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Aging epigenetics histone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642537/epigenetic-mechanisms-impacting-aging-a-focus-on-histone-levels-and-telomeres
#1
REVIEW
Shufei Song, F Brad Johnson
Aging and age-related diseases pose some of the most significant and difficult challenges to modern society as well as to the scientific and medical communities. Biological aging is a complex, and, under normal circumstances, seemingly irreversible collection of processes that involves numerous underlying mechanisms. Among these, chromatin-based processes have emerged as major regulators of cellular and organismal aging. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and telomere regulation, including how these are influenced by environmental factors such as diet...
April 9, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615114/mecp2-mediated-epigenetic-regulation-in-senescent-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#2
Chunli Wang, Fei Wang, Zhen Li, Qing Cao, Liya Huang, Shuyan Chen
BACKGROUND: Cellular aging may be associated with epigenetics. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) are two important epigenetic factors. Our former work demonstrated that MeCP2 expression increased and SIRT1 expression decreased in senescent endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). This article aims to reveal the epigenetic regulation caused by MeCP2 in EPCs and discuss its mechanism. METHODS: Tube formation assay and cell apoptosis detection were used to evaluate the function of senescent EPCs induced by MeCP2 overexpression...
April 3, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602359/epigenetics-and-developmental-plasticity-in-orthopteroid-insects
#3
REVIEW
Nathan Lo, Stephen J Simpson, Gregory A Sword
Developmental plasticity is a key driver of the extraordinary ecological success of insects. Epigenetic mechanisms provide an important link between the external stimuli that initiate polyphenisms, and the stable changes in gene expression that govern alternative insect morphs. We review the epigenetics of orthopteroid insects, focussing on recent research on locusts and termites, two groups which display high levels of phenotypic plasticity, and for which genome sequences have become available in recent years...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597027/natural-products-with-anti-aging-potential-affected-targets-and-molecular-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Cristina-Sorina Cătană, Nikolay Mehterov, Atanas G Atanasov, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe
In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the molecular machinery relevant to age-related progression controlled through the external intervention of polyphenols- an epigenetic-modulating diet. Natural products modulate cellular longevity through histone post-translational modification and can also induce the upregulation of autophagy, thus reducing the level of acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA). In addition, the effect of caloric restriction (CR) on cancer-related chronic inflammation is of great significance in aging...
March 26, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594113/interplay-of-inflammatory-mediators-with-epigenetics-and-cartilage-modifications-in-osteoarthritis
#5
REVIEW
Swarna Raman, Una FitzGerald, J Mary Murphy
Osteoarthritis (OA), a degenerative disease of diarthrodial joints, is influenced by mechanical and inflammatory factors with aging, obesity, chronic injuries, and secondary diseases thought to be major factors driving the process of articular cartilage degeneration. Chondrocytes, the cellular component of cartilage, reside in an avascular environment and normally have limited potential to replicate. However, extrinsic factors such as injury to the joint or intrinsic alterations to the chondrocytes themselves can lead to an altered phenotype and development of OA...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567781/a-novel-regimen-for-relapsed-refractory-adult-acute-myeloid-leukemia-using-a-kmt2a-partial-tandem-duplication-targeted-therapy-results-of-phase-1-study-nci-8485
#6
Alice S Mims, Anjali Mishra, Shelley Orwick, James Blachly, Rebecca B Klisovic, Ramiro Garzon, Alison R Walker, Steven M Devine, Katherine J Walsh, Sumithira Vasu, Susan Whitman, Guido Marcucci, Daniel Jones, Nyla A Heerema, Gerard Lozanski, Michael A Caligiuri, Clara D Bloomfield, John C Byrd, Richard Piekarz, Michael R Grever, William Blum
KMT2A partial tandem duplication occurs in approximately 5-10% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and is associated with adverse prognosis. KMT2A wild type is epigenetically silenced in KMT2A partial tandem duplication; re-expression can be induced with DNA methyltransferase and/or histone deacetylase inhibitors in vitro, sensitizing myeloid blasts to chemotherapy. We hypothesized that epigenetic silencing of KMT2A wildtype contributes to KMT2A partial tandem duplication-associated leukemogenesis and pharmacologic re-expression activates apoptotic mechanisms important for chemo-response...
March 22, 2018: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560091/epigenetic-modifications-in-hyperhomocysteinemia-potential-role-in-diabetic-retinopathy-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#7
Khaled Elmasry, Riyaz Mohamed, Isha Sharma, Nehal M Elsherbiny, Yutao Liu, Mohamed Al-Shabrawey, Amany Tawfik
To study Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced epigenetic modifications as potential mechanisms of blood retinal barrier (BRB) dysfunction, retinas isolated from three- week-old mice with elevated level of Homocysteine (Hcy) due to lack of the enzyme cystathionine β-synthase ( cbs-/- , cbs+/- and cbs+/+ ), human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs), and human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) treated with or without Hcy were evaluated for (1) histone deacetylases (HDAC), (2) DNA methylation (DNMT), and (3) miRNA analysis...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545866/gsk126-ezh2-inhibitor-interferes-with-ultraviolet-a-radiation-induced-photoaging-of-human-skin-fibroblast-cells
#8
Haiyan Qin, Guang Zhang, Lianbo Zhang
Polycomb group genes (PcG) encode chromatin modification proteins that are involved in the epigenetic regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation and the aging processes. The key subunit of the PcG complex, enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2), has a central role in a variety of mechanisms, such as the formation of chromatin structure, gene expression regulation and DNA damage. In the present study, ultraviolet A (UVA) was used to radiate human dermal fibroblasts in order to construct a photo-aged cell model...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544768/epigenetic-control-of-gene-regulation-during-development-and-disease-a-view-from-the-retina
#9
REVIEW
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543808/epigenetic-regulation-of-cell-fate-reprogramming-in-aging-and-disease-a-predictive-computational-model
#10
Núria Folguera-Blasco, Elisabet Cuyàs, Javier A Menéndez, Tomás Alarcón
Understanding the control of epigenetic regulation is key to explain and modify the aging process. Because histone-modifying enzymes are sensitive to shifts in availability of cofactors (e.g. metabolites), cellular epigenetic states may be tied to changing conditions associated with cofactor variability. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationships between cofactor fluctuations, epigenetic landscapes, and cell state transitions. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation, we generate an ensemble of epigenetic regulation (ER) systems whose heterogeneity reflects variability in cofactor pools used by histone modifiers...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540259/histone-tail-cleavage-as-a-novel-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanism-for-gene-expression
#11
Sun-Ju Yi, Kyunghwan Kim
Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation...
March 15, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536385/histone-demethylase-kdm4a-and-kdm4b-expression-in-granulosa-cells-from-women-undergoing-in-vitro-fertilization
#12
Adam J Krieg, Sarah R Mullinax, Frances Grimstad, Kaitlin Marquis, Elizabeth Constance, Yan Hong, Sacha A Krieg, Katherine F Roby
PURPOSE: To assess expression of the histone demethylases KDM4A and KDM4B in granulosa collected from women undergoing oocyte retrieval and to determine if expression was related to pregnancy outcome. METHODS: Cumulus and mural granulosa cells were obtained from women undergoing oocyte retrieval. KDM4A and KDM4B mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. KDM4A and KDM4B proteins were immunohistochemically localized in ovarian tissue sections obtained from archival specimens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535803/circulating-cell-free-nucleosomes-as-biomarkers-for-early-detection-of-colorectal-cancer
#13
Louise Rasmussen, Ib Jarle Christensen, Marielle Herzog, Jake Micallef, Hans Jørgen Nielsen
The aim was to evaluate serum levels of circulating cell-free nucleosomes (ccfn) containing a variety of epigenetic signals including 5-methylcytosine DNA, histone modifications H3K9Me3, H3K9Ac, H3S10PO4, H3K36Me3, H4K20Me3, H4PanAc and pH2AX, nucleosome variant H2AZ and nucleosome adducts with HMGB1 and EZH2 as well as ccfn per se, in addition to develop and evaluate predictor models based on the above mentioned ccfn and including serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520020/rapid-and-transient-oxygen-consumption-increase-following-acute-hdac-kdac-inhibition-in-drosophila-tissue
#14
Lore Becker, Melanie Schmitt Nogueira, Caroline Klima, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Shahaf Peleg
Epigenetic deregulation, such as the reduction of histone acetylation levels, is thought to be causally linked to various maladies associated with aging. Consequently, histone deacetylase inhibitors are suggested to serve as epigenetic therapy by increasing histone acetylation. However, previous work suggests that many non-histone proteins, including metabolic enzymes, are also acetylated and that post transitional modifications may impact their activity. Furthermore, deacetylase inhibitors were recently shown to impact the acetylation of a variety of proteins...
March 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514099/muscle-specific-histone-h3k36-dimethyltransferase-set-18-shortens-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-by-repressing-daf-16a-expression
#15
Liangping Su, Hongyuan Li, Cheng Huang, Tingting Zhao, Yongjun Zhang, Xueqing Ba, Zhongwei Li, Yu Zhang, Baiqu Huang, Jun Lu, Yanmei Zhao, Xiaoxue Li
Mounting evidence shows that histone methylation, a typical epigenetic mark, is crucial for gene expression regulation during aging. Decreased trimethylation of Lys 36 on histone H3 (H3K36me3) in worms and yeast is reported to shorten lifespan. The function of H3K36me2 in aging remains unclear. In this study, we identified Caenorhabditis elegans SET-18 as a histone H3K36 dimethyltransferase. SET-18 deletion extended lifespan and increased oxidative stress resistance, dependent on daf-16 activity in the insulin/IGF pathway...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483913/abnormal-epigenetic-regulation-of-immune-system-during-aging
#16
REVIEW
Miriam G Jasiulionis
Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms controlling the chromatin structure, which has fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression and genome stability. Epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are established during embryonic development and epigenetic profiles are stably inherited during mitosis, ensuring cell differentiation and fate. Under the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as metabolic profile, hormones, nutrition, drugs, smoke, and stress, epigenetic marks are actively modulated...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476819/role-of-sirtuin1-p53-regulatory-axis-in-aging-cancer-and-cellular-reprogramming
#17
REVIEW
Agnes L C Ong, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy
Regulatory role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), one of the most extensively studied members of its kind in histone deacetylase family in governing multiple cellular fates, is predominantly linked to p53 activity. SIRT1 deacetylates p53 in a NAD+-dependent manner to inhibit transcription activity of p53, in turn modulate pathways that are implicated in regulation of tissue homoeostasis and many disease states. In this review, we discuss the role of SIRT1-p53 pathway and its regulatory axis in the cellular events which are implicated in cellular aging, cancer and reprogramming...
February 21, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474484/transgenerational-effects-of-prenatal-restricted-diet-on-gene-expression-and-histone-modifications-in-the-rat
#18
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Izabela Szczerbal, Anna M Malinowska, Agata Chmurzynska
Dietary triggers acting on a developing fetus can affect the functioning of the body in later life; this can be observed on various levels, including epigenetic modifications and gene expression. Early-life programmed changes may be transmitted to successive generations. In this study, the impact of prenatal restricted diet was studied in four generations of rats. We hypothesized that this diet can induce changes in the expression of major genes involved in two epigenetic mechanisms: DNA methylation and histone modifications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463953/autosomal-dominant-retinitis-pigmentosa-rhodopsin-mutant-q344x-drives-specific-alterations-in-chromatin-complex-gene-transcription
#19
Katie L Bales, Lara Ianov, Andrew J Kennedy, J David Sweatt, Alecia K Gross
Purpose: Epigenetic and transcriptional mechanisms have been shown to contribute to long-lasting functional changes in adult neurons. The purpose of this study was to identify any such modifications in diseased retinal tissues from a mouse model of rhodopsin mutation-associated autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP), Q344X, relative to age-matched wild-type (WT) controls. Methods: We performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) at poly(A) selected RNA to profile the transcriptional patterns in 3-week-old ADRP mouse model rhodopsin Q344X compared to WT controls...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462961/a-phase-i-ii-study-targeting-angiogenesis-using-bevacizumab-combined-with-chemotherapy-and-a-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid-in-advanced-sarcomas
#20
Varun Monga, Umang Swami, Munir Tanas, Aaron Bossler, Sarah L Mott, Brian J Smith, Mohammed Milhem
Epigenetic events and genetic alterations under the control of the tumor microenvironment potentially mediate tumor induced angiogenesis involved in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) metastasis. Addition of antiangiogenic agent, such as bevacizumab, to standard chemotherapy in treatment of sarcoma has been studied in clinical trials, but most of the findings have not supported its use. We hypothesized the existence of an epigenetically mediated "angiogenic switch", and the tumor microenvironment, prevents bevacizumab from truly blocking angiogenesis...
February 17, 2018: Cancers
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