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Human Blastocyst Implantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664791/embryo-morphokinetic-characteristics-and-euploidy
#1
Francesca Pennetta, Cristina Lagalla, Andrea Borini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the current review is to provide an update on time-lapse morphokinetic assessment related to embryo ploidy status. RECENT FINDINGS: The main limitation of the available studies regarding correlation between morphokinetic variables and ploidy is that each embryo is considered as an independent unit whereas recent findings show that embryo kinetics may be affected by patient and ovarian stimulation-related factors, so that clustered data analysis is more appropriate...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625822/comparing-36-5%C3%A2-c-with-37%C3%A2-c-for-human-embryo-culture-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Mohamed Fawzy, Mai Emad, Mostafa A Gad, Mohamed Sabry, Hesham Kasem, Manar Mahmoud, Mohamed A Bedaiwy
This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a culture temperature of 36.5°C versus 37°C on human embryo development in vitro. A total of 412 women undergoing IVF were randomized to two groups: the oocytes and embryos of the intervention group were cultured at 36.5°C; those of the control group were cultured at 37°C. Although no significant effect of culture temperature was observed on pregnancy or implantation rates, differences were found in embryo development...
March 27, 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625802/cryosurvival-of-rabbit-embryos-obtained-after-superovulation-with-corifollitropin-alfa-with-or-without-lh
#3
José Salvador Vicente, María Pilar Viudes-de-Castro, José Isaí Cedano-Castro, Francisco Marco-Jiménez
The efficiency of an embryo bank depends on provision of optimal conditions for recovery, cryopreservation and transfer to a breed or strain. In this sense, increasing the number of embryos available using superovulation should improve the cryobank efficiency. However, vagueness of response to conventional protocols to control or increase ovarian response and the quality of oocytes and embryos and their cryotolerance remain a challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of corifollitropin alpha (CTP) and a recombinant human FSH (rhFSH), alone or supplemented with rhLH, on embryo cryosurvival by in vitro development and OCT4 and NANOG mRNA abundance at blastocyst stage and offspring rate...
March 31, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579154/specification-of-trophoblast-from-embryonic-stem-cells-exposed-to-bmp4
#4
R Michael Roberts, Toshihiko Ezashi, Megan Sheridan, Ying Yang
Trophoblast (TB) comprises the outer cell layers of the mammalian placenta that make direct contact with the maternal uterus and, in species with a highly invasive placenta, maternal blood. It has its origin as trophectoderm, a single epithelial layer of extra-embryonic ectoderm that surrounds the embryo proper at the blastocyst stage of development. Here, we briefly compare the features of TB specification and determination in the mouse and the human. We then review research on a model system that has been increasingly employed to study TB emergence, namely the BMP4 (bone morphogenetic protein-4)-directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCd) and discuss why outcomes using it have proved so uneven...
March 22, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571018/stem-cell-therapy-in-asherman-syndrome-and-thin-endometrium-stem-cell-based-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Ramyar Azizi, Leili Aghebati-Maleki, Mohammad Nouri, Faroogh Marofi, Sohrab Negargar, Mehdi Yousefi
The endometrium is one of the essential components of the uterus. The endometrium of human is a complex and dynamic tissue, which undergoes periods of growth and turn over during any menstrual cycle. Stem cells are initially undifferentiated cells that display a wide range of differentiation potential with no distinct morphological features. Stem cell therapy method recently has become a novel procedure for treatment of tissue injury and fibrosis in response to damage. Currently, there is massive interest in stem cells as a novel treatment method for regenerative medicine and more specifically for the regeneration of human endometrium disorder like Asherman syndrome (AS) and thin endometrium...
March 20, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551013/the-interval-transfer-of-a-frozen-thawed-embryo-is-more-successful-than-a-fresh-embryo-transfer-for-women-undergoing-ivf-with-recurrent-implantation-failure-after-cleavage-stage-embryo-biopsy
#6
Jennifer C Pontré, John P Ryan, Andy Tan, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is repeated unsuccessful embryo transfers (ETs). AIMS: To identify predictive embryonic markers of implantation in RIF, following pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) of cleavage stage embryos, after accounting for male and female factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of RIF patients undergoing PGS after correction of modifiable causes. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients underwent 140 in vitro ferilisation cycles...
March 18, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546412/the-moral-status-of-the-human-embryo
#7
Mark T Brown
Moral status ascribes equal obligations and rights to individuals on the basis of membership in a protected group. Substance change is an event that results in the origin or cessation of individuals who may be members of groups with equal moral status. In this paper, two substance changes that affect the moral status of human embryos are identified. The first substance change begins with fertilization and ends with the formation of the blastocyst, a biological individual with moral status comparable to that ascribed to human organs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510224/investigation-of-lamtor1-gene-and-protein-expressions-in-germinal-vesicle-and-metaphase-ii-oocytes-and-embryos-from-1-cell-to-blastocyst-stage-in-a-mouse-model
#8
Erkan Gumus, Ismail Sari, Meral Yilmaz, Ali Cetin
Improving the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility treatment depend on understanding basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of human preimplantation development. Pre-implantation mouse embryo model is an ideal empiric system to understand these mechanisms. This study was aimed to investigate the gene and protein expressions of LAMTOR1 in mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos at different developmental stages. The findings demonstrate that LAMTOR1 was detected in the oocytes and in subsequent all stages of embryo development...
March 3, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477167/human-pre-gastrulation-development
#9
Sissy E Wamaitha, Kathy K Niakan
Understanding the progression of early human embryonic development prior to implantation is of fundamental biological importance. Greater insights into early developmental events may lead to clinical improvements, not only via the establishment of novel stem cell models with increased potential or more physiological relevance, but also by uncovering some underlying causes of infertility, miscarriages, and developmental disorders. The majority of human embryos available for study are those donated to research once they are surplus to family building following in vitro fertilization, though in some countries it is also possible to create embryos using donated gametes...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471449/obesity-associated-advanced-glycation-end-products-within-the-human-uterine-cavity-adversely-impact-endometrial-function-and-embryo-implantation-competence
#10
Gabriella S Antoniotti, Melinda Coughlan, Lois A Salamonsen, Jemma Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Do obese levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) within the uterine cavity detrimentally alter tissue function in embryo implantation and placental development? SUMMARY ANSWER: Obese levels of AGEs activate inflammatory signaling (p65 NFκB) within endometrial epithelial cells and alter their function, cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endometrial stromal cells and impair decidualization, compromise implantation of blastocyst mimics and inhibit trophoblast invasion...
February 20, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439094/uterine-and-placental-distribution-of-selected-extracellular-matrix-ecm-components-in-the-dog
#11
Felix R Graubner, Alois Boos, Selim Aslan, Ibrahim Kücükaslan, Mariusz P Kowalewski
For many years, modifications of the uterine extracellular matrix (ECM) during gestation have not been considered as critical for successful canine (Canis lupus familiaris) pregnancy. However previous reports indicated an effect of free-floating blastocysts on the composition of the uterine ECM. Here, the expression of selected genes involved in structural functions, cell-to-cell communication and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases were targeted utilizing qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that canine free-floating embryos affect gene expression of FN1, ECM1 and TIMP4...
February 9, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420252/role-of-osteopontin-in-decidualization-and-pregnancy-success
#12
Xiaobo Wang, Qianrong Qi, Kailin Wu, Qingzhen Xie
OPN is essential for blastocyst implantation and placentation. Previous study found that miR181a was increased while miR181b was down-regulated in endometrium during decidualization. However, the information regarding their effects on decidualization in human endometrium is still limited. Here we report a novel role of OPN and miR181b in uterine decidualization and pregnancy success in humans. The expression of OPN was high in endometrium in secretory phase and in vitro decidualized hESC, whereas miR181b expression was low in identical conditions...
February 2, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415736/uterine-foxl2-regulates-the-adherence-of-the-trophectoderm-cells-to-the-endometrial-epithelium
#13
Michal Elbaz, Ron Hadas, Louise M Bilezikjian, Eran Gershon
BACKGROUND: Forkhead Transcription Factor L2 (FOXL2) is a member of the forkhead family with important roles in reproduction. Recent studies showed that FOXL2 is expressed in human and bovine endometrium and that its levels fluctuate during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the expression and function of FOXL2 in embryo implantation. METHODS: Mouse uteri at different days of pregnancy were isolated and analyzed for the expression and localization of FOXL2...
February 7, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402920/parental-age-and-gene-expression-profiles-in-individual-human-blastocysts
#14
Kiyotaka Kawai, Tatsuya Harada, Tomonori Ishikawa, Rikikazu Sugiyama, Toshihiro Kawamura, Atsumi Yoshida, Osamu Tsutsumi, Fumitoshi Ishino, Toshiro Kubota, Takashi Kohda
The epigenetic status of the genome changes dynamically from fertilization to implantation. In addition, the physiological environment during the process of gametogenesis, including parental age, may affect the epigenome of the embryo after fertilization. It is important to clarify the influence of parental age on gene expression in the embryo in terms of transgenerational epigenetics to improve the techniques currently used in assisted reproductive medicine. Here, we performed single-embryo RNA-seq analysis on human blastocysts fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, including from relatively elderly mothers, to elucidate the effects of parental age on the embryonic gene expression profile...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359200/a-review-of-mechanisms-of-implantation
#15
REVIEW
Su-Mi Kim, Jong-Soo Kim
Implantation is a highly organized process that involves an interaction between a receptive uterus and a competent blastocyst. In humans, natural fecundity suggests that the chance of conception per cycle is relatively low (~30%) and two-third of lost pregnancies occur because of implantation failure. Defective implantation leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes including infertility, spontaneous miscarriage, intrauterine fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. With use of advanced scientific technologies, gene expression analysis and genetically-engineered animal models have revealed critical cellular networks and molecular pathways...
December 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353513/effects-of-different-open-cryo-carriers-on-embryo-survival-and-clinical-outcome-in-frozen-embryo-transfer-cycle-patients
#16
Dapeng Chu, Lei Fu, Wenhui Zhou, Yuan Li
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of different open cryo-carriers: the CryoloopTM, CryotopTM, and CryoleafTM, in embryo survival and clinical outcome in patients with frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle. We analyzed the embryo survival rate and clinical outcome in 325 patients of 348 FET cycles vitrified with the CryoloopTM (160 cycles), CryotopTM (105 cycles), or CryoleafTM (83 cycles). No significant differences were observed in embryo survival rate (98.8% vs. 100% vs. 97.7%, p > 0...
April 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353449/blastulation-timing-is-associated-with-differential-mitochondrial-content-in-euploid-embryos
#17
Jacqueline R Ho, Nabil Arrach, Katherine Rhodes-Long, Wael Salem, Lynda K McGinnis, Karine Chung, Kristin A Bendikson, Richard J Paulson, Ali Ahmady
PURPOSE: Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and assessment of mitochondrial content (MC) are current methods for selection of the best embryos for transfer. Studies suggest that time-lapse morphokinetics (TLM) may also be helpful for selecting embryos more likely to implant. In our study, we sought to examine the relationship between TLM parameters and MC to determine if they could be used adjunctively in embryo selection. We also examined the relationship between MC with ploidy and blastulation...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318868/embryo-development-until-blastocyst-stage-with-and-without-renewal-of-single-medium-on-day-3
#18
Fernando Peña, Rocío Dávalos, Adolfo Rechkemmer, Alvaro Ascenzo, Mauricio Gonzales
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of using a single culture medium not renewed on day 3 on the development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Assisted Reproduction Laboratory of Clínica Miraflores in the period ranging from April to December of 2016. The study included 589 human embryos obtained from 82 couples submitted to IVF/ICSI with donor oocytes. The couples were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 (medium renewed on day 3) and group 2 (medium not renewed on day 3)...
March 1, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288978/expression-and-function-of-muc1-in-uterine-tissues-during-early-pregnancy-in-sheep-after-natural-oestrous-or-artificially-induced-oestrous
#19
Xiangguo Wang, Boyang Zhu, Shanhui Xiong, Xihui Sheng, Xiaolong Qi, Qizhen Huang, Chaolei Chen, Yong Guo, Hemin Ni
Mucin 1 (MUC1), a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed mainly in the endometrial luminal epithelium (LE) and glandular epithelium (GE) of the endometrium in many mammalian species including mice, rats, pigs, sheep, horses and humans during various stages of a menstrual or oestrous cycle, where it plays an important role in embryo implantation and placentation. However, the expression and function of MUC1 in uterine tissues during early pregnancy in sheep after artificially-induced oestrous is not known. Therefore, we investigated the expression and function of MUC1 in the early pregnant and non-pregnant uterine tissues of sheep with natural oestrous or artificially-induced oestrous on days 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 of the cycle by in situ hybridization, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining and western blotting methods...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279181/embryo-culture-conditions-are-significantly-improved-during-uninterrupted-incubation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Yousef Alhelou, Noor Azmi Mat Adenan, Jaffar Ali
A parallel group superiority prospective randomised controlled trial was devised to compare the culture characteristics of human pre-implantation stage embryos during uninterrupted culture in a time lapse incubator (TLI) versus the conventional model of interrupted culture in a standard incubator (SI) under low oxygen tension using a single step medium. 221 patients aged 35-and-under, 124 patients aged between 36 and 39 and 86 patients aged 40-and-over years were randomised and cultured either in a SI or in a TLI...
December 24, 2017: Reproductive Biology
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