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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650342/inflammatory-ly6chi-monocytes-and-their-conversion-to-m2-macrophages-drive-atherosclerosis-regression
#1
Karishma Rahman, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Stephen A Ramsey, Noemi Rotllan Vila, Natasha M Girgis, Jianhua Liu, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Ada Weinstock, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke, Edward A Fisher
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615357/donor-pulmonary-intravascular-nonclassical-monocytes-recruit-recipient-neutrophils-and-mediate-primary-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#2
Zhikun Zheng, Stephen Chiu, Mahzad Akbarpour, Haiying Sun, Paul A Reyfman, Kishore R Anekalla, Hiam Abdala-Valencia, Daphne Edgren, Wenjun Li, Daniel Kreisel, Farida V Korobova, Ramiro Fernandez, Alexandra McQuattie-Pimentel, Zheng J Zhang, Harris Perlman, Alexander V Misharin, G R Scott Budinger, Ankit Bharat
Primary graft dysfunction is the predominant driver of mortality and graft loss after lung transplantation. Recruitment of neutrophils as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to cause primary graft dysfunction; however, the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil influx into the injured lung are incompletely understood. We found that donor-derived intravascular nonclassical monocytes (NCMs) are retained in human and murine donor lungs used in transplantation and can be visualized at sites of endothelial injury after reperfusion...
June 14, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586340/patrolling-monocytes-sense-peripheral-infection-and-induce-cytokine-mediated-neuronal-dysfunction
#3
Josef Priller, Chotima Böttcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566450/monocyte-subtypes-and-the-ccr2-chemokine-receptor-in-cardiovascular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Carolina N França, Maria C O Izar, Marinella N S Hortêncio, Jônatas B do Amaral, Carlos E S Ferreira, Izabela D Tuleta, Francisco A H Fonseca
Monocytes circulate in the blood and migrate to inflammatory tissues, but their functions can be either detrimental or beneficial, depending on their phenotypes. In humans, classical monocytes are inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)14(++)CD16(-)CCR2(++) cells originated from the bone marrow or spleen reservoirs and comprise ≥92% of monocytes. Intermediate monocytes (CD14(++)CD16(+)CCR2(+)) are involved in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines [such as interleukin (IL)-10], reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proinflammatory mediators [such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β)...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546658/endothelial-alterations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-potential-effect-of-monocyte-interaction
#5
REVIEW
Laura Atehortúa, Mauricio Rojas, Gloria M Vásquez, Diana Castaño
Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are prone to develop atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases five times more often than the general population; this increase in frequency could be partially explained by an increase in the macrovasculature endothelial damage. In these autoimmune diseases, a microvascular endothelial injury has also been reported in different organs and tissues, especially in sites where ultrafiltration processes occur...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546349/a-polecat-s-view-of-patrolling-monocytes
#6
EDITORIAL
Jesse W Williams, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Bernd H Zinselmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514690/genomic-characterization-of-murine-monocytes-reveals-c-ebp%C3%AE-transcription-factor-dependence-of-ly6c-cells
#7
Alexander Mildner, Jörg Schönheit, Amir Giladi, Eyal David, David Lara-Astiaso, Erika Lorenzo-Vivas, Franziska Paul, Louise Chappell-Maor, Josef Priller, Achim Leutz, Ido Amit, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating, short-lived mononuclear phagocytes, which in mice and man comprise two main subpopulations. Murine Ly6C(+) monocytes display developmental plasticity and are recruited to complement tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells on demand. Murine vascular Ly6C(-) monocytes patrol the endothelium, act as scavengers, and support vessel wall repair. Here we characterized population and single cell transcriptomes, as well as enhancer and promoter landscapes of the murine monocyte compartment...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435674/the-three-rs-recruitment-retention-and-residence-of-leukocytes-in-the-liver
#8
REVIEW
Hayley A McNamara, Ian A Cockburn
The composition of leukocytes in the liver is highly distinct from that of the blood and lymphoid organs. In particular, the liver is highly enriched in non-conventional T cells such as natural killer T (NKT) cells, γδ T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells. In addition, there are significant populations of tissue-resident NK cells (or innate lymphoid cells (ILC1)) and memory CD8(+) T cells. These cells are joined in conditions of inflammation by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. In recent years a multitude of studies have generated insights into how these cells arrest, move and remain resident in the liver...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327462/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-youth-investigating-the-relationship-with-immune-activation
#9
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Chanda C Graves, Ashley Alexander, Anita K Grover, S Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Neurocognitive performance was assessed by age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302649/endothelial-protective-monocyte-patrolling-in-large-arteries-intensified-by-western-diet-and-atherosclerosis
#10
Amado Quintar, Sara McArdle, Dennis Wolf, Alex Marki, Erik Ehinger, Melanie Vassallo, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, Klaus Ley, Konrad Buscher
RATIONALE: Nonclassical mouse monocyte (CX3CR1(high), Ly-6C(low)) patrolling along the vessels of the microcirculation is critical for endothelial homeostasis and inflammation. Because of technical challenges, it is currently not established how patrolling occurs in large arteries. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular, migratory, and functional phenotypes of patrolling monocytes in the high shear and pulsatile environment of large arteries in healthy, hyperlipidemic, and atherosclerotic conditions...
May 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299776/toll-like-receptors-elicit-different-recruitment-kinetics-of-monocytes-and-neutrophils-in-mouse-acute-inflammation
#11
Beat A Imhof, Stephane Jemelin, Yalin Emre
Leukocyte recruitment is an important process in combating pathogens. The largest class of circulating leukocytes are neutrophils, which rapidly invade inflamed tissue, followed by inflammatory Ly6C(+) monocytes. Ly6C(low) monocytes patrol the endothelial wall routinely in the steady state. We recently reported early luminal recruitment of Ly6C(low) monocytes, which preceded and orchestrated neutrophil arrival and extravasation in response to TLR7/8-mediated vascular inflammation. Here we dissected the kinetics of recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils and examined the dynamics of Ly6C(low) monocytes in response to several other Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, using intravital confocal microscopy...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263668/monocytes-macrophages-and-osteoclasts-in-osteosarcoma
#12
Fergal C Kelleher, Hazel O'Sullivan
Macrophages appear to have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. These highly diverse plastic cells are subdivided into classical or inflammatory macrophages known as M1 and alternative macrophages, which decrease inflammation and are reparative, called M2. Although primary and metastatic osteosarcomas are infiltrated with M2 macrophages, targeting the M1 macrophages with the immune adjuvant muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl ethanolamine (MTP-PE) has been the greatest recent therapeutic advance in osteosarcoma...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226228/antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-skin
#13
Sakeen W Kashem, Muzlifah Haniffa, Daniel H Kaplan
Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin include dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. They are highly dynamic, with the capacity to enter skin from the peripheral circulation, patrol within tissue, and migrate through lymphatics to draining lymph nodes. Skin APCs are endowed with antigen-sensing, -processing, and -presenting machinery and play key roles in initiating, modulating, and resolving cutaneous inflammation. Skin APCs are a highly heterogeneous population with functionally specialized subsets that are developmentally imprinted and modulated by local tissue microenvironmental and inflammatory cues...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D, and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the prespecified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011675/cx3cr1-dependent-endothelial-margination-modulates-ly6c-high-monocyte-systemic-deployment-upon-inflammation-in-mice
#15
Pauline Hamon, Pierre-Louis Loyher, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Fabrice Licata, Christophe Combadière, Alexandre Boissonnas
Two subsets of blood monocytes are commonly described in mice and humans: the classical inflammatory monocytes, which are rapidly mobilized upon inflammation in a CC-chemokine receptor 2-dependent manner, and the nonclassical blood resident monocyte subset that patrols the intraluminal side of the endothelium. Old reports suggest that blood monocytes are distributed into circulating and marginating pools, but no direct evidence of the latter has been obtained so far. Using a combination of in vivo real-time imaging and blood/tissue partitioning by intravascular staining of leukocytes, we showed that both inflammatory and resident monocytes are retained in the bone marrow vasculature, representing an important reservoir of marginated monocytes...
March 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983912/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Steven Merkel, Allison Andrews, Evan Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Cannella, Servio Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent pre-clinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here, we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
November 29, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814740/spatio-temporal-profile-phenotypic-diversity-and-fate-of-recruited-monocytes-into-the-post-ischemic-brain
#17
Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Giuseppe Faraco, Jamie Moore, Michelle Murphy, Gianfranco Racchumi, Jayashree Srinivasan, David Brea, Costantino Iadecola, Josef Anrather
BACKGROUND: A key feature of the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia is the brain infiltration of blood monocytes. There are two main monocyte subsets in the mouse blood: CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) "inflammatory" monocytes involved in acute inflammation, and CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "patrolling" monocytes, which may play a role in repair processes. We hypothesized that CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes are recruited in the early phase after ischemia and transdifferentiate into CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "repair" macrophages in the brain...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780020/murine-monocytes-origins-subsets-fates-and-functions
#18
Alexander Mildner, Goran Marinkovic, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are short-lived mononuclear phagocytes that circulate in the bloodstream and comprise two main subpopulations that in the mouse are best defined by the Ly6C marker. Intravascular functions of "classical" Ly6C+ monocytes and their interactions with other lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes in the circulation remain poorly understood. Rather, these cells are known to efficiently extravasate into tissues. Indeed, Ly6C+ monocytes and their descendants have emerged as a third, highly plastic and dynamic cellular system that complements the two classical, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments, i...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746174/dendritic-cell-inhibitory-receptor-4-dcir4-is-preferentially-expressed-on-inflammatory-and-patrolling-monocytes
#19
Yosuke Kameda, Motoki Hanayama, Atsushi Kishimoto, Masahiko Kume, Kazuo Yamamoto, Naoki Matsumoto
Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4, Clec4a1) is a lectin receptor and a member of mouse dendritic cell immunoreceptor family. Due to the lack of antibodies against DCIR4, expression of DCIR4 protein remains unknown. In this study, we established a specific monoclonal antibody against DCIR4 and investigated the expression of DCIR4 among immune cells. We found that DCIR4 was expressed on non-granulocytic subsets of CD11b(+) cells in various immune organs including bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, skin-associated lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes...
November 11, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626922/increased-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-hiv-infected-youth
#20
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, S Thera Lee, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Jakob G Habib, Julie E Daniels, Danielle Labbato, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Immune activation and exhaustion drive several comorbidities and disease progression in HIV-infected adults; however, they are not well studied in HIV-infected youth. Thus, this study sought to examine levels of immune activation and exhaustion in this population, investigate associated HIV- and non-HIV-related variables and compare results with a matched healthy control group. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-25 years of age on stable antiretroviral therapy with an HIV-1 RNA level <1000 copies/mL were enrolled, along with matched healthy controls...
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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