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Human Blastocyst Implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917907/ecat1-is-essential-for-human-oocyte-maturation-and-pre-implantation-development-of-the-resulting-embryos
#1
Changyu Liu, Min Li, Tianjie Li, Hongcui Zhao, Jin Huang, Yun Wang, Qian Gao, Yang Yu, Qinghua Shi
ECAT1 is a subunit of the subcortical maternal complex that is required for cell cycle progression during pre-implantation embryonic development; however, its exact function remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the expression of ECAT1 in human ovarian tissue, oocytes and pre-implantation embryos and assessed its function by using RNA interference (RNAi) in oocytes. ECAT1 mRNA was highly expressed in human oocytes and zygotes, as well as in two-cell, four-cell and eight-cell embryos, but declined significantly in morulae and blastocysts...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912901/individualized-versus-conventional-ovarian-stimulation-for-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-assessor-blinded-phase-3-noninferiority-trial
#2
Anders Nyboe Andersen, Scott M Nelson, Bart C J M Fauser, Juan Antonio García-Velasco, Bjarke M Klein, Joan-Carles Arce
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of follitropin delta, a new human recombinant FSH with individualized dosing based on serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and body weight, with conventional follitropin alfa dosing for ovarian stimulation in women undergoing IVF. DESIGN: Randomized, multicenter, assessor-blinded, noninferiority trial (ESTHER-1). SETTING: Reproductive medicine clinics. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,329 women (aged 18-40 years)...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911818/planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-the-uterus-directs-appropriate-positioning-of-the-crypt-for-embryo-implantation
#3
Jia Yuan, Jeeyeon Cha, Wenbo Deng, Amanda Bartos, Xiaofei Sun, Hsin-Yi Henry Ho, Jean-Paul Borg, Terry P Yamaguchi, Yingzi Yang, Sudhansu K Dey
Blastocyst implantation is a complex process requiring coordination of a dynamic sequence of embryo-uterine interactions. Blood vessels enter the uterus from the mesometrium, demarcating the uterus into mesometrial (M) and antimesometrial (AM) domains. Implantation occurs along the uterine longitudinal axis within specialized implantation chambers (crypts) that originate within the evaginations directed from the primary lumen toward the AM domain. The morphological orientation of crypts in rodent uteri was recognized more than a century ago, but the mechanism remained unknown...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905495/uterine-glands-impact-uterine-receptivity-luminal-fluid-homeostasis-and-blastocyst-implantation
#4
Andrew M Kelleher, Gregory W Burns, Susanta Behura, Guoyao Wu, Thomas E Spencer
Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy in mice and likely humans, because they secrete or transport bioactive substances that regulate uterine receptivity for blastocyst implantation. In mice, the uterus becomes receptive to blastocyst implantation on day 4, but is refractory by day 5. Here, blastocysts could be recovered from progesterone-induced uterine gland (PUGKO) but not wildtype (WT) mice on day 5 post-mating. Anti-adhesive Muc1 protein and microvilli were present on the luminal epithelium of PUGKO but not WT uteri...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843122/allele-specific-methylome-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-widespread-imprinting-in-the-human-placenta
#5
Hirotaka Hamada, Hiroaki Okae, Hidehiro Toh, Hatsune Chiba, Hitoshi Hiura, Kenjiro Shirane, Tetsuya Sato, Mikita Suyama, Nobuo Yaegashi, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Takahiro Arima
DNA methylation is globally reprogrammed after fertilization, and as a result, the parental genomes have similar DNA-methylation profiles after implantation except at the germline differentially methylated regions (gDMRs). We and others have previously shown that human blastocysts might contain thousands of transient maternally methylated gDMRs (transient mDMRs), whose maternal methylation is lost in embryonic tissues after implantation. In this study, we performed genome-wide allelic DNA methylation analyses of purified trophoblast cells from human placentas and, surprisingly, found that more than one-quarter of the transient-in-embryo mDMRs maintained their maternally biased DNA methylation...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829441/characterization-of-exosomal-release-in-bovine-endometrial-intercaruncular-stromal-cells
#6
Yong Qin Koh, Hassendrini N Peiris, Kanchan Vaswani, Sarah Reed, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon, Murray D Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell communication between the blastocyst and endometrium is critical for implantation. In recent years, evidence has emerged from studies in humans and several other animal species that exosomes are secreted from the endometrium and trophoblast cells and may play an important role in cell-to-cell communication maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy. Exosomes are stable extracellular lipid bilayer vesicles that encapsulate proteins, miRNAs, and mRNAs, with the ability to deliver their cargo to near and distant sites, altering cellular function(s)...
November 9, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809766/diversity-of-human-and-mouse-homeobox-gene-expression-in-development-and-adult-tissues
#7
Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
BACKGROUND: Homeobox genes encode a diverse set of transcription factors implicated in a vast range of biological processes including, but not limited to, embryonic cell fate specification and patterning. Although numerous studies report expression of particular sets of homeobox genes, a systematic analysis of the tissue specificity of homeobox genes is lacking. RESULTS: Here we analyse publicly-available transcriptome data from human and mouse developmental stages, and adult human tissues, to identify groups of homeobox genes with similar expression patterns...
November 3, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798285/endocannabinoid-system-and-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Fernando Correa, Manuel L Wolfson, Paula Valchi, Julieta Aisemberg, Ana María Franchi
The endocannabinoid system (eCS), is a complex system, comprising the main endogenous ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the biosynthetic and degrading enzymes. Cumulative evidence shows that the eCS plays an important role in reproduction, from egg fertilization to parturition. Therefore, alterations in this system, either by recreation/therapeutic use of cannabis or deregulation of the endogenous cannabinoids, might lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including retardation in embryo development, poor blastocyst implantation, inhibition of decidualization, miscarriage and compromised placentation...
December 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796614/glycans-define-the-stemness-of-na%C3%A3-ve-and-primed-pluripotent-stem-cells
#9
Shoko Nishihara
Cell surface glycans are tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. They function as essential modulators in cell-cell interactions, cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and ligand-receptor interactions, binding to various ligands, including Wnt, fibroblast growth factors, and bone morphogenetic proteins. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, originally derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have the essential characteristics of pluripotency and self-renewal. Recently, it has been proposed that mouse and human conventional ES cells are present in different developmental stages, namely pre-implantation blastocyst and post-implantation blastocyst stages, also called the naïve state and the primed state, respectively...
October 28, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796003/long-cut-straw-provides-stable-the-rates-of-survival-pregnancy-and-live-birth-for-vitrification-of-human-blasotcysts
#10
Jung-Woo Lee, Jeong-Ho Cha, Sun-Hee Shin, Yun-Jeong Kim, Seul-Ki Lee, Hye-Jin Cha, Ji-Hae Kim, Ji-Hyun Ahn, Hye-Young Kim, Kyung-Ah Pak, Ji-Sung Yoon, Seo-Young Park, Choon-Keun Park
Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor)...
September 2016: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793366/accurate-quantitation-of-mitochondrial-dna-reveals-uniform-levels-in-human-blastocysts-irrespective-of-ploidy-age-or-implantation-potential
#11
Andrea R Victor, Alan J Brake, Jack C Tyndall, Darren K Griffin, Christo G Zouves, Frank L Barnes, Manuel Viotti
OBJECTIVE: To accurately determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in human blastocysts. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: IVF clinic. PATIENT(S): A total of 1,396 embryos derived from 259 patients. INTERVENTION(S): Blastocyst-derived trophectoderm biopsies were tested by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): For each sample the mtDNA value was divided by the nuclear DNA value, and the result was further subjected to mathematical analysis tailored to the genetic makeup of the source embryo...
October 25, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792143/self-organization-of-stem-cell-colonies-and-of-early-mammalian-embryos-recent-experiments-shed-new-light-on-the-role-of-autonomy-vs-external-instructions-in-basic-body-plan-development
#12
REVIEW
Hans-Werner Denker
"Organoids", i.e., complex structures that can develop when pluripotent or multipotent stem cells are maintained in three-dimensional cultures, have become a new area of interest in stem cell research. Hopes have grown that when focussing experimentally on the mechanisms behind this type of in vitro morphogenesis, research aiming at tissue and organ replacements can be boosted. Processes leading to the formation of organoids in vitro are now often addressed as self-organization, a term referring to the formation of complex tissue architecture in groups of cells without depending on specific instruction provided by other cells or tissues...
October 25, 2016: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711226/placental-growth-factor-is-secreted-by-the-human-endometrium-and-has-potential-important-functions-during-embryo-development-and-implantation
#13
Natalie K Binder, Jemma Evans, Lois A Salamonsen, David K Gardner, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Natalie J Hannan
Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialogue between the receptive endometrium and activated blastocyst via locally produced soluble mediators. During the mid-secretory (MS) phase of the menstrual cycle, increased glandular secretion into the uterine lumen provides important mediators that modulate the endometrium and support the conceptus during implantation. Previously we demonstrated the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the human uterus, particularly with respect to embryo implantation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704662/cigarette-smoking-alters-sialylation-in-the-fallopian-tube-of-women-with-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-ectopic-pregnancy
#14
Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Hazirah B Z Abidin, Jeremy K Brown, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Andrew W Horne, W Colin Duncan
Sialylation creates a negative charge on the cell surface that can interfere with blastocyst implantation. For example, α2,6-sialylation on terminal galactose, catalyzed by the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, inhibits the binding of galectin-1, a β-galactoside-binding lectin. We recently reported the potential involvement of galectin-1 and -3 in the pathogenesis of tubal ectopic pregnancy; however, the precise role of galectins and their ligand glycoconjugates remain unclear. Here, we investigated the expression of the genes encoding α2,3- and α2,6-galactoside sialyltransferases (ST3GAL1-6 and ST6GAL1-2) and the localization of sialic acids in the Fallopian tube of women with or without ectopic implantation...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695614/expression-profile-of-developmentally-important-genes-in-preand-peri-implantation-goat-embryos-produced-in-vitro
#15
Pouria HosseinNia, Mehdi Hajian, Mojtaba Tahmoorespur, Sayyed Morteza Hosseini, Somayyeh Ostadhosseini, Mohammad Reza Nasiri, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
BACKGROUND: Little is understood about the regulation of gene expression during early goat embryo development. This study investigated the expression profile of 19 genes, known to be critical for early embryo development in mouse and human, at five different stages of goat in vitro embryo development (oocyte, 8-16 cell, morula, day-7 blastocyst, and day 14 blastocyst). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, stage-specific profiling using real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed robust and dynamic patterns of stage-specific gene activity that fall into four major clusters depending on their respective mRNA profiles...
October 2016: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665055/morphokinetics-of-human-blastocyst-expansion-in-vitro
#16
T T F Huang, K Chinn, T Kosasa, H J Ahn, B Kessel
Time-lapse imaging offers new tools to study dynamic processes of development such as blastocyst formation and expansion. This study quantitatively describes expansion in human blastocysts from donated oocytes. Measurements of hourly interval rate of changes in the blastocoel cross-sectional area revealed oscillatory pulses having 2-4 h periodicities. Two types of oscillations were distinguished. An E-Type ('expansion') had positive peak and positive or slightly negative trough interval rate of change values, and these characterized most of the expansion period...
September 12, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625611/the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-reproductive-system
#17
REVIEW
Isabella Ellinger
Active placental transport of maternal serum calcium (Ca(2+)) to the offspring is pivotal for proper development of the fetal skeleton as well as various organ systems. Moreover, extracellular Ca(2+) levels impact on distinct processes in mammalian reproduction. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) translates changes in extracellular Ca(2+)-concentrations into cellular reactions. This review summarizes current knowledge on the expression of CaSR and its putative functions in reproductive organs. CaSR was detected in placental cells mediating materno-fetal Ca(2+)-transport such as the murine intraplacental yolk sac (IPYS) and the human syncytiotrophoblast...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612589/human-embryos-created-by-embryo-splitting-secrete-significantly-lower-levels-of-mirna-30c
#18
Laila Noli, Antonio Capalbo, Yaser Dajani, Danilo Cimadomo, Jean Bvumbe, Laura Rienzi, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
Studies reporting term pregnancy and the production of genetically identical offspring from isolated blastomeres of early stage embryos have been carried out in small and large animals. However, very little is known about the effects of embryo splitting on the development and reproductive competency of human embryos. In this study, we investigated the effects of embryo splitting on profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) detected in their spent blastocyst medium (SBM) by comparative analysis of miRNA profiles in SBM of human twin embryos created by blastomere biopsy and SBM of blastocysts that resulted in a healthy pregnancy and live birth following embryo transfer...
October 17, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591227/correlation-between-aneuploidy-standard-morphology-evaluation-and-morphokinetic-development-in-1730-biopsied-blastocysts-a-consecutive-case-series-study
#19
Maria Giulia Minasi, Alessandro Colasante, Teresa Riccio, Alessandra Ruberti, Valentina Casciani, Filomena Scarselli, Francesca Spinella, Francesco Fiorentino, Maria Teresa Varricchio, Ermanno Greco
STUDY QUESTION: Are there correlations among human blastocyst ploidy status, standard morphology evaluation and time-lapse kinetics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Correlations were observed, in that euploid human blastocysts showed a higher percentage with top quality inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE), higher expansion grades and shorter time to start of blastulation, expansion and hatching, compared to aneuploid ones. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo quality has always been considered an important predictor of successful implantation and pregnancy...
October 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556940/a-developmental-coordinate-of-pluripotency-among-mice-monkeys-and-humans
#20
Tomonori Nakamura, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Kotaro Sasaki, Yukihiro Yabuta, Chizuru Iwatani, Hideaki Tsuchiya, Yasunari Seita, Shinichiro Nakamura, Takuya Yamamoto, Mitinori Saitou
The epiblast (EPI) is the origin of all somatic and germ cells in mammals, and of pluripotent stem cells in vitro. To explore the ontogeny of human and primate pluripotency, here we perform comprehensive single-cell RNA sequencing for pre- and post-implantation EPI development in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). We show that after specification in the blastocysts, EPI from cynomolgus monkeys (cyEPI) undergoes major transcriptome changes on implantation. Thereafter, while generating gastrulating cells, cyEPI stably maintains its transcriptome over a week, retains a unique set of pluripotency genes and acquires properties for 'neuron differentiation'...
August 24, 2016: Nature
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