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Ursodeoxycholic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315136/ursodeoxycholic-acid-suppresses-lipogenesis-in-mouse-liver-possible-role-of-the-decrease-in-%C3%AE-muricholic-acid-a-farnesoid-x-receptor-antagonist
#1
Kyosuke Fujita, Yusuke Iguchi, Mizuho Une, Shiro Watanabe
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a major nuclear receptor of bile acids; its activation suppresses sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c)-mediated lipogenesis and decreases the lipid contents in the liver. There are many reports showing that the administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) suppresses lipogenesis and reduces the lipid contents in the liver of experimental animals. Since UDCA is not recognized as an FXR agonist, these effects of UDCA cannot be readily explained by its direct activation of FXR...
March 17, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289997/innovative-microcapsules-for-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-harvested-from-mature-double-transgenic-mice-cell-imaging-viability-induced-glucose-stimulated-insulin-measurements-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-analysis
#2
Armin Mooranian, Ryu Tackechi, Emma Jamieson, Grant Morahan, Hani Al-Salami
PURPOSE: Recently we demonstrated that microencapsulation of a murine pancreatic β-cell line using an alginate-ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) matrix produced microcapsules with good stability and cell viability. In this study, we investigated if translation of this formulation to microencapsulation of primary β-cells harvested from mature double-transgenic healthy mice would also generate stable microcapsules with good cell viability. METHODS: Islets of Langerhans were isolated from Ngn3-GFP/RIP-DsRED mice by intraductal collagenase P digestion and density gradient centrifugation, dissociated into single cells and the β-cell population purified by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting...
March 13, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279860/inhibition-of-spore-germination-growth-and-toxin-activity-of-clinically-relevant-c-%C3%A2-difficile-strains-by-gut-microbiota-derived-secondary-bile-acids
#3
Rajani Thanissery, Jenessa A Winston, Casey M Theriot
The changing epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection over the past decades presents a significant challenge in the management of C. difficile associated diseases. The gastrointestinal tract microbiota provides colonization resistance against C. difficile, and growing evidence suggests that gut microbial derived secondary bile acids (SBAs) play a role. We hypothesized that the C. difficile life cycle; spore germination and outgrowth, growth, and toxin production, of strains that vary by age and ribotype will differ in their sensitivity to SBAs...
March 6, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256288/beneficial-effects-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-via-inhibition-of-airway-remodelling-apoptosis-of-airway-epithelial-cells-and-th2-immune-response-in-murine-model-of-chronic-asthma
#4
S Işık, M Karaman, S Çilaker Micili, Ş Çağlayan-Sözmen, H Alper Bağrıyanık, Z Arıkan-Ayyıldız, N Uzuner, Ö Karaman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In previous studies, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on liver diseases have been shown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of UDCA on airway remodelling, epithelial apoptosis, and T Helper (Th)-2 derived cytokine levels in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: Twenty-seven BALB/c mice were divided into five groups; PBS-Control, OVA-Placebo, OVA-50mg/kg UDCA, OVA-150mg/kg UDCA, OVA-Dexamethasone...
February 27, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255561/genetic-contribution-to-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#5
REVIEW
Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Formerly termed primary biliary cirrhosis, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy is the most effective and approved treatment for PBC and leads to a favorable outcome in the vast majority of cases. Although the etiology of PBC has not yet been elucidated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been consistently associated with disease onset for decades...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250296/two-cases-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-overlapping-with-autoimmune-hepatitis-in-adults
#6
Go Igarashi, Tetsu Endo, Kenichiro Mikami, Naoya Sawada, Ryu Satake, Rie Ohta, Juichi Sakamoto, Tetsuro Yoshimura, Akira Kurose, Hiroshi Kijima, Shinsaku Fukuda
Overlap syndrome between primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is extremely rare in Japan. We herein report two adult patients with PSC-AIH overlap syndrome. They were diagnosed with PSC-AIH overlap syndrome based on the findings of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and liver biopsy, and using the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group scoring system. In both cases, PSC preceded AIH, and combination therapy with steroid and ursodeoxycholic acid was effective. Because there are few reported cases in Japan, it is important to study more cases to shed light on the clinical and pathological features of PSC-AIH overlap syndrome...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249278/mechanisms-of-tauroursodeoxycholate-mediated-hepatoprotection
#7
Dieter Häussinger, Claus Kordes
Ursodeoxycholate and its taurine conjugate tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) promote choleresis by triggering the insertion of transport proteins for bile acids into the canalicular and basolateral membranes of hepatocytes. In addition, TUDC exerts hepatoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects, can counteract the action of toxic bile acids and reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress. TUDC can also initiate the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) including hepatic stellate cells and promote their development into hepatocyte-like cells...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249274/the-emerging-role-of-soluble-adenylyl-cyclase-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#8
Jung-Chin Chang, Ulrich Beuers, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; previously referred to as primary biliary cirrhosis) is a chronic fibrosing cholangiopathy with the signature of an autoimmune disease and features of intrahepatic cholestasis. Immunosuppressing treatments are largely unsuccessful. Responsiveness to ursodeoxycholic acid and reduced expression of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) on canalicular membranes and small bile ducts underline the importance of bicarbonate transportation in its disease mechanism...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249268/bile-acids-in-polycystic-liver-diseases-triggers-of-disease-progression-and-potential-solution-for-treatment
#9
Maria J Perugorria, Ibone Labiano, Aitor Esparza-Baquer, Marco Marzioni, Jose J G Marin, Luis Bujanda, Jesús M Banales
Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are a group of genetic hereditary cholangiopathies characterized by the development and progressive growth of cysts in the liver, which are the main cause of morbidity. Current therapies are based on surgical procedures and pharmacological strategies, which show short-term and modest beneficial effects. Therefore, the determination of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis appears to be crucial in order to find new potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and abnormal cystic cholangiocyte growth and secretion are some of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249264/bile-acids-and-deregulated-cholangiocyte-autophagy-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#10
Motoko Sasaki, Yasuni Nakanuma
BACKGROUND: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is characterized by a high prevalence of serum anti-mitochondrial antibodies against the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and bile duct lesions called chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis (CNSDC) in small bile ducts, eventually followed by extensive bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. Macroautophagy (a major type of autophagy) is a process of cellular self-digestion that plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and in the cytoprotection to various stresses...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249257/therapeutic-mechanisms-of-bile-acids-and-nor-ursodeoxycholic-acid-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Daniel Steinacher, Thierry Claudel, Michael Trauner
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most rapidly rising clinical problems in the 21st century. So far no effective drug treatment has been established to cure this disease. Bile acids (BAs) have a variety of signaling properties, which can be used therapeutically for modulating hepatic metabolism and inflammation. A side-chain shorted derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is 24 nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) and it represents a new class of drugs for treatment of liver diseases. NorUDCA has unique biochemical and therapeutic properties, since it is relatively resistant to conjugation with glycine or taurine compared to UDCA...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249255/nor-ursodeoxycholic-acid-as-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-cholestatic-and-metabolic-liver-diseases
#12
Emina Halilbasic, Daniel Steinacher, Michael Trauner
Norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) is a side-chain-shortened derivative of ursodeoxycholic acid with relative resistance to amidation, which enables its cholehepatic shunting. Based on its specific pharmacologic properties, norUDCA is a promising drug for a range of cholestatic liver and bile duct disorders. Recently, norUDCA has been successfully tested clinically in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) as first application in patients. Moreover, hepatic enrichment of norUDCA facilitates direct therapeutic effects on both parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells, thereby counteracting cholestasis, steatosis, hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, inhibiting hepatocellular proliferation, and promoting autophagy...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239165/antihypertensive-agents-do-not-prevent-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-cognitive-deficits-in-dietary-induced-obese-mice
#13
J C L Mamo, V Lam, C Giles, S H Coulson, N Fimognari, A Mooranian, H Al-Salami, R Takechi
BACKGROUND: While vascular risk factors including Western-styled diet and obesity are reported to induce cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, recent reports consistently suggest that compromised integrity of cerebrovascular blood-brain barrier (BBB) may have an important role in neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. A number of studies report that elevated blood pressure increases the permeability of BBB. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effects of antihypertensive agents, candesartan or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), on BBB dysfunction and cognitive decline in wild-type mice maintained on high fat and fructose (HFF) diet for 24 weeks...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238692/management-of-pruritus-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Hirsh D Trivedi, Blanca Lizaola, Elliot B Tapper, Alan Bonder
Primary biliary cholangitis is an autoimmune condition characterized by destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. It causes debilitating symptoms, which dramatically affect the patient's quality of life. Pruritus affects 60% to 70% of individuals with primary biliary cholangitis and leads to sleep disturbances, fatigue, depression and suicidal ideation. A complete search was done with studies from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane database, Countway library and CINAHL with specific search terms. This narrative review was prepared after a comprehensive literature review...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236406/lc-ms-ms-analysis-and-pharmacokinetic-study-on-five-bioactive-constituents-of-tanreqing-injection-in-rats
#15
Feng Zhang, Liang Sun, Shou-Hong Gao, Wan-Sheng Chen, Yi-Feng Chai
Tanreqing injection (TRQ), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula, is commonly used to treat respiratory diseases. In the present study, a rapid, selective, and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determinate the plasma contents of 5 major constituents of TRQ, including chlorogenic acid (CHA), caffeic acid (CFA), baicalin (BA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) in rats after intravenous administration of TRQ...
October 2016: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225291/-a-contribution-to-the-differential-diagnostics-of-sclerosing-cholangitides
#16
Martin Blaho, Petr Dítě, Martina Bojková, Martin Rydlo, Tomáš Kupka, Pavel Svoboda, Pavel Klvaňa, Arnošt Martínek
Sclerosing cholangitides represent a group of chronic biliary obstructive diseases which include primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), IgG4 associated sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). The manifestations of the diseases are similar, but their asymptomatic course is also frequent. IgG4-SC belongs to the group of IgG4 associated diseases and it is the most frequently related to type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. Diagnosing of IgG4-SC is based on typical histopathological images, shape changes revealed by diagnostic imaging, serological tests, concurrent impairment of other organs and response to therapy, where IgG4-SC responds well to treatment with corticoids, whereas the only possibility for the remaining units is endoscopic intervention or liver transplantation...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223721/current-and-future-therapies-for-inherited-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Wendy L van der Woerd, Roderick Hj Houwen, Stan Fj van de Graaf
Familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIC) comprises a group of rare cholestatic liver diseases associated with canalicular transport defects resulting predominantly from mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4. Phenotypes range from benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), associated with recurrent cholestatic attacks, to progressive FIC (PFIC). Patients often suffer from severe pruritus and eventually progressive cholestasis results in liver failure. Currently, first-line treatment includes ursodeoxycholic acid in patients with ABCB4 deficiency (PFIC3) and partial biliary diversion in patients with ATP8B1 or ABCB11 deficiency (PFIC1 and PFIC2)...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219198/-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-on-isoprenaline-induced-myocardial-fibrosis-in-mice
#18
X Li, K Q Han, Y N Shi, S Z Men, S Li, M H Sun, H Dong, J J Lu, L J Ma, M Zhao, D Li, W Liu
Objective: To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on myocardial fibrosis in mice. Method: To observe the expression of transforming growth factor(TGF) -β1, CTGF, MMPs and the degree of myocardial fibrosis, 61 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, low dose UDCA group, high dose of UDCA group, spironolactone group, and the control group.Isoproterenol (ISO) injection was given subcutaneously (30 d) to make the model of myocardial fibrosis.Corresponding anti-fibrosis drugs (UDCA or spironolactone) were given by gavage...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219122/immunoserological-and-histological-differences-between-autoimmune-hepatitis-with-acute-presentation-and-chronic-autoimmune-hepatitis
#19
Kazufumi Dohmen, Hirofumi Tanaka, Masatora Haruno, Shinichi Aishima
BACKGROUND/AIMS: While the histological features in clinically chronic autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have been well established, with interface hepatitis and plasma cell infiltration as hallmark lesions, the immunoserological and histological features of recent-onset and acute AIH remain undefined. The goal of this study was to define the immunoserological and histological differences between AIH with acute presentation and chronic AIH. METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients with well-characterized AIH who had undergone a liver biopsy were identified at our institution...
February 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213609/gut-microbial-profile-is-altered-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-partially-restored-after-udca-therapy
#20
Ruqi Tang, Yiran Wei, Yanmei Li, Weihua Chen, Haoyan Chen, Qixia Wang, Fan Yang, Qi Miao, Xiao Xiao, Haiyan Zhang, Min Lian, Xiang Jiang, Jun Zhang, Qin Cao, Zhuping Fan, Maoying Wu, Dekai Qiu, Jing-Yuan Fang, Aftab Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
OBJECTIVE: A close relationship between gut microbiota and some chronic liver disorders has recently been described. Herein, we systematically performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and healthy controls. DESIGN: We first conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment-naïve patients with PBC and 80 matched healthy controls. Second, an independent cohort composed of 19 treatment-naïve patients and 34 controls was used to validate the results...
February 17, 2017: Gut
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