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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333293/intra-individual-purifying-selection-on-mitochondrial-dna-variants-during-human-oogenesis
#1
Sara De Fanti, Saverio Vicario, Martin Lang, Domenico Simone, Cristina Magli, Donata Luiselli, Luca Gianaroli, Giovanni Romeo
Study Question: Does selection for mtDNA mutations occur in human oocytes? Summary Answer: We provide statistical evidence in favor of the existence of purifying selection for mtDNA mutations in human oocytes acting between the expulsion of the first and second polar bodies (PBs). What is Known Already: Several lines of evidence in Metazoa, including humans, indicate that variation within the germline of mitochondrial genomes is under purifying selection...
March 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333275/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-inhibits-activation-and-growth-of-bovine-ovarian-follicles-in-vitro-and-is-localized-to-growing-follicles
#2
M Y Yang, R A Cushman, J E Fortune
STUDY QUESTION: Does anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibit activation (initiation of growth) of primordial follicles and attenuate the growth of primary follicles in cattle, an excellent animal model for human ovarian follicular development? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH inhibited activation of bovine primordial follicles and attenuated the growth of activated follicles in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In mice null mutant for AMH, the pool of primordial follicles is depleted prematurely and AMH inhibits follicle activation in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333245/euploidy-rates-in-donor-egg-cycles-significantly-differ-between-fertility-centers
#3
S Munné, M Alikani, L Ribustello, P Colls, Pedro A Martínez-Ortiz, D H McCulloh
STUDY QUESTION: Do external factors affect euploidy in egg donor cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study demonstrates that during human assisted reproduction, embryonic chromosome abnormalities may be partly iatrogenic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Chromosome abnormalities have been linked in the past to culture conditions such as temperature and Ph variations, as well as hormonal stimulation. Those reports were performed with older screening techniques (FISH), or ART methods no longer in use, and the subjects studied were not a homogeneous group...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333241/dysmorphic-patterns-are-associated-with-cytoskeletal-alterations-in-human-oocytes
#4
Mariabeatrice Dal Canto, Maria Cristina Guglielmo, Mario Mignini Renzini, Rubens Fadini, Clarissa Moutier, Maria Merola, Elena De Ponti, Giovanni Coticchio
Study Question: Are specific morphological anomalies in human mature oocytes, as revealed by transmitted light microscopy, associated with intrinsic damage to the meiotic spindle and actin cytoskeleton? SUMMARY ANSWER: Aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) and domains of centrally localized granular cytoplasm (GC) reflect intrinsic damage to the oocyte cytoskeleton, namely alterations in spindle size, chromosome misalignment and cortical actin disorganization...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329872/doxorubicin-has-dose-dependent-toxicity-on-mouse-ovarian-follicle-development-hormone-secretion-and-oocyte-maturation
#5
Shuo Xiao, Jiyang Zhang, Mingjun Liu, Hideyuki Iwahata, Hunter B Rogers, Teresa K Woodruff
Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the most commonly used anticancer medications, has been reported to affect fertility by damaging ovarian follicles; however, the dose-dependent toxicity of DOX on the dynamic follicle development and oocyte maturation has not been well-defined. Our objective is to determine the effects of human-relevant exposure levels of DOX on follicular functions across developmental time. In vitro cultured multilayered secondary mouse follicles were treated with DOX at 0, 2, 20, 100, and 200 nM for 24 hours, and follicle development, hormone secretion, and oocyte maturation were analyzed...
March 17, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328856/the-influence-of-different-growth-hormone-addition-protocols-to-poor-ovarian-responders-on-clinical-outcomes-in-controlled-ovary-stimulation-cycles-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Xue-Li Li, Li Wang, Fang Lv, Xia-Man Huang, Li-Ping Wang, Yu Pan, Xiao-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) is used as an adjuvant therapy in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) for poor ovarian responders, but findings for its effects on outcomes of IVF have been conflicting. The aim of the study was to compare IVF-ET outcomes among women with poor ovarian responders, and find which subgroup can benefit from the GH addition. METHODS: We searched the databases, using the terms "growth hormone," "GH," "IVF," "in vitro fertilization...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326305/implications-for-a-stem-cell-regenerative-medicine-based-approach-to-human-intervertebral-disk-degeneration
#7
REVIEW
Petra Kraus, Thomas Lufkin
The human body develops from a single cell, the zygote, the product of the maternal oocyte and the paternal spermatozoon. That 1-cell zygote embryo will divide and eventually grow into an adult human which is comprised of ~3.7 × 10(13) cells. The tens of trillions of cells in the adult human can be classified into approximately 200 different highly specialized cell types that make up all of the different tissues and organs of the human body. Regenerative medicine aims to replace or restore dysfunctional cells, tissues and organs with fully functional ones...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324667/gtpase-activating-protein-elmod2-is-essential-for-meiotic-progression-in-mouse-oocytes
#8
Chun-Xiang Zhou, Li-Ya Shi, Rui-Chao Li, Ya-Hong Liu, Bo-Qun Xu, Jin-Wei Liu, Bo Yuan, Zhi-Xia Yang, Xiao-Yan Ying, Dong Zhang
Meiotic failure in oocytes is the major determinant of human zygote-originated reproductive diseases, the successful accomplishment of meiosis largely relay on the normal functions of many female fertility factors. Elmod2 is a member of the Elmod family with the strongest GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity; although it was identified as a possible maternal protein, its actual physiologic role in mammalian oocytes has not been elucidated. Herein we reported that among Elmod family proteins, Elmod2 is the most abundant in mouse oocytes, and that inhibition of Elmod2 by specific siRNA caused severe meiotic delay and abnormal chromosomal segregation during anaphase...
March 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320563/the-establishment-of-appropriate-methods-for-egg-activation-by-human-plcz1-rna-injection-into-human-oocyte
#9
Takashi Yamaguchi, Masahiko Ito, Keiji Kuroda, Satoru Takeda, Atsushi Tanaka
Phospholipase C-zeta (PLCZ1), a strong candidate of egg-activating sperm factor, can induce Ca(2+) oscillations and cause egg activation. For the application of PLCZ1 to clinical use, we examined the pattern of Ca(2+) responses and developmental rate by comparing PLCZ1 RNA injection methods with the other current methods, such as cytosolic aspiration, electrical stimulation and ionomycin treatment in human oocytes. We found that the pattern of Ca(2+) oscillations after PLCZ1 RNA injection exhibited similar characteristics to that after ICSI treatment...
March 6, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315713/maternal-senp7-programs-meiosis-architecture-and-embryo-survival-in-mouse
#10
ChunJie Huang, Di Wu, XiaoFei Jiao, Faheem Ahmed Khan, ChengLiang Xiong, XiaoMing Liu, Jing Yang, TaiLang Yin, LiJun Huo
Understanding the mechanisms underlying abnormal egg production and pregnancy loss is significant for human fertility. SENP7, a SUMO poly-chain editing enzyme, has been regarded as a mitotic regulator of heterochromatin integrity and DNA repair. Herein, we report the roles of SENP7 in mammalian reproductive scenario. Mouse oocytes deficient in SENP7 experienced meiotic arrest at prophase I and metaphase I stages, causing substantial decrease of mature eggs. Hyperaceylation and hypomethylation of histone H3 and up-regulation of Cdc14B/C accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CyclinB2 were further recognized as contributors to defective M-phase entry and spindle assembly in oocytes...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292619/obesity-and-female-infertility-potential-mediators-of-obesity-s-impact
#11
REVIEW
Darcy E Broughton, Kelle H Moley
The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who are also obese demonstrate a more severe metabolic and reproductive phenotype. Obese women have reduced fecundity even when eumenorrheic and demonstrate poorer outcomes with the use of in vitro fertilization...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287092/loss-of-centromere-cohesion-in-aneuploid-human-oocytes-correlates-with-decreased-kinetochore-localization-of-the-sac-proteins-bub1-and-bubr1
#12
Julie Lagirand-Cantaloube, Cendrine Ciabrini, Sophie Charrasse, Alice Ferrieres, Anna Castro, Tal Anahory, Thierry Lorca
In human eggs, aneuploidy increases with age and can result in infertility and genetic diseases. Studies in mouse oocytes suggest that reduced centromere cohesion and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity could be at the origin of chromosome missegregation. Little is known about these two features in humans. Here, we show that in human eggs, inter-kinetochore distances of bivalent chromosomes strongly increase with age. This results in the formation of univalent chromosomes during metaphase I (MI) and of single chromatids in metaphase II (MII)...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286118/maternal-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp-promotes-the-transgenerational-inheritance-of-adult-onset-reproductive-dysfunctions-through-the-female-germline-in-mice
#13
Paola Pocar, Nadia Fiandanese, Anna Berrini, Camillo Secchi, Vitaliano Borromeo
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds known to promote transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations after maternal exposure during fetal gonadal development. This study was designed to establish whether gestational and lactational exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) at environmental doses promotes transgenerational effects on reproductive health in female offspring, as adults, over three generations in the mouse. Gestating F0 mouse dams were exposed to 0, 0...
March 9, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285567/increased-scf-in-follicular-fluid-and-granulosa-cells-positively-correlates-with-oocyte-maturation-fertilization-and-embryo-quality-in-humans
#14
Jun Tan, Yang Zou, Xing-Wu Wu, Li-Feng Tian, Qiong Su, Jin-Xia He, Zhi-Hui Huang, Yan Zhao, Li-Ping Wu, Qiong-Fang Wu
Stem cell factor (SCF), which is derived from granulosa cells (GCs), plays a key role in the process of follicular development and oocyte maturation. The present study aimed to explore whether the levels of SCF in follicular fluid (FF) and GCs can be used as a potential marker for predicting oocyte developmental potential. Follicular fluid and GC samples from 150 female patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection were collected in this study. The SCF concentrations in FFs and SCF messenger RNA (mRNA) in GCs were evaluated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282971/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-human-granulosa-like-tumor-cell-steroidogenesis-and-proliferation-by-activating-the-fsh-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathway
#15
Min Xie, Meiling Li, Ji Zhou, Xiaomeng Ding, Yidan Shao, Jun Jing, Yuxiu Liu, Bing Yao
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and FSH receptor (FSHR) are expressed in ovarian granulosa cells, and play important roles in regulating follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Studies have linked the BDNF-associated signaling pathway to FSHR mRNA expression in the regulation of follicle development, but the mechanisms remain unknown. In the current study, we found that BDNF stimulated the secretion of estradiol and progesterone, and increased the proliferation of KGN cells (human granulosa-like tumor cell line)...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277744/a-modified-vitrification-method-reduces-spindle-and-chromosome-abnormalities
#16
Minghui Liu, Wenhui Zhou, Dapeng Chu, Lei Fu, Wei Sha, Shan Liu, Yuan Li
Development of an effective system for oocyte-cryopreservation is of clinical relevance in reproductive medicine. However, oocyte-preservation is not as effective as embryo preservation. In this study, we used a 37°C pre-equilibrium temperature as part of a modified vitrification method for human oocyte cryopreservation. The effect of the new method on spindle configuration, chromosomal arrangement, and mitochondrial distribution was investigated in in vitro-matured human oocytes. A total of 101 in vitro-matured oocytes were randomly assigned for vitrification at pre-equilibrium temperature of 37°C (37°C Group, n=50) or at room temperature (RT Group, 22-24°C, n=51)...
March 9, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277543/estrogen-receptors-in-granulosa-cells-govern-meiotic-resumption-of-pre-ovulatory-oocytes-in-mammals
#17
Wei Liu, Qiliang Xin, Xiao Wang, Sheng Wang, Huarong Wang, Wenqiang Zhang, Ye Yang, Yanhao Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Chao Wang, Yang Xu, Enkui Duan, Guoliang Xia
In mammals, oocytes are arrested at the diplotene stage of meiosis I until the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge triggers meiotic resumption through the signals in follicular granulosa cells. In this study, we show that the estradiol (E2)-estrogen receptors (ERs) system in follicular granulosa cells has a dominant role in controlling oocyte meiotic resumption in mammals. We found that the expression of ERs was controlled by gonadotropins under physiological conditions. E2-ERs system was functional in maintaining oocyte meiotic arrest by regulating the expression of natriuretic peptide C and natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPPC/NPR2), which was achieved through binding to the promoter regions of Nppc and Npr2 genes directly...
March 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277109/thyroid-peroxidase-identified-in-human-granulosa-cells-another-piece-to-the-thyroid-ovary-puzzle
#18
Patrizia Monteleone, Pinuccia Faviana, Paolo Giovanni Artini
Thyroid hormones seemingly influence the maturation of the human oocyte. Thyroid hormone receptors have been isolated in granulosa mural and cumulus cells and the mature oocyte of the human ovarian follicle. Thyroid hormones are present in follicular fluid in concentrations similar to those in serum. Most importantly, enzymes involved in the chain that regulate the generation of thyroid hormones have been found in granulosa cells. For the first time, we have isolated thyroid peroxidase by immunocytochemistry in the granulosa cumulus cells of the human ovarian follicle, thereby supporting the hypothesis that the human ovarian follicle may be an independent thyroid-hormone producing unit...
March 5, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274872/robot-assisted-laparoscopic-transplantation-of-frozen-thawed-ovarian-tissue
#19
Kutluk Oktay, Enes Taylan, Yodo Sugishita, Gabriela M Goldberg
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate a new approach for orthotopic human ovarian tissue transplantation via robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. DESIGN: A step-by-step video explanation of the surgical technique (Canadian Task Force Classification-III). SETTING: Although still experimental, cryopreservation and subsequent transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue is currently the only available method for prepubertal girls and young women with cancer who are not eligible for established fertility preservation options such as the oocyte or embryo cryopreservation (1)...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274148/selection-of-developmentally-competent-human-oocytes-aspirated-during-cesarean-section
#20
Diego Duarte Alcoba, Edimárlei Gonsales Valério, Maiara Conzatti, Júlia Schneider, Edison Capp, Helena von Eye Corleta, Ilma Simoni Brum
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficiency/safety of Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) staining as a selection method of developmentally competent immature human oocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature oocytes of 32 pregnant women were recovered during cesarean section (CS). After retrieval, 92 oocytes were randomly divided into two groups: control (directly disposed to in vitro maturation - IVM) and treated - exposed to BCB 26 μM during 60 min. After staining, the treated group was classified as cytoplasm coloration, BCB positive (blue) or negative (colorless), and then disposed to IVM...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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