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Aging epigenetics histone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820059/histone-modifications-in-aging%C3%AF-the-underlying-mechanisms-and-implications
#1
Yuan Wang, Quan Yuan, Liang Xie
Aging is characterized by time-dependent functional decline, which results in the reduced ability to cope with physiological challenges. The aging process can be affected by genetic factors, environment factors, epigenetic factors, and several stochastic factors. Epigenetic marker alteration during aging has been widely monitored and studied recently, since these epigenetic alterations are theoretically reversible. Histone post-translational modifications have been found to play a crucial role in epigenetic alteration during aging, among which histone methylation and histone acetylation are emerging as two well-documented modification methods...
August 17, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808499/epigenetics-and-oxidative-stress-in-aging
#2
REVIEW
Amy Guillaumet-Adkins, Yania Yañez, Manuel D Peris-Diaz, Ines Calabria, Cora Palanca-Ballester, Juan Sandoval
Aging is a multifactorial process characterized by the progressive loss of physiological functions, leading to an increased vulnerability to age-associated diseases and finally to death. Several theories have been proposed to explain the nature of aging. One of the most known identifies the free radicals produced by the mitochondrial metabolism as the cause of cellular and DNA damage. However, there are also several evidences supporting that epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, and histone modifications, play a critical role in the molecular mechanism of aging...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789901/sirtuins-epigenetics-and-longevity
#3
REVIEW
Mateusz Wątroba, Ilona Dudek, Marta Skoda, Aleksandra Stangret, Przemysław Rzodkiewicz, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Aging of organisms begins from a single cell at the molecular level. It includes changes related to telomere shortening, cell senescence and epigenetic modifications. These processes accumulate over the lifespan. Research studies show that epigenetic signaling contributes to human disease, tumorigenesis and aging. Epigenetic DNA modifications involve changes in the gene activity but not in the DNA sequence. An epigenome consists of chemical modifications to the DNA and histone proteins without the changes in the DNA sequence...
August 5, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765161/the-interplay-between-epigenetic-changes-and-the-p53-protein-in-stem-cells
#4
REVIEW
Arnold J Levine, Shelley L Berger
Epigenetic programs regulate the development and maintenance of organisms over a lifetime. These programs are carried out through chemical modifications of DNA and proteins such as histones and transcription factors. These epigenetic modifications are less stable than genetic alterations and even reversible under a variety of circumstances, such as developmental changes, regeneration of tissues, cell divisions, aging, and pathological conditions observed in many cancers. The p53 protein not only enforces the stability of the genome by the prevention of genetic alterations in cells but also plays a role in regulating the epigenetic changes that can occur in cells...
June 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757400/epigenetic-regulation-of-ec-sod-expression-in-aging-lung-fibroblasts-role-of-histone-acetylation
#5
Jesse Roman, Jianxin Zhu, Jeffrey D Ritzenthaler, Igor N Zelko
Lung disorders characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive deposition of extracellular matrices occur in late adulthood, and their pathological manifestations become more prominent with aging. The exact mechanisms linking aging and fibroproliferative disorders are unknown, but increased oxidative stress resulting in the accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA, and lipids is considered a major factor. In the lung, and especially in the pulmonary fibroblasts, the extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a major antioxidant enzyme that has been implicated in pulmonary fibrosing disorders, among others...
July 27, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743056/apigenin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-epigenetic-regulation-and-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#6
Lin Chen, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Weiqiang Zhuang, Changcheng Jiang, Naizhen Liu
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Post operational cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Abnormal histone acetylation and neuroinflammation are key factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Apigenin not only has an anti-inflammatory activity but also modifies histone acetylation. We aimed to investigate whether apigenin can attenuate isoflurane exposure-induced cognitive decline by regulating histone acetylation and inflammatory signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735518/the-possible-prognostic-role-of-histone-deacetylase-and-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-in-high-grade-gliomas-treated-by-radio-chemotherapy-a-preliminary-immunohistochemical-study
#7
Roberta Sferra, Simona Pompili, Claudio Festuccia, Francesco Marampon, Giovanni L Gravina, Luca Ventura, Ernesto Di Cesare, Sara Cicchinelli, Eugenio Gaudio, Antonella Vetuschi
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive tumor of the central nervous system. Unfortunately, patients affected by this disease have a very poor prognosis, due to high level of invasiveness and resistance to standard therapies. Although the molecular profile of GBM has been extensively investigated, the events responsible for its pathogenesis and progression remain largely unknown. Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) dependent epigenetic modifications and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad pathway seem to play an important role in GBM tumorigenesis, resistance to common therapies and poor clinical outcome...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712943/sex-and-brain-region-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-and-lead-exposure-on-permissive-and-repressive-post-translational-histone-modifications-from-embryonic-development-through-adulthood
#8
G Varma, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta, J S Schneider
Developmental exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and lead (Pb) can affect brain development and adversely influence behavior and cognition. Epigenetic-based gene regulation is crucial for normal brain development and mis-regulation, in any form, can result in neurodevelopmental disorders. Post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) are an integral and dynamic component of the epigenetic machinery involved in gene regulation. Exposures to Pb and/or PS may alter PTHM profiles, promoting lifelong alterations in brain function observed following Pb±PS exposure...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702424/epigenetics-linking-nutrition-to-molecular-mechanisms-in-aging
#9
REVIEW
Joo Hyun Park, Yeongran Yoo, Yoon Jung Park
Healthy aging has become a major goal of public health. Many studies have provided evidence and theories to explain molecular mechanisms of the aging process. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for life span and the progression of aging. Epigenetics is a fascinating field of molecular biology, which studies heritable modifications of DNA and histones that regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark that shows progressive changes during aging...
June 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690313/the-hdac-inhibitor-panobinostat-lbh589-exerts-in-vivo-anti-leukaemic-activity-against-mll-rearranged-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-and-involves-the-rnf20-rnf40-wac-h2b-ubiquitination-axis
#10
P G Castro, E H J van Roon, S S M Pinhanços, L Trentin, P Schneider, M Kerstjens, G Te Kronnie, O Heidenreich, R Pieters, R W Stam
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) represents an aggressive malignancy in infants (<1 year of age), associated with poor outcome. Current treatment intensification is not further possible, and novel therapy strategies are needed. Notably, MLL-rearranged ALL is characterised by a strongly deregulated epigenome and shows sensitivity to epigenetic perturbators. Here, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Panobinostat (LHB589) using xenograft mouse models of MLL-rearranged ALL...
July 10, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642327/declining-histone-acetyltransferase-gcn5-represses-bmsc-mediated-angiogenesis-during-osteoporosis
#11
Huan Jing, Li Liao, Xiaoxia Su, Yi Shuai, Xinjing Zhang, Zhihong Deng, Yan Jin
Angiogenesis is disrupted in age-related and postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, the mechanisms of the disorder remain elusive. We confirmed in this study that, in accordance with the decrease of H-type vessels, the proangiogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) declined during osteoporosis. Screening of the histone acetyltransferase family revealed that GCN5 decreased in BMSCs derived from osteoporotic femur. Further analysis identified that GCN5 plays important roles in regulating the proangiogenic potential of BMSCs...
June 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634176/impact-of-glycemic-variability-on-chromatin-remodeling-oxidative-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-target-hba1c-levels
#12
Sarah Costantino, Francesco Paneni, Rodolfo Battista, Lorenzo Castello, Giuliana Capretti, Sergio Chiandotto, Luigi Tanese, Giulio Russo, Dario Pitocco, Gaetano A Lanza, Massimo Volpe, Thomas F Lüscher, Francesco Cosentino
Intensive glycemic control (IGC) targeting HbA1c fails to show an unequivocal reduction of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D), however the underlining mechanisms remain elusive. Epigenetic changes are emerging as important mediators of cardiovascular damage and may play a role in this setting. This study investigates whether epigenetic regulation of the adaptor protein p66(Shc), a key driver of mitochondrial oxidative stress, contributes to persistent vascular dysfunction in T2D patients despite IGC...
June 20, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#13
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619824/setd1b-encoding-a-histone-3-lysine-4-methyltransferase-is-a-maternal-effect-gene-required-for-the-oogenic-gene-expression-program
#14
David Brici, Qinyu Zhang, Susanne Reinhardt, Andreas Dahl, Hella Hartmann, Kerstin Schmidt, Neha Goveas, Jiahao Huang, Lenka Gahurova, Gavin Kelsey, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, A Francis Stewart, Andrea Kranz
Germ cell development involves major reprogramming of the epigenome to prime the zygote for totipotency. Histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylations are universal epigenetic marks mediated in mammals by six H3K4 methyltransferases related to fly Trithorax, including two yeast Set1 orthologs: Setd1a and Setd1b. Whereas Setd1a plays no role in oogenesis, we report that Setd1b deficiency causes female sterility in mice. Oocyte-specific Gdf9-iCre conditional knockout (Setd1b(Gdf9) cKO) ovaries develop through all stages; however, follicular loss accumulated with age and unfertilized metaphase II (MII) oocytes exhibited irregularities of the zona pellucida and meiotic spindle...
July 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612615/-new-drugs-in-the-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-the-elderly
#15
Z Šustková, M Čulen, L Semerád, I Ježíšková, D Dvořáková, Z Ráčil, J Mayer
BACKGROUND: At the time of diagnosis, most patients with acute myeloid leukemia are older than 65 years of age. Treatment of this group of patients is challenging because they become less tolerant to aggressive chemotherapy with increasing age. Less than one-third of elderly patients are considered eligible for intensive treatment; nevertheless, the survival analysis for this population remains poor. Due to numerous comorbidities and an overall deteriorating condition, most elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia receive only palliative or best supportive care, which are associated with a high mortality rate...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606110/a-c9orf72-bac-mouse-model-recapitulates-key-epigenetic-perturbations-of-als-ftd
#16
Rustam Esanov, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Nadja S Andrade, Tania F Gendron, Robert H Brown, Michael Benatar, Claes Wahlestedt, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with identified genetic causes representing a significant minority of all cases. A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation within the C9ORF72 gene has recently been identified as the most frequent known cause of ALS. The expansion leads to partial heterochromatinization of the locus, yet mutant RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) are still produced in sufficient quantities to confer neurotoxicity...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600325/hira-deficiency-in-muscle-fibers-causes-hypertrophy-and-susceptibility-to-oxidative-stress
#17
Nicolas Valenzuela, Benjamin Soibam, Lerong Li, Jing Wang, Lauren A Byers, Yu Liu, Robert J Schwartz, M David Stewart
Nucleosome assembly proceeds through DNA replication-coupled or replication-independent mechanisms. For skeletal myocytes, whose nuclei have permanently exited the cell cycle, replication-independent assembly is the only mode available for chromatin remodeling. For this reason, any nucleosome composition alterations accompanying transcriptional responses to physiological signals must occur through a DNA replication-independent pathway. HIRA is the histone chaperone primarily responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592748/epigenetic-targeted-therapy-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#18
Rintaro Hashizume
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a rare but uniformly fatal cancer of the brain, with peak incidence in children of 5-7 years of age. In contrast to most types of human cancer, there has been no significant improvement in treatment outcomes for patients with DIPG. Since DIPG occurs in the brainstem, a vital region of the brain, there are no surgical options for providing relief to patients, and chemotherapy as well as radiation therapy provide palliative relief at best. To date, more than 250 clinical trials evaluating radiotherapy along with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, as well as newer biologic agents, have failed to improve the dismal outcome when compared with palliative radiation alone...
June 7, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538662/maternal-factors-that-induce-epigenetic-changes-contribute-to-neurological-disorders-in-offspring
#19
REVIEW
Avijit Banik, Deepika Kandilya, Seshadri Ramya, Walter Stünkel, Yap Seng Chong, S Thameem Dheen
It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down's syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits...
May 24, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537683/epigenetic-changes-of-histone-deacetylation-in-murine-oocytes-matured-in-vitro-versus-in-vivo
#20
J Huang, C-H Ding, Z-Y Li, X-B Zhang, Z-S You, C-Q Zhou, Y-W Xu
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we studied changes in histone acetylation during mouse oocytes meiosis. The aim was to investigate HDAC1 expression patterns in the mouse oocytes and effects of in-vitro maturation on epigenetic modifications during meiosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immature and mature oocytes were collected from female Kunming white mice of 4-6 weeks in age. Dynamic changes of histone H3K9, H4K12 acetylation were explored. HDAC1 spatial and temporal expression patterns during meiosis and their expression changes in in-vitro maturation were determined...
May 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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