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Aging epigenetics histone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289478/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-and-acceleration-of-epigenetic-aging-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#1
Abhay Raina, Xiaoping Zhao, Megan L Grove, Jan Bressler, Rebecca F Gottesman, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley, Myriam Fornage
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration, which represents the deviation of the DNA methylation-predicted age from the chronologic age. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional observational study of 713 African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, aged 51-73 years, estimates of predicted age were obtained based on two algorithms (Hannum et al...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284043/the-histone-variant-h3-3-claims-its-place-in-the-crowded-scene-of-epigenetics
#2
Daniele Bano, Antonia Piazzesi, Paolo Salomoni, Pierluigi Nicotera
Histones are evolutionarily conserved DNA-binding proteins. As scaffolding molecules, they significantly regulate the DNA packaging into the nucleus of all eukaryotic cells. As docking units, they influence the recruitment of the transcriptional machinery, thus establishing unique gene expression patterns that ultimately promote different biological outcomes. While canonical histones H3.1 and H3.2 are synthetized and loaded during DNA replication, the histone variant H3.3 is expressed and deposited into the chromatin throughout the cell cycle...
March 10, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283560/hdac7-ubiquitination-by-the-e3-ligase-cbx4-is-involved-in-contextual-fear-conditioning-memory-formation
#3
Xu Jing, Wen-Hai Sui, Shuai Wang, Xu-Feng Xu, Rong-Rong Yuan, Xiao-Rong Chen, Hui-Xian Ma, Ying-Xiao Zhu, Jin-Kai Sun, Fan Yi, Zhe-Yu Chen, Yue Wang
Histone acetylation, which comprises an epigenetic modification, plays an important role in long-term memory formation. Recently, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were demonstrated to promote memory formation, which raises the intriguing possibility that HDAC inhibitors may be used to rescue memory deficits. However, additional research is necessary to clarify the roles of individual HDACs in memory. In this study, we demonstrated that HDAC7, within the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of C57BL6J mice, had a late and persistent decrease after contextual fear conditioning (CFC) training (4 h∼24 h), which was involved in long-term CFC memory formation...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188812/epigenetics-in-cancer-fundamentals-and-beyond
#4
REVIEW
Subhankar Biswas, C Mallikarjuna Rao
Activation of oncogenes or the deactivation of tumor suppressor genes has long been established as the fundamental mechanism leading towards carcinogenesis. Although this age old axiom is vastly accurate, thorough study over the last 15years has given us unprecedented information on the involvement of epigenetic in cancer. Various biochemical pathways that are essential towards tumorigenesis are regulated by the epigenetic phenomenons like remodeling of nucleosome by histone modifications, DNA methylation and miRNA mediated targeting of various genes...
February 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176655/epigenetics-in-clinical-management-of-children-and-adolescents-with-brain-tumors
#5
Andres Morales La Madrid, Mark W Kieran
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors represent the second most prevalent group of cancers in children and adolescents, yet account for the majority of childhood cancer-related deaths and considerable morbidity among survivors, due to high-intensity non-selective standard therapies delivered to immature nervous system structures undergoing development. These tumors arise at different ages -not infrequently very early in life-, in different locations and cellular contexts, have varied cell types of origin, and have heterogeneous responses to the "classic" current therapeutic approaches...
February 3, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158904/effect-of-stress-on-human-biology-epigenetics-adaptation-inheritance-and-social-significance
#6
REVIEW
David Denhardt
I present a brief introduction to epigenetics, focused primarily on methylation of the genome and various regulatory RNAs, modifications of associated histones, and their importance in enabling us to adapt to real and changing environmental, developmental and social circumstances. Following this is a more extensive overview of how it impacts our inheritance, our entire life (which changes as we age), and how we interact with others. Throughout I emphasize the critical influence that stress, of many varieties exerts, via epigenetic means, on much of how we live and survive, mostly in the brain...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123935/deletion-of-histone-deacetylase-3-in-adult-beta-cells-improves-glucose-tolerance-via-increased-insulin-secretion
#7
Jarrett R Remsberg, Benjamin N Ediger, Wesley Y Ho, Manashree Damle, Zhenghui Li, Christopher Teng, Cristina Lanzillotta, Doris A Stoffers, Mitchell A Lazar
OBJECTIVE: Histone deacetylases are epigenetic regulators known to control gene transcription in various tissues. A member of this family, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), has been shown to regulate metabolic genes. Cell culture studies with HDAC-specific inhibitors and siRNA suggest that HDAC3 plays a role in pancreatic β-cell function, but a recent genetic study in mice has been contradictory. Here we address the functional role of HDAC3 in β-cells of adult mice. METHODS: An HDAC3 β-cell specific knockout was generated in adult MIP-CreERT transgenic mice using the Cre-loxP system...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120717/understanding-epigenetic-alterations-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-disease-towards-targeted-biomarkers-and-therapies
#8
Filippo Ciceri, David Rotllant, Tamara Maes
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease represent the two most common neurodegenerative disorders, affecting an increasing number of patients worldwide. Population ageing and lack of effective therapies and biomarkers strongly contribute to the socio-economical impact of these conditions. MESSAGE AND CONCLUSION: The aim of the review is to present a summary of the discoveries made on the epigenetics of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, with a special focus on the recent advances towards the identification of new targeted therapies and biomarkers...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#9
REVIEW
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as post-transcriptional modifications, are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival, and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108335/tryptase-catalyzed-core-histone-truncation-a%C3%A2-novel-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanism-in-mast-cells
#10
Fabio R Melo, Ola Wallerman, Aida Paivandy, Gabriela Calounova, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Benjamin R Sabari, Giuliano Zabucchi, C David Allis, Gunnar Pejler
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are key effector cells in allergic reactions. When activated to degranulate, they release a plethora of bioactive compounds from their secretory granules, including mast cell-restricted proteases such as tryptase. In a previous study, we showed that tryptase, in addition to its intragranular location, can be found within the nuclei of mast cells where it truncates core histones at their N-terminal ends. OBJECTIVE: Considering that the N-terminal portions of the core histones constitute sites for posttranslational modifications of major epigenetic impact, we evaluated whether histone truncation by tryptase could have an impact on epigenetic events in mast cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103888/photoreceptor-protection-via-blockade-of-bet-epigenetic-readers-in-a-murine-model-of-inherited-retinal-degeneration
#11
Lei Zhao, Jun Li, Yingmei Fu, Mengxue Zhang, Bowen Wang, Jonathan Ouellette, Pawan K Shahi, Bikash R Pattnaik, Jyoti J Watters, Wai T Wong, Lian-Wang Guo
BACKGROUND: The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family proteins (BET2, BET3, and BET4) "read" (bind) histone acetylation marks via two distinct bromodomains (Brom1 and Brom2) facilitating transcriptional activation. These epigenetic "readers" play crucial roles in pathogenic processes such as inflammation. The role of BETs in influencing the degenerative process in the retina is however unknown. METHODS: We employed the rd10 mouse model (Pde6b (rd10) mutation) of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) to examine the involvement of BET proteins in retinal neurodegeneration...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098215/epigenetic-modifications-at-dmrs-of-placental-genes-are-subjected-to-variations-in-normal-gestation-pathological-conditions-and-folate-supplementation
#13
Beenish Rahat, Aatish Mahajan, Rashmi Bagga, Abid Hamid, Jyotdeep Kaur
Invasive placentation and cancer development shares many similar molecular and epigenetic pathways. Paternally expressed, growth promoting genes (SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST) which are known to play crucial role in tumorogenesis, are not well studied during placentation. This study reports for the first time of the impact of gestational-age, pathological conditions and folic acid supplementation on dynamic nature of DNA and histone methylation present at their differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Here, we reported the association between low DNA methylation/H3K27me3 and higher expression of SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST in highly proliferating normal early gestational placenta...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057210/epigenetic-changes-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
O Fogel, C Richard-Miceli, J Tost
The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018148/epigenetics-and-common-ophthalmic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Wendy Li, Ji Liu, Jennifer A Galvin
The study of ocular diseases and epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging area of research. The knowledge from the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs regarding the pathogenesis of ocular diseases will be helpful for improved treatment modalities for our patients. In particular, we focus upon the how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impact five common ocular diseases: age related macular degeneration, age-related cataract, pterygium, retinoblastoma, and uveal melanoma...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998780/paternal-deprivation-affects-social-behaviors-and-neurochemical-systems-in-the-offspring-of-socially-monogamous-prairie-voles
#16
Manal Tabbaa, Kelly Lei, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus...
February 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927666/epigenetic-biomarkers-in-progression-from-non-dysplastic-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
T Nieto, C L Tomlinson, J Dretzke, S Bayliss, M Dilworth, A D Beggs, O Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a metaplastic condition affecting the lower oesophagus due to long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux and chronic inflammation, is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OADC). There is no clinical test to predict which patients with BO will progress to OADC. The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic surveillance of patients with BO. Epigenetic changes have been well characterised in the neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis to colonic carcinoma, another gastrointestinal cancer associated with chronic inflammation...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891254/prostate-cancer-epigenetic-alterations-risk-factors-and-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Asgar A Kalla, Muhammed M Islam, Mike Sathekge, Razia Moorad
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884142/dna-methylation-patterns-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-an-ageing-population
#19
Åsa K Hedman, Mihkel Zilmer, Johan Sundström, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading global cause of death. Contributions of environmental factors such as oxidative stress on complex traits and disease may be partly mediated through changes in epigenetic marks (e.g. DNA methylation). Studies relating differential methylation with intermediate phenotypes and disease endpoints may be useful in identifying additional candidate genes and mechanisms involved in disease...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882215/epigenetic-changes-in-peripheral-leucocytes-as-biomarkers-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rat
#20
Xue-Feng Xu, Shan-Shan Xu, Lin-Cheng Fu, Qiong-Yao Hu, Ying Lv, Li-Zhong Du
Epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause increased histone acetylation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene from pulmonary vascular endothelial cells or the whole lung tissue and persist into later life, likely resulting in increased risk of pulmonary hypertension or asthma later in life. However, little is known regarding the correlation of epigenetic changes between specific tissue and peripheral leucocytes. In the present study, an IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrient restriction...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
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