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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109147/-co-culture-with-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promotes-the-synthesis-and-mechnism-of-milk-protein-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
Yankun Zhao, Wei Shao, Chenglong Luo, Kaile Wu, Xiong Yu
Objective To explore the possible mechanism of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) regulating milk protein synthesis in bovine mammary gland epithelial cells (BMECs). Methods UCMSCs and BMECs were co-cultured by double-chamber Transwell(TM), and other BMECs were cultured alone as a control group. Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor AG1024 was used to treat cells. IGF-1, β casein (CSN2) and κ casein (CSN3) content in the supernatants were determined by ELISA; the relative expression abundance of Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway-related genes were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR); and after the cells were treated with JAK2 signal blocker AG490, qRT-PCR was performed to test the relative expression abundance of CSN2 and CSN3 mRNAs...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109123/sodium-butyrate-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-metabolic-disorders-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice
#2
Ling Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Naohiro Yano, Hao Wang, Yu Tina Zhao, Dubielecka-Szczerba Patricia, Shougang Zhuang, Eugene Y Chin, Gangjian Qin, Ting C Zhao
Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108607/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-could-improve-glucose-regulation-and-insulin-sensitivity-through-its-rgd-domain
#3
Natalie J Haywood, Paul A Cordell, Kar Yeun Tang, Natallia Makova, Nadira Y Yuldasheva, Helen Imrie, Hema Viswambharan, Alexander F Bruns, Richard M Cubbon, Mark T Kearney, Stephen B Wheatcroft
Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with insulin resistance and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. IGFBP-1 can affect cellular functions independently of IGF binding through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding motif. Whether causal mechanisms underlie the favorable association of high IGFBP-1 levels with insulin sensitivity and whether these could be exploited therapeutically remain unexplored. We used recombinant IGFBP-1 and a synthetic RGD-containing hexapeptide in complementary in vitro signaling assays and in vivo metabolic profiling in obese mice to investigate the effects of IGFBP-1 and its RGD domain on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and whole-body glucose regulation...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108291/neuroendocrine-signaling-modulates-specific-neural-networks-relevant-to-migraine
#4
Margarida Martins-Oliveira, Simon Akerman, Philip R Holland, Jan R Hoffmann, Isaura Tavares, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a disabling brain disorder involving abnormal trigeminovascular activation and sensitization. Fasting or skipping meals is considered a migraine trigger and altered fasting glucose and insulin levels have been observed in migraineurs. Therefore peptides involved in appetite and glucose regulation including insulin, glucagon and leptin could potentially influence migraine neurobiology. We aimed to determine the effect of insulin (10U·kg(-1)), glucagon (100μg·200μl(-1)) and leptin (0.3, 1 and 3mg·kg(-1)) signaling on trigeminovascular nociceptive processing at the level of the trigeminocervical-complex and hypothalamus...
January 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108259/appls-more-than-just-adiponectin-receptor-binding-proteins
#5
REVIEW
Zhuoying Liu, Ting Xiao, Xiaoyu Peng, Guangdi Li, Fang Hu
APPLs (adaptor proteins containing the pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif) are multifunctional adaptor proteins that bind to various membrane receptors, nuclear factors and signaling proteins to regulate many biological activities and processes, such as cell proliferation, chromatin remodeling, endosomal trafficking, cell survival, cell metabolism and apoptosis. APPL1, one of the APPL isoforms, was the first identified protein and interacts directly with adiponectin receptors to mediate adiponectin signaling to enhance lipid oxidation and glucose uptake...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107204/non-invasive-blood-glucose-detection-system-based-on-conservation-of-energy-method
#6
Yang Zhang, Jian-Ming Zhu, Yong-Bo Liang, Hong-Bo Chen, Shi-Min Yin, Zhen-Cheng Chen
The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate...
January 20, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106759/sex-specific-muscular-maturation-responses-following-prenatal-exposure-to-methylation-related-micronutrients-in-pigs
#7
Michael Oster, Nares Trakooljul, Henry Reyer, Annette Zeyner, Eduard Muráni, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation...
January 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106120/altered-glucose-and-lipid-homeostasis-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-pre-dispose-inducible-nos-knockout-mice-to-insulin-resistance
#8
Babu Nageswararao Kanuri, Jitendra S Kanshana, Sanjay C Rebello, Priya Pathak, Anand P Gupta, Jiaur R Gayen, Kumaravelu Jagavelu, Madhu Dikshit
On the basis of diet induced obesity and KO mice models, nitric oxide is implied to play an important role in the initiation of dyslipidemia induced insulin resistance. However, outcomes using iNOS KO mice have so far remained inconclusive. The present study aimed to assess IR in iNOS KO mice after 5 weeks of LFD feeding by monitoring body composition, energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity/signaling, nitrite content and gene expressions changes in the tissues. We found that body weight and fat content in KO mice were significantly higher while the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), volume of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and heat production were lower as compared to WT mice...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105929/a-compendium-of-human-genes-regulating-feeding-behavior-and-body-weight-its-functional-characterization-and-identification-of-gwas-genes-involved-in-brain-specific-ppi-network
#9
Elena V Ignatieva, Dmitry A Afonnikov, Olga V Saik, Evgeny I Rogaev, Nikolay A Kolchanov
BACKGROUND: Obesity is heritable. It predisposes to many diseases. The objectives of this study were to create a compendium of genes relevant to feeding behavior (FB) and/or body weight (BW) regulation; to construct and to analyze networks formed by associations between genes/proteins; and to identify the most significant genes, biological processes/pathways, and tissues/organs involved in BW regulation. RESULTS: The compendium of genes controlling FB or BW includes 578 human genes...
December 22, 2016: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105773/exosomal-biomarkers-of-brain-insulin-resistance-associated-with-regional-atrophy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Roger J Mullins, Maja Mustapic, Edward J Goetzl, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
: Brain insulin resistance (IR), which depends on insulin-receptor-substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we demonstrated higher pSer312-IRS-1 (ineffective insulin signaling) and lower p-panTyr-IRS-1 (effective insulin signaling) in neural origin-enriched plasma exosomes of AD patients vs. CONTROLS: Here, we hypothesized that these exosomal biomarkers associate with brain atrophy in AD. We studied 24 subjects with biomarker-supported probable AD (low CSF Aβ42 )...
January 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104798/central-metabolic-sensing-remotely-controls-nutrient-sensitive-endocrine-response-in-drosophila-via-sir2-sirt1-upd2-iis-axis
#11
Kushal K Banerjee, Rujuta S Deshpande, Pranavi Koppula, Champakali Ayyub, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam
Endocrine signaling is central in coupling organismal nutrient status with maintenance of systemic metabolic homeostasis. While local nutrient sensing within the insulinogenic tissue is well-studied, distant mechanisms that relay organismal nutrient status in controlling metabolic-endocrine signaling are less understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism underlying the distant regulation of metabolic endocrine response in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that the communication between fat-body and insulin producing cells (IPCs), important for the secretion of dILPs, is regulated by the master metabolic sensor Sir2/Sirt1...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104361/igfbp-a-novel-target-of-lung-cancer
#12
REVIEW
QiongGe Hu, Yong Zhou, Kejing Ying, Wenjing Ruan
The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor(IGF-1R) is a central component of lung cancer signal transduction pathways. A phase III study failed for carboplatin, paclitaxel, with or without figitumumab in first-line treating metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). There is an urgent need for a better understanding of signaling in IGF system. Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins(IGFBPs) function as modulators for IGF signaling through sequestration of IGFs in serum and the extracellular fluid. IGFBPs can also act as transporters or modulators for IGF action and insulin action...
January 16, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103994/-analysis-of-microrna-expression-profile-in-serum-of-patients-with-electrical-burn-or-thermal-burn
#13
Q F Ruan, M J Jiang, Z Q Ye, C L Zhao, W G Xie
Objective: To explore the differential expression of microRNAs in the serum among patients with electrical burn or thermal burn and healthy persons and to explore the significance. Methods: In this study we included three patients with electrical burn and three patients with thermal burn, conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized in our burn ward from June to August 2015, and three healthy adult volunteers. Their serum samples were separated from whole blood and divided into electrical burn group, thermal burn group, and normal control group...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103136/inhibition-of-voltage-dependent-potassium-channels-mediates-camp-potentiated-insulin-secretion-in-rat-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Yunfeng Liu, Xiangqin Zhong, Yaqin Ding, Lele Ren, Tao Bai, Mengmeng Liu, Zhihong Liu, Yangyan Guo, Qing Guo, Yu Zhang, Jing Yang, Yi Zhang
Insulin secretion is essential for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. An important intracellular signal regulating insulin secretion is cAMP. In this report, we showed that an increase of cAMP induced by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator forskolin or by cAMP analog db-cAMP not only potentiated insulin secretion but also inhibited Kv channels, and these effects were reversed by AC inhibitor SQ22536. The cAMP-mediated Kv channel inhibition resulted in prolongation of action potential duration, which partly accounts for the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by activation of cAMP signaling...
January 19, 2017: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102700/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-deficient-mice-are-protected-from-high-fat-diet-induced-changes-in-metabolic-rhythms
#15
Cassie Jaeger, Canxin Xu, Mingwei Sun, Stacey Krager, Shelley A Tischkau
High fat diet (HFD) consumption alters the synchronized circadian timing system resulting in harmful loss, gain or shift of transcriptional oscillations. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) shares structural homology to clock genes, containing both PAS domains and basic helix-loop helix structural motifs, allowing for interaction with components of the primary circadian feedback loop. Activation of AhR alters circadian rhythmicity, primarily through inhibition of Clock/Bmal1-mediated regulation of Per1. AhR-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced metabolic dysfunction, exhibiting enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance...
January 19, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102395/sesamol-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-via-improving-insulin-signaling-disruption-in-the-central-nervous-system
#16
Zhigang Liu, Yali Sun, Qinglian Qiao, Tong Zhao, Wentong Zhang, Bo Ren, Qian Liu, Xuebo Liu
Sesamol, a nutritional component from sesame, possesses antioxidant, lipid lowering and antidepressant activities. Nonetheless, few studies report its effects on high-energy-dense diet-induced cognitive loss. The present research aimed to elucidate the action of sesamol on high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD) "western"-diet-induced central nervous system insulin resistance and learning and memory impairment, and further determined the possible underlying mechanism. 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into 3 groups with/without sesamol in the drinking water (0...
January 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101891/different-expression-of-leptin-and-igf1-in-the-adult-and-prepubertal-testis-in-dogs
#17
L Müller, M P Kowalewski, I M Reichler, E Kollár, O Balogh
Leptin (Lep) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) are implicated in the regulation of testicular function, but in dogs, our knowledge is limited to the possible role of the IGF1 system in testicular tumours. In this study, we aimed to describe and compare gene expression and protein localization of Lep, IGF1 and their receptors (LepR and IGF1R, respectively) in the testis of healthy adult and prepubertal dogs. Testes were collected from sexually healthy mature (n = 7) and from 8-week-old dogs (n = 7)...
January 18, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#18
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101572/insulin-induction-instigates-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-in-human-colorectal-cancer-cells
#19
Chi-Cheng Lu, Pei-Yi Chu, Shih-Min Hsia, Chi-Hao Wu, Yu-Tang Tung, Gow-Chin Yen
The progression of colorectal cancer has been reported to have a positive correlation with the combination of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in diabetic patients, leading to a lower survival rate. However, how insulin acts on colorectal cancer remains not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of insulin on colon cancer cell proliferation and its underlying molecular signaling as well as the impact of insulin-induced in vitro metastasis. Our results showed that insulin markedly promoted cell proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells...
February 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101570/inhibition-of-tlr4-protects-rat-islets-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-dysfunction
#20
Xiao Wang, Qin Min Ge, Fan Bian, Yan Dong, Chun Mei Huang
Oxidative stress leads to dysfunction in pancreatic cells, causing a reduction in insulin secretion following exposure to glucose. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) may be activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stress. TLR4 may mediate the initiation of inflammatory and immune defense responses; however, the importance of the LPS/TLR4 interaction in apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in pancreatic β cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the importance of TLR4 during LPS‑induced oxidative stress, apoptosis and dysfunction of insulin secretion in isolated islets of rats...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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