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Human Blastocyst Implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722155/metabolite-availability-as-a-window-to-view-the-early-embryo-microenvironment-in-vivo
#1
REVIEW
Kailun Hu, Yang Yu
A preimplantation embryo exists independent of blood supply, and relies on energy sources from its in vivo environment (e.g. oviduct and uterine fluid) to sustain its development. The embryos can survive in this aqueous environment because it contains amino acids, proteins, lactate, pyruvate, oxygen, glucose, antioxidants, ions, growth factors, hormones, and phospholipids - albeit the concentration of each component varies by species, stage of the estrous cycle, and anatomical location. The dynamic nature of this environment sustains the early development from the one-cell zygote to blastocyst, and is reciprocally influenced by the embryo at each embryonic stage...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706275/novel-function-of-pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-promotes-endometrium-receptivity-by-up-regulating-n-fucosylation
#2
Ming Yu, Jiao Wang, Shuai Liu, Xiaoqi Wang, Qiu Yan
Glycosylation of uterine endometrial cells plays important roles to determine their receptive function to blastocysts. Trophoblast-derived pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) is specifically elevated in pregnant women serum, and is known to promote trophoblast cell proliferation and adhesion. However, the relationship between PAPPA and endometrium receptivity, as well as the regulation of N-fucosylation remains unclear. We found that rhPAPPA and PAPPA in the serum samples from pregnant women or conditioned medium of trophoblast cells promoted endometrium receptivity in vitro...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701751/secretome-of-in-vitro-cultured-human-embryos-contains-extracellular-vesicles-that-are-uptaken-by-the-maternal-side
#3
Elisa Giacomini, Riccardo Vago, Ana Maria Sanchez, Paola Podini, Natasa Zarovni, Valentina Murdica, Roberta Rizzo, Daria Bortolotti, Massimo Candiani, Paola Viganò
Communication between embryo and maternal endometrium occurs during a specific time frame in which implantation is possible. Here we demonstrate for the first time that conditioned media from non-manipulated human embryos cultured in vitro for 3 days or up to the blastocyst stage contain extracellular vesicles (EVs) with a diameter of 50 to 200 nm and bearing the traditional microvesicle and exosome marker proteins CD63, CD9 and ALIX. The embryonic origin of these EVs has been confirmed by the presence of stemness gene transcripts and their enrichment in the non-classical HLA-G protein...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689770/vip-induces-the-decidualization-program-and-conditions-the-immunoregulation-of-the-implantation-process
#4
Esteban Grasso, Soledad Gori, Daniel Paparini, Elizabeth Soczewski, Laura Fernández, Lucila Gallino, Gabriela Salamone, Gustavo Martinez, Marcela Irigoyen, Claudio Ruhlmann, Claudia Pérez Leirós, Rosanna Ramhorst
The decidualization process involves phenotype and functional changes on endometrial cells and the modulation of mediators with immunoregulatory properties as the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We investigate VIP contribution to the decidualization program and to immunoregulation throughout the human embryo implantation process. The decidualization of Human endometrial stromal cell line (HESC) with Medroxyprogesterone-dibutyryl-cAMP increased VIP/VPAC-receptors system. In fact, VIP could induce decidualization increasing differentiation markers (IGFBP1, PRL, KLF13/KLF9 ratio, CXCL12, CXCL8 and CCL2) and allowing Blastocyst-like spheroids (BLS) invasion in an in vitro model of embryo implantation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651960/humid-versus-dry-incubator-a%C3%A2-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Mohamed Fawzy, Mohamed Y AbdelRahman, Mohamed H Zidan, Faten F Abdel Hafez, Hazem Abdelghafar, Hesham Al-Inany, Mohamed A Bedaiwy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a dry versus humidified incubator on human embryo development ex vivo. DESIGN: Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Private fertility centers. PATIENT(S): A total of 297 women undergoing in vitro fertilization randomized into two groups. INTERVENTION(S): From days 0 to day 5 or 6 of culture, intervention group embryos exposed to dry culture and control group embryos exposed to humidified culture...
June 23, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595284/infertility-diagnosis-has-a-significant-impact-on-the-transcriptome-of-developing-blastocysts
#6
Blair R McCallie, Jason C Parks, Darren K Griffin, William B Schoolcraft, Mandy G Katz-Jaffe
STUDY QUESTION: Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF), and unexplained (UE)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF, and UE infertility diagnosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during pre-implantation development...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579406/revisiting-the-management-of-recurrent-implantation-failure-through-freeze-all-policy
#7
Yasmin Magdi, Ahmed El-Damen, Ahmed Mohamed Fathi, Ahmed Mostafa Abdelaziz, Mohamed Abd-Elfatah Youssef, Ahmed Abd-Elmaged Abd-Allah, Mona Ahmed Elawady, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim, Yehia Edris
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a freeze-all policy for in vitro human blastocysts improves the ongoing pregnancy rate in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Single private center. PATIENT(S): A total of 171 women with RIF divided into two groups: freeze-all policy group (n = 81) and fresh embryo transfer (ET) group (n = 90). INTERVENTION(S): Freeze-all policy...
July 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573523/selection-of-human-blastocysts-with-a-high-implantation-potential-based-on-timely-compaction
#8
Yamato Mizobe, Yuji Ezono, Makoto Tokunaga, Naoto Oya, Reiko Iwakiri, Naomi Yoshida, Yumi Sato, Nanase Onoue, Kazuchika Miyoshi
PURPOSE: Recently, we established a noninvasive system for selecting human blastocysts with a high pre-transfer implantation potential based on first and second division patterns. The present study was carried out to improve the selection system. METHODS: Embryos that completed first and second divisions within 25.90 and 37.88 h after culture, respectively, were selected using a time-lapse incubator. We examined the effects of compaction and blastocyst formation times on pregnancy rates after transferring these embryos at the blastocyst stage...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562440/vitamin-d-in-human-reproduction
#9
Jason M Franasiak, Evelin E Lara, Antonio Pellicer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a wide range of human disease states and the global epidemic, particularly in reproductive aged women, has led to a focus on this complex hormones role in human reproduction. Indeed vitamin D receptors are found throughout the reproductive tract in the ovary, endometrium, and the placenta. It has roles both in calcium-dependent and independent pathways. However, agreement upon the most appropriate way to assess vitamin D status and ultimately its activity at various sites has proven challenging...
August 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537488/capturing-human-na%C3%A3-ve-pluripotency-in-the-embryo-and-in-the-dish
#10
Ludovic Zimmerlin, Tea Soon Park, Elias T Zambidis
Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first derived almost 20 years ago, it was only recently acknowledged that they share closer molecular and functional identity to postimplantation lineage-primed murine epiblast stem cells than to naïve preimplantation inner cell mass-derived mouse ESCs (mESCs). A myriad of transcriptional, epigenetic, biochemical, and metabolic attributes have now been described that distinguish naïve and primed pluripotent states in both rodents and humans. Conventional hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) appear to lack many of the defining hallmarks of naïve mESCs...
June 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522355/closed-versus-open-vitrification-for-human-blastocyst-cryopreservation-a-meta-analysis
#11
Hyun Sik Youm, Jong-Ryeol Choi, Daesik Oh, Yong Ho Rho
Closed vitrification can minimize the risk of microbiological transmission through liquid nitrogen during the cooling, storage, and warming procedures. As cooling rates may reduce when closed vitrification is applied, clinical outcomes should be compared between closed and open vitrification in order to justify the use of closed vitrification. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in survival, implantation, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates between closed and open vitrification for human blastocyst cryopreservation...
May 15, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501366/reproductive-outcomes-after-a-single-dose-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-compared-with-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-for-the-induction-of-final-oocyte-maturation-in-hyper-responder-women-aged-35-40%C3%A2-years
#12
Samer Tannus, Rola Turki, Yoni Cohen, Weon-Young Son, Tal Shavit, Michael Haim Dahan
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reproductive outcomes after the use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) compared with hCG for the induction of final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist cycles performed in hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Academic fertility center. PATIENT(S): Two hundred seventy-two hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation under GnRH antagonist suppression were included...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478820/down-regulation-of-hla-g-gene-expression-as-an-immunogenetic-contraceptive-therapy
#13
Valéria Kaminski, Joel Henrique Ellwanger, José Artur Bogo Chies
HLA-G is a nonclassical HLA immunotolerogenic molecule expressed in different human cell types. Successful embryo implantation is a consequence of information exchange between the uterus and the blastocyst. It is widely accepted that HLA-G expression by the fetus promotes the establishment of several mechanisms that, ultimately, would protect the developing embryo from maternal immune rejection and seems to be essential to both an adequate implantation and a healthy pregnancy. MicroRNAs miR-148a and miR-152 down-regulate HLA-G expression...
May 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475125/melatonin-promotes-the-in-vitro-development-of-microinjected-pronuclear-mouse-embryos-via-its-anti-oxidative-and-anti-apoptotic-effects
#14
Xiuzhi Tian, Feng Wang, Lu Zhang, Pengyun Ji, Jing Wang, Dongying Lv, Guangdong Li, Menglong Chai, Zhengxing Lian, Guoshi Liu
CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) combined with pronuclear microinjection has become the most effective method for producing transgenic animals. However, the relatively low embryo developmental rate limits its application. In the current study, it was observed that 10(-7) M melatonin is considered an optimum concentration and significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine microinjected pronuclear embryos, as indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate and blastocyst cell number...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470453/the-effect-of-follicle-size-and-homogeneity-of-follicular-development-on-the-morphokinetics-of-human-embryos
#15
Semra Kahraman, Caroline Pirkevi Cetinkaya, Murat Cetinkaya, Hakan Yelke, Yesim Kumtepe Colakoglu, Melih Aygun, Markus Montag
PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate follicular size (large, ≥17 mm and small, <17 mm) at the time of OPU and homogeneity of follicular development (homogenous development: follicles being present in a homogenous spread of all sizes; heterogeneous: a predominance of small and large follicles) by analysing the morphokinetics of embryo development. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 2526 COCs belonging to 187 patients were cultured to day 5. Embryos were evaluated morphokinetically...
July 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466234/the-bovine-embryo-hatches-from-the-zona-pellucida-through-either-the-embryonic-or-abembryonic-pole
#16
Verónica M Negrón-Pérez, Peter J Hansen
PURPOSE: Implantation of the mammalian embryo in the uterus is preceded by escape from the zona pellucida. In some species, hatching from the zona occurs preferentially from one or the other poles of the embryo. The situation for the bovine embryo, in which hatching precedes attachment to the uterus by more than a week, is unclear. The purpose was to describe whether hatching of the bovine embryo from the zona pellucida occurs preferentially from the embryonic or abembryonic pole. METHODS: Bovine blastocysts undergoing hatching were examined by light microscopy (n = 84) and epifluorescence imaging using antibodies for markers of epiblast, hypoblast, and trophectoderm (TE) (n = 26)...
June 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446706/a-sister-of-nanog-regulates-genes-expressed-in-pre-implantation-human-development
#17
Thomas L Dunwell, Peter W H Holland
The NANOG homeobox gene plays a pivotal role in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency in human, mouse and other vertebrate embryonic stem cells, and in pluripotent cells of the blastocyst inner cell mass. There is a poorly studied and atypical homeobox locus close to the Nanog gene in some mammals which could conceivably be a cryptic paralogue of NANOG, even though the loci share only 20% homeodomain identity. Here we argue that this gene, NANOGNB (NANOG Neighbour), is an extremely divergent duplicate of NANOG that underwent radical sequence change in the mammalian lineage...
April 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419839/near-infrared-laser-irradiation-improves-the-development-of-mouse-pre-implantation-embryos
#18
Masaki Yokoo, Miho Mori
The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of near-infrared laser irradiation on the in vitro development of mouse embryos. Female ICR mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mated with male mice. Two-cell stage embryos were collected 40 h after administering hCG and cultured in M16 medium. Two-cell embryos (0 h after culture), 8-cell embryos (approx. 30 h after culture), morula (approx. 48 h after culture), and blastocysts (approx...
May 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402555/deregulation-of-the-endometrial-stromal-cell-secretome-precedes-embryo-implantation-failure
#19
Ruban Rex Peter Durairaj, Asma Aberkane, Lukasz Polanski, Yojiro Maruyama, Miriam Baumgarten, Emma S Lucas, Siobhan Quenby, Jerry K Y Chan, Nick Raine-Fenning, Jan J Brosens, Hilde Van de Velde, Yie Hou Lee
STUDY QUESTION: Is implantation failure following ART associated with a perturbed decidual response in endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Dynamic changes in the secretome of decidualizing EnSCs underpin the transition of a hostile to a supportive endometrial microenvironment for embryo implantation; perturbation in this transitional pathway prior to ART is associated with implantation failure. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Implantation is the rate-limiting step in ART, although the contribution of an aberrant endometrial microenvironment in IVF failure remains ill defined...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390692/detection-of-mosaicism-at-blastocyst-stage-with-the-use-of-high-resolution-next-generation-sequencing
#20
REVIEW
Santiago Munné, Dagan Wells
A significant proportion of human preimplantation embryos produced during the course of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments contain two or more cytogenetically distinct cell lines. This phenomenon, known as chromosomal mosaicism, can involve the presence of cells with different types of aneuploidy in the absence of any normal cells or a mixture of euploid and abnormal cells. Although a high prevalence of mosaicism at the cleavage and blastocyst stages has been appreciated for two decades, the precise frequency of the phenomenon and its consequences for embryo viability have been difficult to quantify...
April 6, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
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