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Human Blastocyst Implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187900/the-cytotoxic-effects-of-dimethyl-sulfoxide-in-mouse-preimplantation-embryos-a-mechanistic-study
#1
Min-Hee Kang, Joydeep Das, Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Hwan-Woo Park, Hyuk Song, Chankyu Park, Jin-Hoi Kim
Rationale: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a solvent for water-insoluble substances, a vehicle for drug therapy, and a cryoprotectant for cultured cells. DMSO induced embryonic defects and its mechanism of action remains unclear. The rationale is based on the assumption that DMSO supplementation should induce long-term negative effects on both pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Methods: DMSO induced oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy, mitophagy, signaling responsible genes and proteins were determined by RT-qPCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160594/leptin-action-in-normal-and-pathological-pregnancies
#2
REVIEW
Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Ayelén Toro, Teresa Vilariño-García, Julieta Maymó, Pilar Guadix, José L Dueñas, Manuel Fernández-Sánchez, Cecilia Varone, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet
Leptin is now considered an important signalling molecule of the reproductive system, as it regulates the production of gonadotrophins, the blastocyst formation and implantation, the normal placentation, as well as the foeto-placental communication. Leptin is a peptide hormone secreted mainly by adipose tissue, and the placenta is the second leptin-producing tissue in humans. Placental leptin is an important cytokine which regulates placental functions in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Leptin seems to play a crucial role during the first stages of pregnancy as it modulates critical processes such as proliferation, protein synthesis, invasion and apoptosis in placental cells...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149327/focused-time-lapse-analysis-reveals-novel-aspects-of-human-fertilization-and-suggests-new-parameters-of-embryo-viability
#3
G Coticchio, M Mignini Renzini, P V Novara, M Lain, E De Ponti, D Turchi, R Fadini, M Dal Canto
STUDY QUESTION: Can focused application of time-lapse microscopy (TLM) lead to a more detailed map of the morphokinetics of human fertilization, revealing novel or neglected aspects of this process? SUMMARY ANSWER: Intensive harnessing of TLM reveals novel or previously poorly characterised phenomena of fertilization, such as a cytoplasmic wave (CW) preceding pronuclear formation and kinetics of pronuclear chromatin polarization, thereby suggesting novel non-invasive biomarkers of embryo quality...
November 15, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111314/perivitelline-threads-associated-with-fragments-in-human-cleavage-stage-embryos-observed-through-time-lapse-microscopy
#4
Ranya Derrick, Cristina Hickman, Oriol Oliana, Thomas Wilkinson, Danielle Gwinnett, Lucy Benham Whyte, Anna Carby, Stuart Lavery
Perivitelline threads (PVT) are defined as thin filaments that extend across the perivitelline space connecting the zona pellucida with the oolemma or, in some cases, blastomere membrane. This is the first report of PVT in human embryos. Time-lapse imagery from 525 blastocysts with either tested ploidy, known implantation status, or both, were reviewed for the presence of PVT, the cell stage when PVT were first observed, association with fragmentation, ploidy or implantation potential; PVT were observed in most embryos (404/525 [77%])...
September 21, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102427/effect-of-repeated-cryopreservation-on-human-embryo-developmental-potential
#5
Xiaoying Zheng, Yuan Chen, Jie Yan, Yuqi Wu, Xinjie Zhuang, Shengli Lin, Jinliang Zhu, Ying Lian, Jie Qiao, Ping Liu
Repeated cryopreservation of surplus embryos from frozen-thawed cycles should occasionally be considered. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the pregnancy and perinatal outcome of repeated cryopreservation by vitrification of human blastocysts derived from slowly frozen-thawed day 3 embryos. In total, 571 vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles were investigated. The vitrified-warmed blastocysts were derived from slowly frozen-thawed cleavage embryos (twice-cryopreserved group) or fresh embryos (control group) cultured to the blastocyst stage...
August 24, 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029620/tgf%C3%AE-superfamily-signaling-and-uterine-decidualization
#6
REVIEW
Nan Ni, Qinglei Li
Decidualization is an intricate biological process where extensive morphological, functional, and genetic changes take place in endometrial stromal cells to support the development of an implanting blastocyst. Deficiencies in decidualization are associated with pregnancy complications and reproductive diseases. Decidualization is coordinately regulated by steroid hormones, growth factors, and molecular and epigenetic mechanisms. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily signaling regulates multifaceted reproductive processes...
October 13, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029020/the-endometrial-polarity-paradox-differential-regulation-of-polarity-within-secretory-phase-human-endometrium
#7
Sarah Whitby, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
A major cause of infertility in normal and assisted reproduction cycles is failure of the endometrium to undergo appropriate changes during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle as it acquires receptivity for an implanting blastocyst. Current dogma states that loss of epithelial polarity in the luminal epithelial cells, the point of first contact between maternal endometrium and blastocyst, may facilitate embryo implantation. Loss of polarity is likely an important change during the secretory phase to overcome mutual repulsion between otherwise polarised epithelial surfaces...
September 29, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985527/evolutionarily-distinctive-transcriptional-and-signaling-programs-drive-human-germ-cell-lineage-specification-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Yoji Kojima, Kotaro Sasaki, Shihori Yokobayashi, Yoshitake Sakai, Tomonori Nakamura, Yukihiro Yabuta, Fumio Nakaki, So Nagaoka, Knut Woltjen, Akitsu Hotta, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
Germline specification underlies human reproduction and evolution, but it has proven difficult to study in humans since it occurs shortly after blastocyst implantation. This process can be modeled with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) by differentiating them into primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) through an incipient mesoderm-like cell (iMeLC) state. Here, we elucidate the key transcription factors and their interactions with important signaling pathways in driving hPGCLC differentiation from iPSCs...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947660/regulation-of-x-chromosome-dosage-compensation-in-human-mechanisms-and-model-systems
#9
REVIEW
Anna Sahakyan, Kathrin Plath, Claire Rougeulle
The human blastocyst forms 5 days after one of the smallest human cells (the sperm) fertilizes one of the largest human cells (the egg). Depending on the sex-chromosome contribution from the sperm, the resulting embryo will either be female, with two X chromosomes (XX), or male, with an X and a Y chromosome (XY). In early development, one of the major differences between XX female and XY male embryos is the conserved process of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), which compensates gene expression of the two female X chromosomes to match the dosage of the single X chromosome of males...
November 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911212/apposition-to-endometrial-epithelial-cells-activates-mouse-blastocysts-for-implantation
#10
Peter T Ruane, Stéphane C Berneau, Rebekka Koeck, Jessica Watts, Susan J Kimber, Daniel R Brison, Melissa Westwood, John D Aplin
STUDY QUESTION: How do interactions between blastocyst-stage embryos and endometrial epithelial cells regulate the early stages of implantation in an in vitro model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mouse blastocyst apposition with human endometrial epithelial cells initiates trophectoderm differentiation to trophoblast, which goes on to breach the endometrial epithelium. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro models using mouse blastocysts and human endometrial cell lines have proven invaluable in the molecular characterisation of embryo attachment to endometrial epithelium at the onset of implantation...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810691/improvement-of-implantation-potential-in-mouse-blastocysts-derived-from-ivf-by-combined-treatment-with-prolactin-epidermal-growth-factor-and-4-hydroxyestradiol
#11
Miki Takeuchi, Misato Seki, Etsuko Furukawa, Akihito Takahashi, Kyosuke Saito, Mitsuru Kobayashi, Kenji Ezoe, Emiko Fukui, Midori Yoshizawa, Hiromichi Matsumoto
STUDY QUESTION: Can supplementation of medium with prolactin (PRL), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OH-E2) prior to embryo transfer improve implantation potential in mouse blastocysts derived from IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined treatment with PRL, EGF and 4-OH-E2 improves mouse blastocyst implantation rates, while alone, each factor is ineffective. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Blastocyst dormancy during delayed implantation caused by ovariectomy is maintained by continued progesterone treatment in mice, and estrogen injection rapidly activates blastocysts to implantation-induced status in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797287/is-a-high-serum-copper-concentration-a-risk-factor-for-implantation-failure
#12
Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Kotaro Kitaya, Kohei Yamaguchi, Rie Nishiyama, Yukiko Takaya, Tomomoto Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson's disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine endometrium. Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc successfully delivered babies because zinc interfered with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728562/low-oxygen-tension-increases-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-enhances-expression-of-antioxidant-genes-and-implantation-protein-of-mouse-blastocyst-cultured-in-vitro
#13
Yun-Yi Ma, Huei-Wen Chen, Chii-Ruey Tzeng
BACKGROUND: In human IVF, embryos cultured with a lower O2 tension (5%) can give rise to higher success rates when compared with normoxic conditions (20%). However, the mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of reduced oxygen tension in embryogenesis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of oxygen related and antioxidant genes and mitochondrial function in mouse embryo cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions, to investigate the beneficial effect of low oxygen tension in preimplantation embryogenesis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722155/metabolite-availability-as-a-window-to-view-the-early-embryo-microenvironment-in-vivo
#14
REVIEW
Kailun Hu, Yang Yu
A preimplantation embryo exists independent of blood supply, and relies on energy sources from its in vivo environment (e.g., oviduct and uterine fluid) to sustain its development. The embryos can survive in this aqueous environment because it contains amino acids, proteins, lactate, pyruvate, oxygen, glucose, antioxidants, ions, growth factors, hormones, and phospholipids-albeit the concentration of each component varies by species, stage of the estrous cycle, and anatomical location. The dynamic nature of this environment sustains early development from the one-cell zygote to blastocyst, and is reciprocally influenced by the embryo at each embryonic stage...
October 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706275/novel-function-of-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-promotes-endometrium-receptivity-by-up-regulating-n-fucosylation
#15
Ming Yu, Jiao Wang, Shuai Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Qiu Yan
Glycosylation of uterine endometrial cells plays important roles to determine their receptive function to blastocysts. Trophoblast-derived pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is specifically elevated in pregnant women serum, and is known to promote trophoblast cell proliferation and adhesion. However, the relationship between PAPPA and endometrium receptivity, as well as the regulation of N-fucosylation remains unclear. We found that rhPAPPA and PAPPA in the serum samples from pregnant women or conditioned medium of trophoblast cells promoted endometrium receptivity in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701751/secretome-of-in-vitro-cultured-human-embryos-contains-extracellular-vesicles-that-are-uptaken-by-the-maternal-side
#16
Elisa Giacomini, Riccardo Vago, Ana Maria Sanchez, Paola Podini, Natasa Zarovni, Valentina Murdica, Roberta Rizzo, Daria Bortolotti, Massimo Candiani, Paola Viganò
Communication between embryo and maternal endometrium occurs during a specific time frame in which implantation is possible. Here we demonstrate for the first time that conditioned media from non-manipulated human embryos cultured in vitro for 3 days or up to the blastocyst stage contain extracellular vesicles (EVs) with a diameter of 50 to 200 nm and bearing the traditional microvesicle and exosome marker proteins CD63, CD9 and ALIX. The embryonic origin of these EVs has been confirmed by the presence of stemness gene transcripts and their enrichment in the non-classical HLA-G protein...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689770/vip-induces-the-decidualization-program-and-conditions-the-immunoregulation-of-the-implantation-process
#17
Esteban Grasso, Soledad Gori, Daniel Paparini, Elizabeth Soczewski, Laura Fernández, Lucila Gallino, Gabriela Salamone, Gustavo Martinez, Marcela Irigoyen, Claudio Ruhlmann, Claudia Pérez Leirós, Rosanna Ramhorst
The decidualization process involves phenotype and functional changes on endometrial cells and the modulation of mediators with immunoregulatory properties as the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We investigate VIP contribution to the decidualization program and to immunoregulation throughout the human embryo implantation process. The decidualization of Human endometrial stromal cell line (HESC) with Medroxyprogesterone-dibutyryl-cAMP increased VIP/VPAC-receptors system. In fact, VIP could induce decidualization increasing differentiation markers (IGFBP1, PRL, KLF13/KLF9 ratio, CXCL12, CXCL8 and CCL2) and allowing Blastocyst-like spheroids (BLS) invasion in an in vitro model of embryo implantation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651960/humid-versus-dry-incubator-a%C3%A2-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mohamed Fawzy, Mohamed Y AbdelRahman, Mohamed H Zidan, Faten F Abdel Hafez, Hazem Abdelghafar, Hesham Al-Inany, Mohamed A Bedaiwy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a dry versus humidified incubator on human embryo development ex vivo. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Private fertility centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 297 women undergoing in vitro fertilization randomized into two groups. INTERVENTION(S): From days 0 to day 5 or 6 of culture, intervention group embryos exposed to dry culture and control group embryos exposed to humidified culture...
August 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595284/infertility-diagnosis-has-a-significant-impact-on-the-transcriptome-of-developing-blastocysts
#19
Blair R McCallie, Jason C Parks, Darren K Griffin, William B Schoolcraft, Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
STUDY QUESTION: Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579406/revisiting-the-management-of-recurrent-implantation-failure-through-freeze-all-policy
#20
Yasmin Magdi, Ahmed El-Damen, Ahmed Mohamed Fathi, Ahmed Mostafa Abdelaziz, Mohamed Abd-Elfatah Youssef, Ahmed Abd-Elmaged Abd-Allah, Mona Ahmed Elawady, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim, Yehia Edris
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a freeze-all policy for in vitro human blastocysts improves the ongoing pregnancy rate in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single private center. PATIENT(S): A total of 171 women with RIF divided into two groups: freeze-all policy group (n = 81) and fresh embryo transfer (ET) group (n = 90). INTERVENTION(S): Freeze-all policy...
July 2017: Fertility and Sterility
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