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Human Blastocyst Implantation

Natalie K Binder, Jemma Evans, Lois A Salamonsen, David K Gardner, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialogue between the receptive endometrium and activated blastocyst via locally produced soluble mediators. During the mid-secretory (MS) phase of the menstrual cycle, increased glandular secretion into the uterine lumen provides important mediators that modulate the endometrium and support the conceptus during implantation. Previously we demonstrated the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the human uterus, particularly with respect to embryo implantation...
2016: PloS One
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hazirah B Z Abidin, Jeremy K Brown, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Andrew W Horne, W Colin Duncan
Sialylation creates a negative charge on the cell surface that can interfere with blastocyst implantation. For example, α2,6-sialylation on terminal galactose, catalyzed by the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, inhibits the binding of galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin. We recently reported the potential involvement of galectin-1 and -3 in the pathogenesis of tubal ectopic pregnancy; however, the precise role of galectins and their ligand glycoconjugates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of the genes encoding α2,3- and α2,6-galactoside sialyltransferases (ST3GAL1 - 6 and ST6GAL1 - 2) and the localization of sialic acids in the Fallopian tube of women with or without ectopic implantation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Pouria HosseinNia, Mehdi Hajian, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Sayyed Morteza Hosseini, Somayyeh Ostadhosseini, Mohammad Reza Nasiri, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
T T F Huang, K Chinn, T Kosasa, H J Ahn, B Kessel
Time-lapse imaging offers new tools to study dynamic processes of development such as blastocyst formation and expansion. This study quantitatively describes expansion in human blastocysts from donated oocytes. Measurements of hourly interval rate of changes in the blastocoel cross-sectional area revealed oscillatory pulses having 2-4 h periodicities. Two types of oscillations were distinguished. An E-Type ('expansion') had positive peak and positive or slightly negative trough interval rate of change values, and these characterized most of the expansion period...
September 12, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Laila Noli, Antonio Capalbo, Yaser Dajani, Danilo Cimadomo, Jean Bvumbe, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
Studies reporting term pregnancy and the production of genetically identical offspring from isolated blastomeres of early stage embryos have been carried out in small and large animals. However, very little is known about the effects of embryo splitting on the development and reproductive competency of human embryos. In this study, we investigated the effects of embryo splitting on profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in their spent blastocyst medium (SBM) by comparative analysis of miRNA profiles in SBM of human twin embryos created by blastomere biopsy and SBM of blastocysts that resulted in a healthy pregnancy and live birth following embryo transfer...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
Maria Giulia Minasi, Alessandro Colasante, Teresa Riccio, Alessandra Ruberti, Valentina Casciani, Filomena Scarselli, Francesca Spinella, Francesco Fiorentino, Maria Teresa Varricchio, Ermanno Greco
STUDY QUESTION: Are there correlations among human blastocyst ploidy status, standard morphology evaluation and time-lapse kinetics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Correlations were observed, in that euploid human blastocysts showed a higher percentage with top quality inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE), higher expansion grades and shorter time to start of blastulation, expansion and hatching, compared to aneuploid ones. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo quality has always been considered an important predictor of successful implantation and pregnancy...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
Tomonori Nakamura, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Kotaro Sasaki, Yukihiro Yabuta, Chizuru Iwatani, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Yasunari Seita, Shinichiro Nakamura, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The epiblast (EPI) is the origin of all somatic and germ cells in mammals, and of pluripotent stem cells in vitro. To explore the ontogeny of human and primate pluripotency, here we perform comprehensive single-cell RNA sequencing for pre- and post-implantation EPI development in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). We show that after specification in the blastocysts, EPI from cynomolgus monkeys (cyEPI) undergoes major transcriptome changes on implantation. Thereafter, while generating gastrulating cells, cyEPI stably maintains its transcriptome over a week, retains a unique set of pluripotency genes and acquires properties for 'neuron differentiation'...
August 24, 2016: Nature
Lucia Funghi, Francesco Damiani, Chih-Feng Yen, Chyi-Long Lee, Annalia Lombardi, Frederick Schatz, Charles J Lockwood, Paola Marcolongo, Felice Petraglia, Felice Arcuri
Glucocorticoids are implicated in successful blastocyst implantation, whereas alterations in glucocorticoid levels are associated with various pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia. Tissue concentration of active glucocorticoids depends on the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). This study investigated the contribution of first trimester decidua to glucocorticoid availability at the fetal-maternal interface by assessing the expression and regulation of 11β-HSD in human first trimester decidual tissues and cells and by evaluating 11β-HSD levels in preeclamptic vs...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Xiaoqiu Wang, Greg A Johnson, Robert C Burghardt, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
In all mammalian species, critical events including uterine receptivity and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and its associated extra-embryonic membranes) must be intricately orchestrated and carefully timed during the window of implantation. Otherwise, failure of conceptuses to implant is inevitable which accounts for 50%-75% of failures to establish pregnancy. Unlike human and rodent blastocysts, the blastocysts of pigs and ruminants undergo rapid transitions from spherical to tubular and filamentous conceptuses in response to histotroph during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy...
August 10, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
S Garcia-Herrero, A Cervero, E Mateu, P Mir, M E Póo, L Rodrigo, M Vera, C Rubio
Preimplantation development comprises the initial stages of mammalian development, before the embryo implants into the mother's uterus. In normal conditions, after fertilization the embryo grows until reaching blastocyst stage. The blastocyst grows as the cells divide and the cavity expands, until it arrives at the uterus, where it "hatches" from the zona pellucida to implant into the uterine wall. Nevertheless, embryo quality and viability can be affected by chromosomal abnormalities, most of which occur during gametogenesis and early embryo development; human embryos produced in vitro are especially vulnerable...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
X Y Liu, J Wang, Y H Zeng, C H Ding, X T Shen, W Zhou, R Li, C Q Zhou, Y W Xu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and feasibility of preimplantation genetic diagnosis(PGD)with human leukocyte antigen(HLA)matching for beta-thalassemia. METHODS: A total of 43 referred beta-thalassemia couples, with at least on child in need of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT), underwent PGD for HLA matching at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from 2010 to 2015. PGD cycles of these couples were retrospectively analyzed, and 15 infants born from PGD-HLA were followed up...
July 25, 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
C González-Ortega, P Cancino-Villarreal, V E Alonzo-Torres, I Martínez-Robles, E Pérez-Peña, A M Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: Identification of the best embryos to transfer is a key element for success in assisted reproduction. In the last decade, several morphological criteria of oocytes and embryos were evaluated with regard to their potential for predicting embryo viability. The introduction of polarization light microscopy systems has allowed the visualization of the meiotic spindle and the different layers of the zona pellucida in human oocytes on the basis of birefringence in a non-destructive way...
April 2016: Ginecología y Obstetricia de México
Blair R McCallie, Jason C Parks, Alyssa L Patton, Darren K Griffin, William B Schoolcraft, Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism responsible for gene regulation, chromatin remodeling, and genome stability, playing a fundamental role during embryonic development. The aim of this study was to determine if these epigenetic marks are associated with chromosomal aneuploidy in human blastocysts. Surplus, cryopreserved blastocysts that were donated to research with IRB consent were chosen with varying chromosomal aneuploidies and respective implantation potential: monosomies and trisomies 7, 11, 15, 21, and 22...
2016: PloS One
Marzieh Derakhshan-Horeh, Farid Abolhassani, Farnoosh Jafarpour, Ashraf Moini, Khadijeh Karbalaie, Sayyed Morteza Hosseini, Somayyeh Ostadhosseini, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
: Backgrund: Imprinted genes are a unique subset of few genes, which have been differentially methylated region (DMR) in a parental origin-dependent manner during gametogenesis, and these genes are highly protected during pre-implantation epigenetic reprogramming. Several studies heve shown that the particular vulnerability of imprinting genes during suboptimal pre- and peri-conception microenvironments often occur by assisted reproduction techniques (ART). This study investigated the methylation status of H19/IGF2 DMR at high-quality expanding/expanded human blastocysts donated by healthy individuals to evaluate the risks linked to ART...
July 19, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Gaurav Majumdar, Abha Majumdar, Meena Lall, Ishwar C Verma, Kailash C Upadhyaya
CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis...
April 2016: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
Liang Yu, Rong Hu, Claretta Sullivan, R James Swanson, Sergio Oehninger, Ying-Pu Sun, Silvina Bocca
This study investigated the role of milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFGE8) in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial epithelial cells. These were in vitro studies using human endometrial epithelial cells and mouse blastocysts. We investigated the ability of TGF-β to induce EMT in endometrial epithelial cells (HEC-1A) by assessment of cytological phenotype (by light and atomic force microscopy), changes in expression of the markers of cell adhesion/differentiation E- and N-cadherin, and of the transcription factor Snail (by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting), and competence to support embryo attachment in a mouse blastocyst outgrowth assay...
September 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Min Li, Dong Liu, Li Wang, Weizhou Wang, Aiming Wang, Yuanqing Yao
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) is expressed in human oocytes and embryos, and whether PLAC8 interferes with the implantation process. DESIGN: Experimental. SETTING: Academic medical assisted reproduction center. PATIENT(S): Couples undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. INTERVENTION(S): Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunofluorescence on oocytes, embryos, control LoVo cells, and embryo-endometrial stromal cell coculture models, and Western blot on control LoVo cells...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Yan Li, Jian Xu, Can-Quan Zhou, Cui-Lian Zhang, Guang-Lun Zhuang
UNLABELLED: Trophoblast phagocytosis has been considered important in pregnancy. However, whether human preimplantation blastocysts possess phagocytic activity is still unclear. In this study, we determined the phagocytosis potential in human trophectoderm cells of blastocysts prior to implantation. Fluorescent microspheres were used as markers for phagocytic analysis under transmission electron microscope (TEM) and fluorescence microscopy. Phagocytosis of 1 μm fluorescent microspheres was observed in most (9/11) day-6 and even some (2/9) day-5 blastocysts...
August 2016: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Youngsok Choi, Hye-Ryun Kim, Eun Jin Lim, Miseon Park, Jung Ah Yoon, Yeon Sun Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Ji-Eun Shin, Ji Hyang Kim, Hwang Kwon, Haengseok Song, Dong-Hee Choi
Intimate two-way interactions between the implantation-competent blastocyst and receptive uterus are prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. In humans, recurrent/repeated implantation failure (RIF) may occur due to altered uterine receptivity with aberrant gene expression in the endometrium as well as genetic defects in embryos. Several studies have been performed to understand dynamic changes of uterine transcriptome during menstrual cycles in humans. However, uterine transcriptome of the patients with RIF has not been clearly investigated yet...
2016: PloS One
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