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Aging epigenetics histone

Yolande F M Ramos, Ingrid Meulenbelt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent advances in the established role of different layers of epigenetic control mechanism that are used by joint cells to ensure tissue homeostasis and cope with changing microenvironment (e.g. ageing or disease). RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened the evidence that joint tissue cells highly dependent on epigenetic control mechanisms, such as methylation at CpG-sites, noncoding RNAs and histone modifications to assure phenotypic plasticity and respective tissue homeostasis...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Zahia Hamidouche, Karen Rother, Jens Przybilla, Axel Krinner, Denis Clay, Lydia Hopp, Claire Fabian, Alexandra Stolzing, Hans Binder, Pierre Charbord, Joerg Galle
The molecular mechanisms by which heterogeneity, a major characteristic of stem cells, is achieved are yet unclear. We here study the expression of the membrane stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) in mouse bone marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) clones. We show that subpopulations with varying Sca-1 expression profiles regenerate the Sca-1 profile of the mother population within a few days. However, after extensive replication in vitro the expression profiles shift to lower values and the regeneration time increases...
October 13, 2016: Stem Cells
Louisiana Carolina Ferreira de Meireles, Karine Bertoldi, Laura Reck Cechinel, Bruna Luisa Schallenberger, Vanessa Kappel da Silva, Nadja Schröder, Ionara Rodrigues Siqueira
Physical exercise and the aging process have been shown to induce opposite effects on epigenetic marks, such as histone acetylation. The impact of exercise on hippocampal histone acetylation on specific lysine residues, especially during the aging process, is rarely studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of treadmill exercise (20min/day during 2 weeks) on H3K9, H4K5 and H4K12 acetylation levels in hippocampi of young adult and aged rats. Male Wistar rats aged 3 or 20-21 months were assigned to sedentary and exercise groups...
October 4, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Karmen Stankov, Sunčica Stankov, Jasmina Katanić
BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders of hematopoietic system, characterized by genetic, epigenetic or microenvironmental alterations of aging hematopoietic stem cells. Pathophysiology of MDS comprises the suppression of normal hematopoiesis and reduced myeloid progenitor cells differentiation, with the main consequence of peripheral cytopenias and increased risk to evolution in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). METHOD: This review summarizes the evolving understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations involved in pathogenesis and current and future strategies for therapeutic targeting in myelodysplastic syndromes...
October 3, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
Ye Shu, Qinghua Hu, Hai Long, Christopher Chang, Qianjin Lu, Rong Xiao
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by aberrant immune responses against healthy cells and tissues. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the development of these conditions remain unknown. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of mature T cells which have an important role in maintaining immune homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. Forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), a member of the fork head transcription factor family, is recognized as a marker of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. The decreased number and/or function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs in peripheral blood and related tissues has been demonstrated in systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and other autoimmune diseases, which are at least partially regulated by epigenetic mechanisms...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Deena M Walker, Andrea C Gore
The acquisition of reproductive competence is organized and activated by steroid hormones acting upon the hypothalamus during critical windows of development. This review describes the potential role of epigenetic processes, particularly DNA methylation, in the regulation of sexual differentiation of the hypothalamus by hormones. We examine disruption of these processes by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in an age-, sex-, and region-specific manner, focusing on how perinatal EDCs act through epigenetic mechanisms to reprogram DNA methylation and sex steroid hormone receptor expression throughout life...
September 20, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Jennifer R Bermick, Nathalie J Lambrecht, Aaron D denDekker, Steven L Kunkel, Nicholas W Lukacs, Cory M Hogaboam, Matthew A Schaller
BACKGROUND: Neonates have dampened expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and difficulty clearing pathogens. This makes them uniquely susceptible to infections, but the factors regulating neonatal-specific immune responses are poorly understood. Epigenetics, including histone modifications, can activate or silence gene transcription by modulating chromatin structure and stability without affecting the DNA sequence itself and are potentially modifiable. Histone modifications are known to regulate immune cell differentiation and function in adults but have not been well studied in neonates...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Rola Aldana Bekdash
Choline is an essential nutrient that is required for normal development of the brain. Via its metabolite betaine, it participates in the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, a major methyl donor for histone and DNA methylation, two epigenetic mechanisms that regulate gene expression and may alter brain function. Besides its role in methyl group metabolism, choline also has pivotal functions, including the maintenance of structural integrity of membranes and modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission, functions that are often dysregulated in some neurodegenerative disorders...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
Usha Singh, Manzoor Ahmad Malik, Sandeep Goswami, Swati Shukla, Jasbir Kaur
Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer of the retina that commonly occurs in early childhood and mostly affects the children before the age of 5. It occurs due to the mutations in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) which inactivates both alleles of the RB1. RB1 was first identified as a tumor suppressor gene, which regulates cell cycle components and associated with retinoblastoma. Previously, genetic alteration was known as the major cause of its occurrence, but later, it is revealed that besides genetic changes, epigenetic changes also play a significant role in the disease...
September 17, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Ila van Kruijsbergen, Saartje Hontelez, Dei M Elurbe, Simon J van Heeringen, Martijn A Huynen, Gert Jan C Veenstra
Transposable elements are parasitic genomic elements that can be deleterious for host gene function and genome integrity. Heterochromatic histone modifications are involved in the repression of transposons. However, it remains unknown how these histone modifications mark different types of transposons during embryonic development. Here we document the variety of heterochromatic epigenetic signatures at parasitic elements during development in Xenopus tropicalis, using genome-wide ChIP-sequencing data and ChIP-qPCR analysis...
September 14, 2016: Developmental Biology
Alexander Beck, Corinna Eberherr, Michaela Hagemann, Stefano Cairo, Beate Häberle, Christian Vokuhl, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Roland Kappler
Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common liver tumor of childhood, usually occurring in children under the age of 3 y. The prognosis of patients presenting with distant metastasis, vascular invasion and advanced tumor stages remains poor and children that do survive often face severe late effects from the aggressive chemotherapy regimen. To identify potential new therapeutics for high risk HB we used a 1,000-gene expression signature as input for a Connectivity Map (CMap) analysis, which predicted histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as a promising therapy option...
September 16, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Peck Yean Tan, Cheng Wei Chang, Kaibo Duan, Michael Poidinger, Kai Lyn Ng, Yap Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Walter Stünkel
Wharton's jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from newborns with intrauterine fetal growth restriction were previously shown to exert anabolic features including insulin hypersensitivity. Here, we extend these observations and demonstrate that MSCs from small for gestational age (SGA) individuals have decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Comparing normally grown and SGA MSCs using next generation sequencing studies, we measured global transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles and identified E2F1 as an over-expressed transcription factor regulating oxidative metabolism in the SGA group...
2016: PloS One
Wei Jiang, Lei Cao, Fang Wang, Hai Ge, Peng-Chao Wu, Xue-Wei Li, Gui-Hai Chen
Age-related cognitive decline has been associated with changes in endogenous hormones and epigenetic modification of chromatin, including histone acetylation. Developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as bisphenol-A (BPA) that produces endocrine disruption and epigenetic changes, may be a risk factor for accelerating cognitive deficits during aging. Thus, we exposed CD-1 mice to BPA (0, 1, and 100 mg/l BPA in the drinking water) orally during puberty (from postnatal days 28 to 56) and investigated whether pubertal BPA exposure exacerbates the age-related impairment of spatial cognition in old age (18 months old) and whether serum sex and thyroid hormones or hippocampal histone acetylation (H3K9ac and H4K8ac) are associated with cognitive effects...
September 9, 2016: Age (2005-)
Ayden Gouveia, Karolynn Hsu, Yosuke Niibori, Matthew Seegobin, Gonzalo I Cancino, Ling He, Fredric E Wondisford, Steffany Bennett, Diane Lagace, Paul W Frankland, Jing Wang
While epigenetic modifications have emerged as attractive substrates to integrate environmental changes into the determination of cell identity and function, specific signals that directly activate these epigenetic modifications remain unknown. Here, we examine the role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-mediated Ser436 phosphorylation of CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Using a knockin mouse strain (CbpS436A) in which the aPKC-CBP pathway is deficient, we observe impaired hippocampal neuronal differentiation, maturation, and memory and diminished binding of CBP to CREB in 6-month-old CbpS436A mice, but not at 3 months of age...
October 11, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
Bo Li, Jing Zhou, Guowei Zhang, Yong Wang, Lihua Kang, Jian Wu, Jia Chen, Huaijin Guan
PURPOSE: Glutathione S-Transferase Mu 3 (GSTM3) protects the lens from oxidative stress that contributes to age-related cataract (ARC) formation. We examined the expression and epigenetics of GSTM3 in lens epithelial cells (LECs) and lens cortex of ARC, and investigated the potential role of molecular changes in ARC pathogenesis. METHODS: This study included 120 ARCs and 40 controls. Expression of GSTM3, DNA methylation, and histone modification were assessed by quantificational real-time PCR, Western blot, bisulfite-sequencing PCR, pyrosequencing, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Imari Mimura, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Masaomi Nangaku
The number of patients with kidney failure has increased in recent years. Different factors contribute to the progression of chronic kidney disease, including glomerular sclerosis, atherosclerosis of the renal arteries and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Tubulointerstitial injury is induced by hypoxia and other inflammatory signals, leading to fibroblast activation. Technological advances using high-throughput sequencing has enabled the determination ofthe expression profile of almost all genes, revealing that gene expression is intricately regulated by DNA methylation, histone modification, changes in chromosome conformation, long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs...
August 25, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Jaydeep Bhat, Justyna Sosna, Jürgen Fritsch, Elgar Susanne Quabius, Stefan Schütze, Sebastian Zeissig, Ole Ammerpohl, Dieter Adam, Dieter Kabelitz
Previously, the expression of a non-secreted IL-4 variant (IL-4δ13) has been described in association with apoptosis and age-dependent Th2 T-cell polarization. Signaling pathways involved in this process have so far not been studied. Here we report the induction of IL-4δ13 expression in human γδ T-cells upon treatment with a sublethal dose of histone deacetylase (HDACi) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). Induction of IL-4δ13 was associated with increased cytoplasmic IL-4Rα and decreased IL-4 expression, while mRNA for mature IL-4 was concomitantly down-regulated...
August 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Hyung Sik Kim, Sam Kacew, Byung Mu Lee
The main goal of cancer chemoprevention is to prevent or halt the progression of carcinogenesis with the administration of synthetic or natural compounds. Fundamental chemopreventive strategies include inhibition of genetic damage, anti-proliferation/cell cycle regulation, and induction of apoptosis and anti-inflammatory processes, which may be critical for carcinogenesis intervention. Recently, a new paradigm for identifying chemopreventive agents has been implemented. It focuses on defining new biomarkers that can be used to evaluate chemopreventive efficacy based on multistage carcinogenesis...
October 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Francesca Marini, Luisella Cianferotti, Maria Luisa Brandi
Osteoporosis is a complex multifactorial disorder of the skeleton. Genetic factors are important in determining peak bone mass and structure, as well as the predisposition to bone deterioration and fragility fractures. Nonetheless, genetic factors alone are not sufficient to explain osteoporosis development and fragility fracture occurrence. Indeed, epigenetic factors, representing a link between individual genetic aspects and environmental influences, are also strongly suspected to be involved in bone biology and osteoporosis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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