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Taurine AND Ca homeostasis

D P Froman
Four premises for rooster sperm preservation were outlined previously. Understanding mitochondrial Ca cycling in terms of whole-cell Ca flux was one premise. The present work tested the hypothesis that sperm mitochondria can be damaged by intracellular as well as extracellular Ca. Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12% (wt/vol) Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12%(at/vol) Accudenz to procure sperm at a physiological concentration within a chemically-defined suspension. Five solutions were tested...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Sarah Diyana Bt Saad, Fatin Kamilah Bt Zakaria, Puneet Agarwal, Anna Krasilnikova, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul Rahman, Khairul Nizam Bin Rozali, Alexander Spasov, Alexander Ozerov, Renad Alyautdin, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
PURPOSE: Increased lenticular oxidative stress and altered calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) homeostasis underlie cataractogenesis. We developed a liposomal formulation of magnesium taurate (MgT) and studied its effects on Ca/Mg homeostasis and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactose-fed rats. METHODS: The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging...
2016: Molecular Vision
Junia C Santos-Silva, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Jean F Vettorazzi, Esperanza Irles, Sarah Rickli, Patrícia C Borck, Patricia M Porciuncula, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
Taurine (Tau) regulates β-cell function and glucose homeostasis under normal and diabetic conditions. Here, we assessed the effects of Tau supplementation upon glucose homeostasis and the morphophysiology of endocrine pancreas, in leptin-deficient obese (ob) mice. From weaning until 90-day-old, C57Bl/6 and ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (C, CT, ob and obT). Obese mice were hyperglycemic, glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and exhibited higher hepatic glucose output. Tau supplementation did not prevent obesity, but ameliorated glucose homeostasis in obT...
August 2015: Amino Acids
Jacob Bak Holm, Ryszard Grygorczyk, Ian Henry Lambert
Pathophysiological conditions challenge cell volume homeostasis and perturb cell volume regulatory mechanisms leading to alterations of cell metabolism, active transepithelial transport, cell migration, and death. We report that inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) with AA861 or ETH 615-139, the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT₁) with the antiasthmatic drug Zafirlukast, or the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC) with DIDS blocks the release of organic osmolytes (taurine, meAIB) and the concomitant cell volume restoration following hypoosmotic swelling of human type II-like lung epithelial cells (A549)...
July 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Xiaoling Gao, Xi Yang, Benzhong Zhang
Previous work has shown that taurine protected neurons against unconjugated bilirubin (UCB)-induced neurotoxicity by preventing cell apoptosis and maintaining intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis in primary neuron culture. This study investigates the neurotoxicity of hyperbilirubinemia and neuroprotection of taurine in a clinically relevant murine model in vivo. A hyperbilirubinemia baby mice model was established by intraperitoneal injection with UCB. After 24 h, the neural apoptotic level, transcriptional activity of caspase-3, and iCa²⁺ concentration were detected...
June 2011: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nayeemunnisa Ahmed, Noor Zahra
Diabetes mellitus is known to impair glucose metabolism. The fundamental mechanism underlying hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus involves decreased utilization of glucose by the brain. However, mechanisms responsible for progressive failure of glycaemic regulation in type I (IDDM) diabetes need extensive and proper understanding. Hence the present study was initiated. Type I diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg iv). Cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata were studied 48 h after alloxanisation...
March 2011: Neurochemical Research
Rosane A Ribeiro, Maria L Bonfleur, Andressa G Amaral, Emerielle C Vanzela, Silvana A Rocco, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Taurine (TAU), a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid, is found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues and regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity, and glucose homeostasis. Several reports have shown that physiological plasma TAU levels seem to be important for adequate beta (beta)-cell function and insulin action, since low concentrations of TAU in the plasma have been reported in the pre-diabetic and diabetic states. METHODS: Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were investigated in mice supplemented with 2% (w/v) TAU in their drinking water for 30 days, as well as the insulin secretion from isolated islets stimulated by glucose or L-leucine...
May 2009: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Hai-Ying Liu, Fang-Lu Chi, Wen-Yuan Gao
The effect of taurine on calcium homeostasis of isolated cochlear spiral ganglion neurons under normal and ototoxic conditions was investigated using fluo-3 calcium imaging. Sole application of taurine (15 mM) induced an increase in intracelluar Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which was largely inhibited either by the application of an L-type calcium-channel blocker nifedipine or a calcium-free medium. Preincubation with 1 mM gentamicin induced an inhibition of the high K(+)-evoked elevation of [Ca(2+)](i)...
July 2008: Pharmacological Reports: PR
A El Idrissi
We have determined the role of mitochondria in the sequestration of calcium after stimulation of cerebellar granule cells with glutamate. In addition we have evaluated the neuroprotective role of taurine in excitotoxic cell death. Mitochondrial inhibitors were used to determine the calcium buffering capacity of mitochondria, as well as how taurine regulates the ability of mitochondria to buffer intracellular calcium during glutamate depolarization and excitotoxicity. We report here that pre-treatment of cerebellar granule cells with taurine (1 mM, 24 h) significantly counteracted glutamate excitotoxicity...
February 2008: Amino Acids
Hai-ying Liu, Wen-yuan Gao, Wen Wen, Yan-min Zhang
Taurine has been proposed to play a role in calcium modulation. To explore the effect of taurine on intracellular calcium homeostasis of isolated cochlear outer hair cells and on the gentamycin-induced inhibition of calcium influx evoked by high K(+) depolarization, we employed fluo-3 imaging of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) via confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure real-time changes of [Ca(2+)](i). We found that the sole application of taurine (5, 10, 20 mM) induced a transient [Ca(2+)](i) increase in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited either by the application of an L-type calcium-channel blocker nifedipine or a calcium-free medium...
May 15, 2006: Neuroscience Letters
Lin Chang, Jing Zhao, Jianxin Xu, Wei Jiang, Chao Shu Tang, Yong Fen Qi
1. Taurine and homocysteine are metabolites of methionine. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although taurine may be a cardiovascular cytoprotective substance, we hypothesized that it may antagonize the effects of homocysteine on myocardial mitochondrial function. 2. We studied the effects of taurine and homocysteine on [(45)Ca] uptake, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions in vitro in rat isolated myocardial mitochondria...
April 2004: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
W Q Chen, H Jin, M Nguyen, J Carr, Y J Lee, C C Hsu, M D Faiman, J V Schloss, J Y Wu
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated as an important mechanism underlying a variety of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously we have shown that taurine has protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal injury in cultured neurons. Here we propose that the primary underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective function of taurine is due to its action in preventing or reducing glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium, [Ca(2+)](i). This hypothesis is supported by the following findings...
November 15, 2001: Journal of Neuroscience Research
J G Pilitsis, F G Diaz, M H O'Regan, J W Phillis
Reversal of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of changes in intracellular pH and sodium concentration. Inhibition of NCXs has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effects of KB-R7943 (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of the reverse mode of NCX, applied topically onto rat cerebral cortex prior to and during ischemia. Amino acid and free fatty acid levels in cortical superfusates, withdrawn at 10-min intervals from bilateral cortical windows, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 19, 2001: Brain Research
Q D Wu, J H Wang, F Fennessy, H P Redmond, D Bouchier-Hayes
Elevated blood glucose in uncontrolled diabetes is causally correlated with diabetic microangiopathy. Hyperglycemia-triggered accelerated endothelial cell apoptosis is a critical event in the process of diabetes-associated microvascular disease. The conditionally semiessential amino acid taurine has been previously shown to protect against human endothelial cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of taurine in the prevention of high-glucose-mediated cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the mechanisms involved...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
A El Idrissi, E Trenkner
Taurine, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are known to control the development of early postnatal cerebellar granule cells. This study attempted to investigate possible mechanisms of this control by determining neuronal survival, calcium homeostasis, and related calcium-mediated functions, as well as the site of action during glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultures of cerebellar granule cells. We report that stimulation of glutamate receptors induced a rapid increase in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) and a decrease in mitochondrial energy metabolism...
November 1, 1999: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
M Alves-Ferreira, H M Scofano, A Ferreira-Pereira
In the present report we describe a method for purifying plasma membranes from chicken erythrocytes using sonication under conditions that facilitate preferential lysis of plasma membrane, followed by centrifugation through a sucrose gradient. The Ca(2+)-dependent ATP hydrolysis by plasma membranes is activated by nanomolar levels of calmodulin, similarly to that from anucleated erythrocytes. Inside-out vesicles display a calmodulin-activated Ca2+ uptake. Purified Ca(2+)-ATPase is obtained from the plasma membrane by Sepharose-calmodulin affinity chromatography, and exhibits an apparent molecular mass of 150 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, clearly showing that the enzyme is distinct from that described in anucleated erythrocytes (140 kDa)...
March 1999: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
S Punna, C Ballard, T Hamaguchi, J Azuma, S Schaffer
Perfusion of rat hearts with buffer containing 300 microM L-methionine led to a decrease in Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) but an increase in calcium-independent Ca2+ release from junctional SR. These effects of L-methionine were not altered by exposure of the hearts to high levels of extracellular taurine, but changes in the size of the intracellular taurine pool appear to modulate calcium transport in SR through two mechanisms. First, millimolar concentrations of taurine can directly promote release of calcium from 45Ca(2+)-loaded junctional SR vesicles...
August 1994: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
J Durlach, V Durlach
Magnesium deficiency (MD) may be either latent: i.e. without disturbances in blood Mg, calcium and intracellular potassium (Ki) or patent, with a rich symptomatology: i.e. with hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia and decreased Ki. These two aspects are also found with magnesium excess. The discrepancy between these two opposite clinical forms leads one to postulate the existence of a control of Mg homeostasis, efficient in latent forms and deficient in patent forms of Mg disturbances. 4 'endocrine glands', (i.e.) adrenal medulla, parathyroids, thyroid and beta-islets in the pancreas are involved mainly in the homeostatic feed-back systems which regulate both Mg levels and the humoral consequences of the disturbances of Mg metabolism...
1984: Magnesium
H Harada, S Allo, N Viyuoh, J Azuma, K Takahashi, S W Schaffer
Drug-induced taurine depletion of rat heart led to the accumulation of free CoA, free carnitine and long-chain acylcarnitine, but a small decrease in long-chain fatty acyl-CoA. Although elevations in total tissue long-chain acylcarnitine levels have been linked to defective membrane function and the association of long-chain acylcarnitines with extramitochondrial membranes, these effects were absent in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum prepared from taurine-depleted hearts. In contrast to the sarcoplasmic reticulum data, taurine depletion was associated with a significant decrease in ATP-dependent calcium uptake by isolated sarcolemmal vesicles...
October 6, 1988: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
P Zimniak, J M Little, A Radominska, D G Oelberg, M S Anwer, R Lester
The ionophoretic properties of several taurine-conjugated bile acids have been investigated in two experimental systems: in a two-phase bulk partitioning system and in proteoliposomes. In the former, a bile acid/Ca2+ complex was extracted into the bulk organic phase and had an experimental stoichiometry of 1.75. Extraction was specific for Ca2+ over Mg2+; Na+ and K+ did not compete with the extraction of Ca2+. In the second system, bile acids at concentrations as low as 5-100 molecules/vesicle lowered the steady-state Ca2+ gradient maintained by a reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase...
September 3, 1991: Biochemistry
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