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Aging epigenetics histone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#1
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as posttranscriptional modifications are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108335/tryptase-catalyzed-core-histone-truncation-a-novel-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanism-in-mast-cells
#2
Fabio R Melo, Ola Wallerman, Aida Paivandy, Gabriela Calounova, Ann-Marie Gustafson, Benjamin R Sabari, Giuliano Zabucchi, C David Allis, Gunnar Pejler
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are key effector cells in allergic reactions. When activated to degranulate, they release a plethora of bioactive compounds from their secretory granules, including mast cell-restricted proteases such as tryptase. In a previous study we showed that tryptase, in addition to its intragranular location, can be found within the nuclei of mast cells where it truncates core histones at their N-terminal ends. OBJECTIVE: Considering that the N-terminal portions of the core histones constitute sites for posttranslational modifications of major epigenetic impact, we here evaluated whether histone truncation by tryptase could have an impact on epigenetic events in mast cells...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103888/photoreceptor-protection-via-blockade-of-bet-epigenetic-readers-in-a-murine-model-of-inherited-retinal-degeneration
#3
Lei Zhao, Jun Li, Yingmei Fu, Mengxue Zhang, Bowen Wang, Jonathan Ouellette, Pawan K Shahi, Bikash R Pattnaik, Jyoti J Watters, Wai T Wong, Lian-Wang Guo
BACKGROUND: The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family proteins (BET2, BET3, and BET4) "read" (bind) histone acetylation marks via two distinct bromodomains (Brom1 and Brom2) facilitating transcriptional activation. These epigenetic "readers" play crucial roles in pathogenic processes such as inflammation. The role of BETs in influencing the degenerative process in the retina is however unknown. METHODS: We employed the rd10 mouse model (Pde6b (rd10) mutation) of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) to examine the involvement of BET proteins in retinal neurodegeneration...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101820/insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-signalling-iis-based-regulation-of-lifespan-across-species
#4
REVIEW
Rebecca Mathew, Manika Pal Bhadra, Utpal Bhadra
An organism's well-being is facilitated by numerous molecular and biochemical pathways that ensure homeostasis within cells and tissues. Aging causes a gradual let-down in the maintenance of homeostasis due to various endogenous and environmental challenges, leading to amassing of damages, functional deterioration of different tissues and vulnerability to ailments. Nutrient sensing pathways that maintain glucose homeostasis in body are involved in regulation of aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signalling (IIS) pathway was the first nutrient sensing pathway discovered to affect the aging process...
January 18, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098215/epigenetic-modifications-at-dmrs-of-placental-genes-are-subjected-to-variations-in-normal-gestation-pathological-conditions-and-folate-supplementation
#5
Beenish Rahat, Aatish Mahajan, Rashmi Bagga, Abid Hamid, Jyotdeep Kaur
Invasive placentation and cancer development shares many similar molecular and epigenetic pathways. Paternally expressed, growth promoting genes (SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST) which are known to play crucial role in tumorogenesis, are not well studied during placentation. This study reports for the first time of the impact of gestational-age, pathological conditions and folic acid supplementation on dynamic nature of DNA and histone methylation present at their differentially methylated regions (DMRs). Here, we reported the association between low DNA methylation/H3K27me3 and higher expression of SNRPN, PEG10 and MEST in highly proliferating normal early gestational placenta...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057210/epigenetic-changes-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#6
O Fogel, C Richard-Miceli, J Tost
The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018148/epigenetics-and-common-ophthalmic-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Wendy Li, Ji Liu, Jennifer A Galvin
The study of ocular diseases and epigenetic dysregulation is an emerging area of research. The knowledge from the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs regarding the pathogenesis of ocular diseases will be helpful for improved treatment modalities for our patients. In particular, we focus upon the how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impact five common ocular diseases: age related macular degeneration, age-related cataract, pterygium, retinoblastoma, and uveal melanoma...
December 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998780/paternal-deprivation-affects-social-behaviors-and-neurochemical-systems-in-the-offspring-of-socially-monogamous-prairie-voles
#8
Manal Tabbaa, Kelly Lei, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Early life experiences, particularly the experience with parents, are crucial to phenotypic outcomes in both humans and animals. Although the effects of maternal deprivation on offspring well-being have been studied, paternal deprivation (PD) has received little attention despite documented associations between father absence and children health problems in humans. In the present study, we utilized the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), which displays male-female pair bonding and bi-parental care, to examine the effects of PD on adult behaviors and neurochemical expression in the hippocampus...
December 18, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927666/epigenetic-biomarkers-in-progression-from-non-dysplastic-barrett-s-oesophagus-to-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
T Nieto, C L Tomlinson, J Dretzke, S Bayliss, M Dilworth, A D Beggs, O Tucker
INTRODUCTION: Barrett's oesophagus (BO), a metaplastic condition affecting the lower oesophagus due to long-standing gastro-oesophageal reflux and chronic inflammation, is a precursor lesion for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OADC). There is no clinical test to predict which patients with BO will progress to OADC. The British Society of Gastroenterology recommends endoscopic surveillance of patients with BO. Epigenetic changes have been well characterised in the neoplastic progression of ulcerative colitis to colonic carcinoma, another gastrointestinal cancer associated with chronic inflammation...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891254/prostate-cancer-epigenetic-alterations-risk-factors-and-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Mankgopo M Kgatle, Asgar A Kalla, Muhammed M Islam, Mike Sathekge, Razia Moorad
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent urological cancer that affects aging men in South Africa, and mechanisms underlying prostate tumorigenesis remain elusive. Research advancements in the field of PCa and epigenetics have allowed for the identification of specific alterations that occur beyond genetics but are still critically important in the pathogenesis of tumorigenesis. Anomalous epigenetic changes associated with PCa include histone modifications, DNA methylation, and noncoding miRNA. These mechanisms regulate and silence hundreds of target genes including some which are key components of cellular signalling pathways that, when perturbed, promote tumorigenesis...
2016: Prostate Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884142/dna-methylation-patterns-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-an-ageing-population
#11
Åsa K Hedman, Mihkel Zilmer, Johan Sundström, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading global cause of death. Contributions of environmental factors such as oxidative stress on complex traits and disease may be partly mediated through changes in epigenetic marks (e.g. DNA methylation). Studies relating differential methylation with intermediate phenotypes and disease endpoints may be useful in identifying additional candidate genes and mechanisms involved in disease...
November 25, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882215/epigenetic-changes-in-peripheral-leucocytes-as-biomarkers-in-intrauterine-growth-retardation-rat
#12
Xue-Feng Xu, Shan-Shan Xu, Lin-Cheng Fu, Qiong-Yao Hu, Ying Lv, Li-Zhong Du
Epigenetics plays an important role in the fetal origins of adult disease. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can cause increased histone acetylation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene from pulmonary vascular endothelial cells or the whole lung tissue and persist into later life, likely resulting in increased risk of pulmonary hypertension or asthma later in life. However, little is known regarding the correlation of epigenetic changes between specific tissue and peripheral leucocytes. In the present study, an IUGR rat model was established by maternal nutrient restriction...
November 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873573/powerdress-interacts-with-histone-deacetylase-9-to-promote-aging-in-arabidopsis
#13
Xiangsong Chen, Li Lu, Kevin S Mayer, Mark Scalf, Shuiming Qian, Aaron Lomax, Lloyd M Smith, Xuehua Zhong
Leaf senescence is an essential part of the plant lifecycle during which nutrients are re-allocated to other tissues. The regulation of leaf senescence is a complex process. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we uncovered a novel and the pivotal role of Arabidopsis HDA9 (a RPD3-like histone deacetylase) in promoting the onset of leaf senescence. We found that HDA9 acts in complex with a SANT domain-containing protein POWERDRESS (PWR) and transcription factor WRKY53. Our genome-wide profiling of HDA9 occupancy reveals that HDA9 directly binds to the promoters of key negative regulators of senescence and this association requires PWR...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858287/the-role-of-dna-methylation-in-lens-development-and-cataract-formation
#14
REVIEW
Yong Wang, Huaijin Guan
Epigenetics pertains to heritable alterations in genomic structural modifications without altering genomic DNA sequence. The studies of epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and microRNAs. DNA methylation may contribute to silencing gene expression which is a major mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation. DNA methylation regulatory mechanisms in lens development and pathogenesis of cataract represent exciting areas of research that have opened new avenues for association with aging and environment...
November 18, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855638/alteration-of-histone-h3k4-methylation-in-glomerular-podocytes-associated-with-proteinuria-in-patients-with-membranous-nephropathy
#15
Takayuki Fujino, Naoyuki Hasebe
BACKGROUND: Histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4 me3) is found in active euchromatic regions and plays an important role in podocyte function in which actin filaments are abundant in the foot processes. The pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy (MN), the most prevalent cause of primary nephrotic syndrome in the middle-aged and elderly, is podocyte dysfunction. METHODS: We investigated the role of H3K4 me3 in podocyte dysfunction in nephrotic syndrome using cultured podocytes and a mouse proteinuria model induced by LPS...
November 17, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#16
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818235/high-sucrose-intake-during-gestation-increases-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-mediated-vascular-contractility-associated-with-epigenetic-alterations-in-aged-offspring-rats
#17
Lei Wu, Aiping Shi, Di Zhu, Le Bo, Yuan Zhong, Juan Wang, Zhice Xu, Caiping Mao
Accruing evidence have confirmed that the fetal programming in response to adverse environmental in utero factors plays essential roles in the pathogenesis of hypertension in later life. High sugar intake has been accepted worldwide in everyday life diet and becomes the critical public health issue. Our previous studies indicated that intake of high sucrose (HS) during pregnancy could change the vascular reactivity and dipsogenic behavior closely associated with abnormal renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to increase the risk of hypertension in adult offspring...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817745/cell-free-circulating-epigenomic-signatures-non-invasive-biomarker-for-cardiovascular-and-other-age-related-chronic-diseases
#18
Arpit Bhargava, Naveen Kumar Khare, Neha Bunkar, Koel Chaudhury, Kailash Chand Pandey, Subodh Kumar Jain, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
The burden of cardio-vascular and other age-related non-communicable diseases are rapidly increasing worldwide. Majority of these chronic ailments are curable, if diagnosed at early stages. Candidate biomarkers of early detection are therefore essential for identification of high-risk individuals, prompt and accurate disease diagnosis, and to monitor therapeutic response. The functional significance of circulating nucleic acids that recapitulate specific disease profiles is now well established. But subtle changes in DNA sequence may not solely reflect the differentiation of gene expression patterns observed in diverse set of diseases as epigenetic phenomena play a larger role in aetiology and patho-physiology...
October 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803663/environmental-enrichment-modified-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-samp8-mouse-hippocampus-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-inflammaging-and-achieving-neuroprotection
#19
Christian Griñan-Ferré, Dolors Puigoriol-Illamola, Verónica Palomera-Ávalos, David Pérez-Cáceres, Júlia Companys-Alemany, Antonio Camins, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún, M Teresa Rodrigo, Mercè Pallàs
With the increase in life expectancy, aging and age-related cognitive impairments are becoming one of the most important issues for human health. At the same time, it has been shown that epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as universally important factors in life expectancy. The Senescence Accelerated Mouse P8 (SAMP8) strain exhibits age-related deterioration evidenced in learning and memory abilities and is a useful model of neurodegenerative disease. In SAMP8, Environmental Enrichment (EE) increased DNA-methylation levels (5-mC) and reduced hydroxymethylation levels (5-hmC), as well as increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation levels...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792453/metformin-targets-histone-acetylation-in-cancer-prone-epithelial-cells
#20
Elisabet Cuyàs, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jorge Joven, Javier A Menendez
The usage of metabolic intermediates as substrates for chromatin-modifying enzymes provides a direct link between the metabolic state of the cell and epigenetics. Because this metabolism-epigenetics axis can regulate not only normal but also diseased states, it is reasonable to suggest that manipulating the epigenome via metabolic interventions may improve the clinical manifestation of age-related diseases including cancer. Using a model of BRCA1 haploinsufficiency-driven accelerated geroncogenesis, we recently tested the hypothesis that: 1...
December 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
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