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Aging epigenetics histone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457866/epigenetic-effects-of-metformin-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications
#1
REVIEW
S C Bridgeman, G C Ellison, P E Melton, P Newsholme, Cds Mamotte
There is a growing body of evidence that links epigenetic modifications to type 2 diabetes. Researchers have more recently investigated effects of commonly used medications, including those prescribed for diabetes, on epigenetic processes. This work reviews the influence of the widely used antidiabetic drug metformin on epigenomics, microRNA levels and subsequent gene expression and potential clinical implications. Metformin may influence the activity of numerous epigenetic modifying enzymes, mostly via modulating the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386085/dna-methylation-is-not-involved-in-dietary-restriction-induced-lifespan-extension-in-adult-drosophila
#2
Ting Lian, Uma Gaur, Q I Wu, Jianbo Tu, Boyuan Sun, Deying Yang, Xiaolan Fan, Xueping Mao, Mingyao Yang
Dietary restriction (DR) is widely regarded as a viable intervention to extend lifespan and healthspan in diverse organisms. The precise molecular regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Epigenetic modifications are not stable upon DR and also keep changing with age. Here, we employed whole genome bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylation changes upon DR in adult Drosophila. Our results indicate that although a low level of DNA methylation exists in the adult Drosophila genome, there is no significant difference in DNA methylation levels upon DR when compared to unrestricted flies...
February 1, 2018: Genetics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385079/advances-in-the-development-of-pet-ligands-targeting-histone-deacetylases-for-the-assessment-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Tetsuro Tago, Jun Toyohara
Epigenetic alterations of gene expression have emerged as a key factor in several neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, inhibitors targeting histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are enzymes responsible for deacetylation of histones and other proteins, show therapeutic effects in animal neurodegenerative disease models. However, the details of the interaction between changes in HDAC levels in the brain and disease progression remain unknown. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of radioligands for HDAC imaging in the brain with positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 31, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383703/epigenetic-changes-and-their-implications-in-autoimmune-hepatitis
#4
REVIEW
Albert J Czaja
BACKGROUND: The genetic risk of autoimmune hepatitis is insufficient to explain the observed risk, and epigenetic changes may explain disparities in disease occurrence in different populations within and between countries. The goal of this review is to examine how epigenetic changes induced by the environment or inherited as a phenotypic trait may affect autoimmune hepatitis and be amenable to therapeutic intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pertinent abstracts were identified in PubMed by multiple search terms...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382574/dynamic-regulation-of-six-histone-h3-lysine-k-methyltransferases-in-response-to-prolonged-anoxia-exposure-in-a-freshwater-turtle
#5
Sanoji Wijenayake, Liam J Hawkins, Kenneth B Storey
The importance of histone lysine methylation is well established in health, disease, early development, aging, and cancer related-research. However, the potential role of epigenetics in regulating gene expression in response to extended periods of oxygen deprivation (anoxia) in a natural anoxia-tolerant model system is underexplored. Red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) can tolerate and survive three months of absolute anoxia and recover without incurring detrimental cellular damage, mainly by reducing the overall metabolic rate by 90% when compared to normoxia conditions...
January 27, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373688/compromised-jmjd6-histone-demethylase-activity-impacts-on-vhl-gene-repression-in-preeclampsia
#6
Sruthi Alahari, Martin Post, Alessandro Rolfo, Rosanna Weksberg, Isabella Caniggia
Context: The von Hippel Lindau (VHL) protein is a key executor of the cellular hypoxic response that is compromised in preeclampsia, a serious disorder complicating 5-7% of pregnancies. To date, the mechanisms controlling VHL gene expression in the human placenta remain elusive. Objective: We examined VHL epigenetic regulation in normal pregnancy and in preeclampsia, a pathology characterized by placental hypoxia. Design, Setting, and Participants: Placentae were obtained from early-onset (E-PE: n=56; <34 weeks of gestation) and late onset preeclampsia (L-PE: n=19; ≥ 34 weeks of gestation)...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362091/arabidopsis-nap-related-proteins-nrps-contribute-to-the-coordination-of-plant-growth-developmental-rate-and-age-related-pathogen-resistance-under-short-days
#7
Balázs Barna, Katalin Gémes, Mónika Domoki, Dóra Bernula, Györgyi Ferenc, Balázs Bálint, István Nagy, Attila Fehér
Plant nucleosome assembly protein-related proteins (NRPs) are histone chaperons involved in nucleosome turnover. Despite this basic cellular function, the Arabidopsis nrp1-1 nrp2-1 knock out mutant has been reported to exhibit only mild seedling root phenotypes and to significantly affect the expression of only few hundred genes Zhu et al. (2006). Here we report that NRP loss-of-function as well as the ectopic overexpression of At NRP1 significantly affected the growth, development, and the pathogen response of Arabidopsis plants under short day conditions...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343087/sulfhydrated-sirtuin-1-increasing-its-deacetylation-activity-is-an-essential-epigenetics-mechanism-of-anti-atherogenesis-by-hydrogen-sulfide
#8
Congkuo Du, Xianjuan Lin, Wenjing Xu, Fengjiao Zheng, Junyan Cai, Jichun Yang, Qinghua Cui, Chaoshu Tang, Jun Cai, Guoheng Xu, Bin Geng
AIMS: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a protective role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by multiple pathways. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is a histone deacetylase, as an essential mediated longevity gene, and has an anti-atherogenic effect by regulating the acetylation of some functional proteins. Whether SIRT1 is involved in protecting H2S in atherosclerosis and its mechanism remains unclear. RESULTS: In ApoE-knockout atherosclerosis mice, treatment with an H2S donor (NaHS or GYY4137) reduced atherosclerotic plaque area, macrophage infiltration, aortic inflammation and plasma lipid level...
January 17, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325627/epigenetic-mechanisms-underlying-nervous-system-diseases
#9
Irfan A Qureshi, Mark F Mehler
Epigenetic mechanisms act as control systems for modulating genomic structure and activity in response to evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function and gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions. The major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation; histone protein posttranslational modifications, nucleosome remodeling/repositioning, and higher-order chromatin reorganization; noncoding RNA regulation; and RNA editing...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303998/linking-dna-damage-and-age-related-promoter-dna-hyper-methylation-in-the-intestine
#10
Torsten Thalheim, Maria Herberg, Joerg Galle
Aberrant DNA methylation in stem cells is a hallmark of aging and tumor development. Here, we explore whether and how DNA damage repair might impact on these time-dependent changes, in particular in proliferative intestinal stem cells. We introduce a 3D multiscale computer model of intestinal crypts enabling simulation of aberrant DNA and histone methylation of gene promoters during aging. We assume histone state-dependent activity of de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and methylation-dependent binding of maintenance DNMTs to CpGs...
January 5, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302794/evaluation-of-the-neuroprotective-effect-of-sirt3-in-experimental-stroke
#11
Rajkumar Verma, Rodney M Ritzel, Joshua Crapser, Brett D Friedler, Louise D McCullough
Sirtuins (Sirt) are a family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins implicated in aging, cell cycle regulation, and metabolism. These proteins are involved in the epigenetic modification of neuromodulatory proteins after strokevia acetylation/deacetylation. The specific role of Sirt3, a mitochondrial sirtuin, in post-stroke injury has been relatively unexplored. Using male Sirt3 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT), we show that Sirt3 KO mice show significant neuroprotection at 3 days after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or stroke injury...
January 4, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280527/the-effects-of-superovulation-and-reproductive-aging-on-the-epigenome-of-the-oocyte-and-embryo
#12
REVIEW
Kira Lynn Marshall, Rocío Melissa Rivera
A societal preference of delaying maternal age at first childbirth has increased reliance on assisted reproductive technologies/therapies (ART) to conceive a child. Oocytes that have undergone physiologic aging (≥35 years for humans) are now commonly used for ART, yet evidence is building that suboptimal reproductive environments associated with aging negatively affect oocyte competence and embryo development - although the mechanisms underlying these relationship are not yet well understood. Epigenetic programming of the oocyte occurs during its growth within a follicle, so the ovarian stimulation protocols that administer exogenous hormones, as part of the first step for all ART procedures, may prevent the gamete from establishing an appropriate epigenetic state...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277749/cancer-progenitor-cells-the-result-of-an-epigenetic-event
#13
REVIEW
Karolina Lapinska, Gabriela Faria, Sandra McGonagle, Kate Morgan Macumber, Sarah Heerboth, Sibaji Sarkar
The concept of cancer stem cells was proposed in the late 1990s. Although initially the idea seemed controversial, the existence of cancer stem cells is now well established. However, the process leading to the formation of cancer stem cells is still not clear and thus requires further research. This article discusses epigenetic events that possibly produce cancer progenitor cells from predisposed cells by the influence of their environment. Every somatic cell possesses an epigenetic signature in terms of histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are obtained during lineage-specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, which is specific to that particular tissue...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259864/an-up-date-on-epigenetic-and-molecular-markers-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#14
Paolo Chieffi
Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common solid malignancy occurring in young men between 20 and 34 years of age, and its incidence has increased significantly over the last decades. Clinically several types of immunohistochemical markers are useful and sensitive. These new biomarkers are genes expressed in primordial germ cells/gonocytes and embryonic pluripotency-related cells but not in normal adult germ cells and they include OCT3/4, HMGA1 and 2, NANOG, SOX2, and LIN28. Gene expression in TGCT is regulated, at least in part, by DNA and histone modifications, and the epigenetic profile of these tumours is characterised by genome-wide demethylation...
November 2017: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239313/regulation-of-neuronal-survival-by-dna-methyltransferases
#15
REVIEW
Judit Symmank, Geraldine Zimmer
The limited regenerative capacity of neuronal cells requires tight orchestration of cell death and survival regulation in the context of longevity, age-associated diseases as well as during the development of the nervous system. Subordinate to genetic networks epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in the regulation of neuronal development, function and aging. DNA methylation by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), mostly correlated with gene silencing, is a dynamic and reversible process...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234279/long-term-effects-of-intermittent-adolescent-alcohol-exposure-in-male-and-female-rats
#16
Eva M Marco, Sara Peñasco, María-Donina Hernández, Anabel Gil, Erika Borcel, Marta Moya, Elena Giné, José Antonio López-Moreno, Consuelo Guerri, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking-known as binge-drinking-has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water) or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd) 28-52...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233643/trichostatin-a-inhibits-deacetylation-of-histone-h3-and-p53-by-sirt6
#17
Marci Wood, Stacia Rymarchyk, Song Zheng, Yana Cen
SIRT6 is an epigenetic modification enzyme that regulates gene transcription through its deacetylase activity. In addition to histone protein, SIRT6 also modify other proteins and enzymes, some of which are central players in metabolic reprogramming and aging process. Therefore, SIRT6 has emerged as a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorder and age-related diseases. Here, we report that SIRT6 deacetylates lysine 382 of p53 in short synthetic peptide sequence and in full length p53. Further studies showed that the deacetylation of H3K9Ac and p53K382Ac are insensitive to nicotinamide inhibition, but are sensitive to trichostatin A (TSA) inhibition...
December 9, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219199/variable-transcriptional-responsiveness-of-the-p2%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-3-receptor-gene-during-cfa-induced-inflammatory-hyperalgesia
#18
Paulina Nuñez-Badinez, Hugo Sepúlveda, Emilio Diaz, Wolfgang Greffrath, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Jimmy Stehberg, Martin Montecino, Brigitte van Zundert
The purinergic receptor P2 × 3 (P2 × 3-R) plays important roles in molecular pathways of pain, and reduction of its activity or expression effectively reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain sensation. Inflammation, nerve injury, and cancer-induced pain can increase P2 × 3-R mRNA and/or protein levels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, P2 × 3-R expression is unaltered or even reduced in other pain studies. The reasons for these discrepancies are unknown and might depend on the applied traumatic intervention or on intrinsic factors such as age, gender, genetic background and/or epigenetics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179259/roles-of-histone-h3-5-in-human-spermatogenesis-and-spermatogenic-disorders
#19
K Shiraishi, A Shindo, A Harada, H Kurumizaka, H Kimura, Y Ohkawa, H Matsuyama
Histone H3.5 (H3.5) is a newly identified histone variant highly expressed in the human testis. We have reported the crystal structure, instability of the H3.5 nucleosome and accumulation around transcription start sites, mainly in primary spermatocytes, but its role in human spermatogenesis remains poorly understood. Testicular biopsy specimens from 30 men (mean age: 35 years) with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) who underwent microdissection testicular sperm extraction and 23 men with obstructive azoospermia (OA) were included...
November 27, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173164/epigenetic-mechanisms-role-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-lineage-commitment-and-differentiation
#20
Sanjeev Raghuwanshi, Swati Dahariya, Ravinder Kandi, Usha Gutti, Ram Babu Undi, Durga Shankar Sharma, Narasaiah Kovuru, Itishri Sahu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Raja Gopal Venakata Saladi, Ravi Kumar Gutti
Major breakthroughs in last several decades have contributed to our knowledge of the genetic regulation in development. Although epigenetics is not a new concept, unfortunately, the role of epigenetics has not come to fruition in large past. But the field of epigenetics has exploded within the past decade. Now, growing evidences show a complex network of epigenetic regulation in development. The epigenetic makeup of a cell, tissue or individual is much more complex than their genetic complement. Epigenetic modifications are more important for normal development by maintaining the gene expression pattern in tissue- and context- specific manner...
November 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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