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Taurine AND Ca homeostasis

Chang-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xun Guo, An-Li Wang
The present study was aimed to investigate the low temperature toxicity and its protection by taurine in pufferfish. The experimental basal diets supplemented with taurine at the rates of 250 (control), 550, 850, 1140, 1430, 1740 mg kg-1 were fed to fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that fish fed diet with taurine had significantly improved weight gain and specific growth rate. After the feeding trial, the fish were then exposed to low temperature stress. The results showed that low temperature stress could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, disturb the cytoplasm Ca2+ homeostasis, and lead to oxidative stress and apoptosis...
April 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
Tingting Yang, Ting Shu, Guanlan Liu, Huifang Mei, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xin Huang, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Bile acid homeostasis is maintained by liver synthesis, bile duct secretion, microbial metabolism and intestinal reabsorption into the blood. When drug insults result in liver damage, the variances of bile acids (BAs) are related to the physiological status of the liver. Here, we established a method to simultaneously quantify 19 BAs in rat plasma, liver, bile and different intestinal section contents (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to reveal the pattern of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in physiological situations...
September 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Adriana Adameova, Paramjit S Tappia, Robert Hatala, Naranjan S Dhalla
BACKGROUND: Various physiological and pathological stimuli can hypersensitize the sympathetic nervous system resulting in a substantial release of catecholamines (CA) and consequent alterations in excitation-contraction coupling and excitation-transcription coupling. OBSERVATIONS: It has been shown that oxidation products of CA, rather than CA themselves, are responsible for such adaptation to a new equilibrium. While chronic, sustained accumulation of CA and their toxic products are associated with the depression in cardiac contractile force and remodeling, acute excessive release of CA can result in brief oxidative bursts and serious damage leading in lethal arrhythmias...
January 30, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
S L Wu, X Qin, S C Guo
Objective: To elucidate the effect of taurine on neurotoxicity induced by Mn by investigating activities of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase and content of Mn and active calmodulin in manganese exposed rats. Methods: 156 male SD rats were randomly divided into 1 control group, 3 manganese exposed groups (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg respectively) , and 9 taurine intervened groups based on orthogonal design (doses of taurine intervention were 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg respectively) , with 12 rats in each group...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Azliana Jusnida Ahmad Jafri, Natasha Najwa Nor Arfuzir, Lidawani Lambuk, Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Puneet Agarwal, Norhafiza Razali, Anna Krasilnikova, Maria Kharitonova, Vasily Demidov, Evgeny Serebryansky, Anatoly Skalny, Alexander Spasov, Ahmad Pauzi Md Yusof, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity involving N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been recognized as a final common outcome in pathological conditions involving death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Overstimulation of NMDA receptors results in influx of calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) ions and efflux of potassium (K). NMDA receptors are blocked by magnesium (Mg). Such changes due to NMDA overstimulation are also associated with not only the altered levels of minerals but also that of trace elements and redox status...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
D P Froman
Four premises for rooster sperm preservation were outlined previously. Understanding mitochondrial Ca cycling in terms of whole-cell Ca flux was one premise. The present work tested the hypothesis that sperm mitochondria can be damaged by intracellular as well as extracellular Ca. Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12% (wt/vol) Sperm were washed by centrifugation through 12%(at/vol) Accudenz to procure sperm at a physiological concentration within a chemically-defined suspension. Five solutions were tested...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Igor Iezhitsa, Renu Agarwal, Sarah Diyana Bt Saad, Fatin Kamilah Bt Zakaria, Puneet Agarwal, Anna Krasilnikova, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul Rahman, Khairul Nizam Bin Rozali, Alexander Spasov, Alexander Ozerov, Renad Alyautdin, Nafeeza Mohd Ismail
PURPOSE: Increased lenticular oxidative stress and altered calcium/magnesium (Ca/Mg) homeostasis underlie cataractogenesis. We developed a liposomal formulation of magnesium taurate (MgT) and studied its effects on Ca/Mg homeostasis and lenticular oxidative and nitrosative stress in galactose-fed rats. METHODS: The galactose-fed rats were topically treated with liposomal MgT (LMgT), liposomal taurine (LTau), or corresponding vehicles twice daily for 28 days with weekly anterior segment imaging...
2016: Molecular Vision
Junia C Santos-Silva, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Jean F Vettorazzi, Esperanza Irles, Sarah Rickli, Patrícia C Borck, Patricia M Porciuncula, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
Taurine (Tau) regulates β-cell function and glucose homeostasis under normal and diabetic conditions. Here, we assessed the effects of Tau supplementation upon glucose homeostasis and the morphophysiology of endocrine pancreas, in leptin-deficient obese (ob) mice. From weaning until 90-day-old, C57Bl/6 and ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (C, CT, ob and obT). Obese mice were hyperglycemic, glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and exhibited higher hepatic glucose output. Tau supplementation did not prevent obesity, but ameliorated glucose homeostasis in obT...
August 2015: Amino Acids
Jacob Bak Holm, Ryszard Grygorczyk, Ian Henry Lambert
Pathophysiological conditions challenge cell volume homeostasis and perturb cell volume regulatory mechanisms leading to alterations of cell metabolism, active transepithelial transport, cell migration, and death. We report that inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) with AA861 or ETH 615-139, the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT₁) with the antiasthmatic drug Zafirlukast, or the volume-sensitive organic anion channel (VSOAC) with DIDS blocks the release of organic osmolytes (taurine, meAIB) and the concomitant cell volume restoration following hypoosmotic swelling of human type II-like lung epithelial cells (A549)...
July 1, 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Xiaoling Gao, Xi Yang, Benzhong Zhang
Previous work has shown that taurine protected neurons against unconjugated bilirubin (UCB)-induced neurotoxicity by preventing cell apoptosis and maintaining intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis in primary neuron culture. This study investigates the neurotoxicity of hyperbilirubinemia and neuroprotection of taurine in a clinically relevant murine model in vivo. A hyperbilirubinemia baby mice model was established by intraperitoneal injection with UCB. After 24 h, the neural apoptotic level, transcriptional activity of caspase-3, and iCa²⁺ concentration were detected...
June 2011: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Nayeemunnisa Ahmed, Noor Zahra
Diabetes mellitus is known to impair glucose metabolism. The fundamental mechanism underlying hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus involves decreased utilization of glucose by the brain. However, mechanisms responsible for progressive failure of glycaemic regulation in type I (IDDM) diabetes need extensive and proper understanding. Hence the present study was initiated. Type I diabetes was induced in albino rat models with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg iv). Cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata were studied 48 h after alloxanisation...
March 2011: Neurochemical Research
Rosane A Ribeiro, Maria L Bonfleur, Andressa G Amaral, Emerielle C Vanzela, Silvana A Rocco, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
BACKGROUND: Taurine (TAU), a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid, is found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues and regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity, and glucose homeostasis. Several reports have shown that physiological plasma TAU levels seem to be important for adequate beta (beta)-cell function and insulin action, since low concentrations of TAU in the plasma have been reported in the pre-diabetic and diabetic states. METHODS: Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were investigated in mice supplemented with 2% (w/v) TAU in their drinking water for 30 days, as well as the insulin secretion from isolated islets stimulated by glucose or L-leucine...
May 2009: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Hai-Ying Liu, Fang-Lu Chi, Wen-Yuan Gao
The effect of taurine on calcium homeostasis of isolated cochlear spiral ganglion neurons under normal and ototoxic conditions was investigated using fluo-3 calcium imaging. Sole application of taurine (15 mM) induced an increase in intracelluar Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which was largely inhibited either by the application of an L-type calcium-channel blocker nifedipine or a calcium-free medium. Preincubation with 1 mM gentamicin induced an inhibition of the high K(+)-evoked elevation of [Ca(2+)](i)...
July 2008: Pharmacological Reports: PR
A El Idrissi
We have determined the role of mitochondria in the sequestration of calcium after stimulation of cerebellar granule cells with glutamate. In addition we have evaluated the neuroprotective role of taurine in excitotoxic cell death. Mitochondrial inhibitors were used to determine the calcium buffering capacity of mitochondria, as well as how taurine regulates the ability of mitochondria to buffer intracellular calcium during glutamate depolarization and excitotoxicity. We report here that pre-treatment of cerebellar granule cells with taurine (1 mM, 24 h) significantly counteracted glutamate excitotoxicity...
February 2008: Amino Acids
Hai-ying Liu, Wen-yuan Gao, Wen Wen, Yan-min Zhang
Taurine has been proposed to play a role in calcium modulation. To explore the effect of taurine on intracellular calcium homeostasis of isolated cochlear outer hair cells and on the gentamycin-induced inhibition of calcium influx evoked by high K(+) depolarization, we employed fluo-3 imaging of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) via confocal laser scanning microscopy to measure real-time changes of [Ca(2+)](i). We found that the sole application of taurine (5, 10, 20 mM) induced a transient [Ca(2+)](i) increase in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited either by the application of an L-type calcium-channel blocker nifedipine or a calcium-free medium...
May 15, 2006: Neuroscience Letters
Lin Chang, Jing Zhao, Jianxin Xu, Wei Jiang, Chao Shu Tang, Yong Fen Qi
1. Taurine and homocysteine are metabolites of methionine. Hyperhomocysteinaemia is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although taurine may be a cardiovascular cytoprotective substance, we hypothesized that it may antagonize the effects of homocysteine on myocardial mitochondrial function. 2. We studied the effects of taurine and homocysteine on [(45)Ca] uptake, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and generation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anions in vitro in rat isolated myocardial mitochondria...
April 2004: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
W Q Chen, H Jin, M Nguyen, J Carr, Y J Lee, C C Hsu, M D Faiman, J V Schloss, J Y Wu
Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity has been implicated as an important mechanism underlying a variety of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Previously we have shown that taurine has protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal injury in cultured neurons. Here we propose that the primary underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective function of taurine is due to its action in preventing or reducing glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular free calcium, [Ca(2+)](i). This hypothesis is supported by the following findings...
November 15, 2001: Journal of Neuroscience Research
J G Pilitsis, F G Diaz, M H O'Regan, J W Phillis
Reversal of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) occurs during ischemia-reperfusion injury as a result of changes in intracellular pH and sodium concentration. Inhibition of NCXs has been shown to be neuroprotective in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effects of KB-R7943 (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of the reverse mode of NCX, applied topically onto rat cerebral cortex prior to and during ischemia. Amino acid and free fatty acid levels in cortical superfusates, withdrawn at 10-min intervals from bilateral cortical windows, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 19, 2001: Brain Research
Q D Wu, J H Wang, F Fennessy, H P Redmond, D Bouchier-Hayes
Elevated blood glucose in uncontrolled diabetes is causally correlated with diabetic microangiopathy. Hyperglycemia-triggered accelerated endothelial cell apoptosis is a critical event in the process of diabetes-associated microvascular disease. The conditionally semiessential amino acid taurine has been previously shown to protect against human endothelial cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of taurine in the prevention of high-glucose-mediated cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the mechanisms involved...
December 1999: American Journal of Physiology
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