and its application in constructing an amplified electrochemical aptasensor for thrombin detection. As noticed, the novel catalytic process combines the advantages of 3D infinite extension of the Ce(III, IV)-MOF skeleton containing large amounts of catalytic sites and spontaneous recycling of the Ce(III)/Ce(IV) for electrochemical reduction of Thi, thereby presenting amplified electrochemical signals...
March 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Xueping Hu, Bin Yin, Kaat Cappelle, Luc Swevers, Guy Smagghe, Xinling Yang, Li Zhang
Insect growth is regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which works via the ecdysone receptor (EcR). To identify biologically active and novel ecdysone agonists/antagonists, ligand/structure-based virtual screening combined with pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking was performed to identify novel nonsteroidal lead compounds. Nine molecules were screened and selected for an in vitro cell-based reporter bioassay. The results showed that VS-006 and VS-009 exhibited antagonistic activity in S2 cells, whereas only VS-006 exhibited antagonistic activity in Bm5 cells...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
T C M Brock, J D M Belgers, M-C Boerwinkel, L Jollie, M H S Kraak, M J Papo, J A Vonk, I Roessink
This paper deals with species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for the lipophilic insecticide lufenuron and benthic arthropods based on sediment-spiked laboratory toxicity tests. This compound that inhibits chitin synthesis and moulting of arthropods persists in sediment. Using field-collected sediment, toxicity tests were conducted with three macro-crustaceans and six insects. The Hazardous Concentration to 5% of the tested species, the HC5 (and 95% confidence limit), derived from an SSD constructed with 10d-LC50's was 2...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kellie A Fay, Daniel L Villeneuve, Joe Swintek, Stephen Edwards, Mark Nelms, Brett R Blackwell, Gerald T Ankley
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals for biological activity, primarily using high-throughput in vitro bioassays. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a means to link pathway-specific biological activities with potential apical effects relevant to risk assessors. Thus, efforts are underway to develop AOPs relevant to pathway-specific perturbations detected in ToxCast assays. Previous work identified a 'cytotoxic burst' (CTB) phenomenon wherein large numbers of the ToxCast assays begin to respond at or near test chemical concentrations that elicit cytotoxicity, and a statistical approach to defining the bounds of the CTB was developed...
February 24, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Vinicius A D'Ávila, Wagner F Barbosa, Raul N C Guedes, G Christopher Cutler
Insecticides can affect biological control by parasitoids. Here, we examined the lethal and sublethal effects of two conventional insecticides, imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin, and a reduced-risk bioinsecticide, spinosad, on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Concentration-mortality curves generated from insecticide residue bioassays found that wasps were nearly 20-fold more susceptible to spinosad than imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin. Imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin compromised adult parasitoid longevity, but not as dramatically as spinosad: concentrations >200 ng spinosad/cm2 reduced wasp longevity by half...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Zongjie Ren, Yuan Li, Wensheng Fang, Dongdong Yan, Bin Huang, Jiahong Zhu, Xiaoning Wang, Xianli Wang, Qiuxia Wang, Meixia Guo, Aocheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. RESULTS: The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC50 of 0...
March 12, 2018: Pest Management Science
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