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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045766/baseline-vitamin-d-deficiency-decreases-the-effectiveness-of-statins-in-hiv-infected-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Corrilynn O Hileman, Vin Tangpricha, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV. Statins may increase vitamin D and it is unknown whether vitamin D modifies the effect of statins on cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: SATURN-HIV was a 96-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin on immune activation and subclinical vascular disease in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. This analysis focuses on the pre-specified secondary endpoint 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011675/cx3cr1-dependent-endothelial-margination-modulates-ly6chigh-monocyte-systemic-deployment-upon-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Pauline Hamon, Pierre-Louis Loyher, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Fabrice Licata, Christophe Combadière, Alexandre Boissonnas
Two subsets of blood monocytes are commonly described in mice and humans; the classical inflammatory monocytes which are rapidly mobilized upon inflammation in a CC-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-dependent manner, and the non-classical blood resident monocyte subset that patrol the intraluminal side of the endothelium. Old reports suggest that blood monocytes are distributed into circulating and marginating pools but no direct evidence of the latter has been obtained so far. Using a combination of in vivo real-time imaging and blood/tissue partitioning by intravascular staining of leukocytes, we showed that both inflammatory and resident monocytes are retained in the bone marrow vasculature, representing an important reservoir of marginated monocytes...
December 23, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983912/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Steven Merkel, Allison Andrews, Evan Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Cannella, Servio Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent pre-clinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here, we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
29, 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814740/spatio-temporal-profile-phenotypic-diversity-and-fate-of-recruited-monocytes-into-the-post-ischemic-brain
#4
Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Giuseppe Faraco, Jamie Moore, Michelle Murphy, Gianfranco Racchumi, Jayashree Srinivasan, David Brea, Costantino Iadecola, Josef Anrather
BACKGROUND: A key feature of the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia is the brain infiltration of blood monocytes. There are two main monocyte subsets in the mouse blood: CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) "inflammatory" monocytes involved in acute inflammation, and CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "patrolling" monocytes, which may play a role in repair processes. We hypothesized that CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi) inflammatory monocytes are recruited in the early phase after ischemia and transdifferentiate into CX3CR1(+)Ly6C(lo) "repair" macrophages in the brain...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780020/murine-monocytes-origins-subsets-fates-and-functions
#5
Alexander Mildner, Goran Marinkovic, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are short-lived mononuclear phagocytes that circulate in the bloodstream and comprise two main subpopulations that in the mouse are best defined by the Ly6C marker. Intravascular functions of "classical" Ly6C+ monocytes and their interactions with other lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes in the circulation remain poorly understood. Rather, these cells are known to efficiently extravasate into tissues. Indeed, Ly6C+ monocytes and their descendants have emerged as a third, highly plastic and dynamic cellular system that complements the two classical, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments, i...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746174/dendritic-cell-inhibitory-receptor-4-dcir4-is-preferentially-expressed-on-inflammatory-and-patrolling-monocytes
#6
Yosuke Kameda, Motoki Hanayama, Atsushi Kishimoto, Masahiko Kume, Kazuo Yamamoto, Naoki Matsumoto
Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4, Clec4a1) is a lectin receptor and a member of mouse dendritic cell immunoreceptor family. Due to the lack of antibodies against DCIR4, expression of DCIR4 protein remains unknown. In this study, we established a specific monoclonal antibody against DCIR4 and investigated the expression of DCIR4 among immune cells. We found that DCIR4 was expressed on non-granulocytic subsets of CD11b(+) cells in various immune organs including bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, skin-associated lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626922/increased-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-hiv-infected-youth
#7
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, S Thera Lee, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Jakob G Habib, Julie E Daniels, Danielle Labbato, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Immune activation and exhaustion drive several comorbidities and disease progression in HIV-infected adults; however, they are not well studied in HIV-infected youth. Thus, this study sought to examine levels of immune activation and exhaustion in this population, investigate associated HIV- and non-HIV-related variables and compare results with a matched healthy control group. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-25 years of age on stable antiretroviral therapy with an HIV-1 RNA level <1000 copies/mL were enrolled, along with matched healthy controls...
December 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610624/comparison-of-human-neonatal-and-adult-blood-leukocyte-subset-composition-phenotypes
#8
Savit B Prabhu, Deepak K Rathore, Deepa Nair, Anita Chaudhary, Saimah Raza, Parna Kanodia, Shailaja Sopory, Anna George, Satyajit Rath, Vineeta Bal, Reva Tripathi, Siddharth Ramji, Aruna Batra, Kailash C Aggarwal, Harish K Chellani, Sugandha Arya, Nidhi Agarwal, Umesh Mehta, Uma Chandra Mouli Natchu, Nitya Wadhwa, Shinjini Bhatnagar
The human peripheral leukocyte subset composition depends on genotype variation and pre-natal and post-natal environmental influence diversity. We quantified this composition in adults and neonates, and compared the median values and dispersal ranges of various subsets in them. We confirmed higher frequencies of monocytes and regulatory T cells (Tregs), similar frequencies of neutrophils, and lower frequencies of CD8 T cells, NKT cells, B1 B cells and gamma-delta T cells in neonatal umbilical cord blood. Unlike previous reports, we found higher frequencies of eosinophils and B cells, higher CD4:CD8 ratios, lower frequencies of T cells and iNKT cells, and similar frequencies of CD4 T cells and NK cells in neonates...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600773/nr4a1-dependent-ly6c-low-monocytes-contribute-to-reducing-joint-inflammation-in-arthritic-mice-through-treg-cells
#9
Alexandre Brunet, Manon LeBel, Benoit Egarnes, Carine Paquet-Bouchard, Anne-Julie Lessard, Jacques P Brown, Jean Gosselin
Monocytes are central to the physiopathology of arthritis, but their roles in progression and resolution of the disease remain to be clarified. Using NR4A1(-/-) mice, which lack patrolling lymphocyte antigen 6C (Ly6C(low) ) monocytes, we found that inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes contribute to rapid development of arthritis in a serum transfer-induced arthritis (STIA) model. Our experiments suggest that patrolling monocytes do not promote the initiation and progression of arthritis in mice, as severity of symptoms was amplified in NR4A1(-/-) mice...
December 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576369/regulation-of-monocyte-cell-fate-by-blood-vessels-mediated-by-notch-signalling
#10
Jaba Gamrekelashvili, Roberto Giagnorio, Jasmin Jussofie, Oliver Soehnlein, Johan Duchene, Carlos G Briseño, Saravana K Ramasamy, Kashyap Krishnasamy, Anne Limbourg, Tamar Kapanadze, Chieko Ishifune, Rabea Hinkel, Freddy Radtke, Lothar J Strobl, Ursula Zimber-Strobl, L Christian Napp, Johann Bauersachs, Hermann Haller, Koji Yasutomo, Christian Kupatt, Kenneth M Murphy, Ralf H Adams, Christian Weber, Florian P Limbourg
A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528685/patrolling-monocytes-promote-intravascular-neutrophil-activation-and-glomerular-injury-in-the-acutely-inflamed-glomerulus
#11
Michaela Finsterbusch, Pam Hall, Anqi Li, Sapna Devi, Clare L V Westhorpe, A Richard Kitching, Michael J Hickey
Nonclassical monocytes undergo intravascular patrolling in blood vessels, positioning them ideally to coordinate responses to inflammatory stimuli. Under some circumstances, the actions of monocytes have been shown to involve promotion of neutrophil recruitment. However, the mechanisms whereby patrolling monocytes control the actions of neutrophils in the circulation are unclear. Here, we examined the contributions of monocytes to antibody- and neutrophil-dependent inflammation in a model of in situ immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis...
August 30, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380612/intravascular-blood-vessel-histiocytosis-with-haemophagocytosis
#12
M Teresa Fernández-Figueras, M Teresa Martín-Urdà, Adrià Plana, Octavi Servitje, Rosa M Penin, Gustavo Tapia, José L Mate, Aurelio Ariza
AIMS: Many types of intravascular lymphohistiocytic proliferation have been described recently; this was previously an unnoticed or misinterpreted phenomenon. Intralymphatic lymphohistiocytic aggregates are relatively common, and include benign, malignant and indeterminate conditions. In contrast, all non-endothelial proliferations in the lumina of blood vessels have been interpreted so far as malignant. Herein, we present three cases of histiocytic proliferations in the lumen of blood vessels associated with intracytoplasmic granulocyte debris (haemophagocytosis), a previously undescribed entity...
December 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021645/monocyte-mediated-defense-against-bacteria-fungi-and-parasites
#13
REVIEW
Grégoire Lauvau, P'ng Loke, Tobias M Hohl
Circulating blood monocytes are a heterogeneous leukocyte population that contributes critical antimicrobial and regulatory functions during systemic and tissue-specific infections. These include patrolling vascular tissue for evidence of microbial invasion, infiltrating peripheral tissues and directly killing microbial invaders, conditioning the inflammatory milieu at sites of microbial tissue invasion, and orchestrating the activation of innate and adaptive immune effector cells. The central focus of this review is the in vivo mechanisms by which monocytes and their derivative cells promote microbial clearance and immune regulation...
December 2015: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26731754/changes-in-oxidized-lipids-drive-the-improvement-in-monocyte-activation-and-vascular-disease-after-statin-therapy-in-hiv
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Corrilynn O Hileman, Randi Turner, Nicholas T Funderburg, Richard D Semba, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in atherosclerosis development. HIV infection has been linked with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors may reduce oxidative stress and subsequently subclinical vascular disease in HIV. DESIGN/METHODS: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin in HIV-infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy with low-density lipoprotein less than 130  mg/dl and increased inflammation or T-cell activation on subclinical vascular disease...
January 2, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700486/infiltration-pattern-of-blood-monocytes-into-the-central-nervous-system-during-experimental-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis
#15
Rafik Menasria, Coraline Canivet, Jocelyne Piret, Guy Boivin
The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675069/expression-of-dnam-1-cd226-on-inflammatory-monocytes
#16
Anh Van Vo, Eri Takenaka, Akira Shibuya, Kazuko Shibuya
DNAM-1 is an activating receptor expressed on NK cells and T cells and plays an important role in cytotoxicity of these cells against target cells. Although the role of DNAM-1 in the function of T cells and NK cells has been well studied, the expression and function of DNAM-1 on myeloid cells have been incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated expression of DNAM-1 on monocyte subsets in mouse peripheral blood and found that only inflammatory monocytes (iMos), but not patrolling monocytes (pMos), expressed high levels of DNAM-1...
January 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26666179/lrp5-associates-with-specific-subsets-of-macrophages-molecular-and-functional-effects
#17
M Borrell-Pages, J C Romero, J Crespo, O Juan-Babot, L Badimon
Innate and acquired immunity is involved in the progression of atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms ruling monocyte to macrophage (Mø) differentiation are not yet fully understood. Different subtypes of plaque macrophages that have differentiated from monocytes recruited from circulating blood, have been characterized based on surface epitopes. We have recently shown that LRP5, a member of the LDL receptor superfamily supporting Wnt signalling, has an important role in monocyte to macrophage differentiation...
January 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26634605/cancer-immunosurveillance-role-of-patrolling-monocytes
#18
Luca Cassetta, Jeffrey W Pollard
Classical inflammatory monocytes and their derivative macrophages promote tumor metastasis whereas CD8(+) T and NK cells restrict tumor growth. In a recent paper published in Science, Hanna and colleagues demonstrate that another monocyte population, nonclassical patrolling monocytes, is enriched in the microvasculature of tumor-challenged lung and reduces tumor metastasis by recruiting NK cells.
January 2016: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26608313/human-t-cell-leukemia-virus-type-1-infection-of-the-three-monocyte-subsets-contributes-to-viral-burden-in-humans
#19
Maria Fernanda de Castro-Amarante, Cynthia A Pise-Masison, Katherine McKinnon, Robyn Washington Parks, Veronica Galli, Maria Omsland, Vibeke Andresen, Raya Massoud, Giovanna Brunetto, Breanna Caruso, David Venzon, Steven Jacobson, Genoveffa Franchini
UNLABELLED: Because the viral DNA burden correlates with disease development, we investigated the contribution of monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) to the total viral burden in 22 human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected individuals by assessing their infectivity status, frequency, as well as chemotactic and phagocytic functions. All three monocyte subsets sorted from HTLV-1-infected individuals were positive for viral DNA, and the frequency of classical monocytes was lower in the blood of HTLV-1-infected individuals than in that of uninfected individuals, while the expression levels of the chemokine receptors CCR5, CXCR3, and CX3CR1 in classical monocytes were higher in HTLV-1-infected individuals than uninfected individuals; the percentage of intermediate monocytes and their levels of chemokine receptor expression did not differ between HTLV-1-infected and uninfected individuals...
November 25, 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26573661/innate-immune-cells-may-prevent-metastasis
#20
Esther Landhuis
Unlike classic monocytes, which can exacerbate metastasis upon recruitment to tumor sites, patrolling monocytes play a preemptive anticancer role by engulfing tumor cells and slowing their spread, particularly to the lung.
January 2016: Cancer Discovery
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