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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993702/erv1-overexpression-in-myeloid-cells-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance
#1
Corneliu Sima, Eduardo Montero, Daniel Nguyen, Marcelo Freire, Paul Norris, Charles N Serhan, Thomas E Van Dyke
Non-resolving inflammation is a central pathologic component of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and associated morbidities. The resultant hyperglycemia is deleterious to the normal function of many organs and its control significantly improves survival and quality of life for patients with diabetes. Macrophages play critical roles in both onset and progression of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Here we show that systemic activation of inflammation resolution prevents from morbid obesity and hyperglycemia under dietary overload conditions...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969686/s100a8-a9-increases-the-mobilization-of-pro-inflammatory-ly6c-high-monocytes-to-the-synovium-during-experimental-osteoarthritis
#2
Niels A J Cremers, Martijn H J van den Bosch, Stephanie van Dalen, Irene Di Ceglie, Giuliana Ascone, Fons van de Loo, Marije Koenders, Peter van der Kraan, Annet Sloetjes, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Edwin J W Geven, Arjen B Blom, Peter L E M van Lent
BACKGROUND: Monocytes are dominant cells present within the inflamed synovium during osteoarthritis (OA). In mice, two functionally distinct monocyte subsets are described: pro-inflammatory Ly6C(high) and patrolling Ly6C(low) monocytes. Alarmins S100A8/A9 locally released by the synovium during inflammatory OA for prolonged periods may be dominant proteins involved in stimulating recruitment of Ly6C(high) monocytes from the circulation to the joint. Our objective was to investigate the role of S100A8/A9 in the mobilization of Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocytic populations to the inflamed joint in collagenase-induced OA (CiOA)...
September 29, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935758/scavenger-receptor-cd36-directs-nonclassical-monocyte-patrolling-along-the-endothelium-during-early-atherogenesis
#3
Paola M Marcovecchio, Graham D Thomas, Zbigniew Mikulski, Erik Ehinger, Karin A L Mueller, Amy Blatchley, Runpei Wu, Yury I Miller, Anh Tram Nguyen, Angela M Taylor, Coleen A McNamara, Klaus Ley, Catherine C Hedrick
OBJECTIVE: Nonclassical monocytes (NCM) function to maintain vascular homeostasis by crawling or patrolling along the vessel wall. This subset of monocytes responds to viruses, tumor cells, and other pathogens to aid in protection of the host. In this study, we wished to determine how early atherogenesis impacts NCM patrolling in the vasculature. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To study the role of NCM in early atherogenesis, we quantified the patrolling behaviors of NCM in ApoE(-/-) (apolipoprotein E) and C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933216/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Anne Cannella, Servio H Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent preclinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912781/microrna-dynamic-regulators-of-macrophage-polarization-and-plasticity
#5
REVIEW
Jezrom Bokcaerin Self-Fordham, Afsar Raza Naqvi, Juhi Raju Uttamani, Varun Kulkarni, Salvador Nares
The ability of a healthy immune system to clear the plethora of antigens it encounters incessantly relies on the enormous plasticity displayed by the comprising cell types. Macrophages (MΦs) are crucial member of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that constantly patrol the peripheral tissues and are actively recruited to the sites of injury and infection. In tissues, infiltrating monocytes replenish MΦ. Under the guidance of the local micro-milieu, MΦ can be activated to acquire specialized functional phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834747/triggering-of-nod2-receptor-converts-inflammatory-ly6c-high-into-ly6c-low-monocytes-with-patrolling-properties
#6
Anne-Julie Lessard, Manon LeBel, Benoit Egarnes, Paul Préfontaine, Peter Thériault, Arnaud Droit, Alexandre Brunet, Serge Rivest, Jean Gosselin
The signals that regulate the fate of circulating monocytes remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that triggering of the NOD2 receptor by muramyl dipeptide (MDP) converts inflammatory Ly6C(high) monocytes into patrolling Ly6C(low) monocytes. Administration of MDP to Nr4a1(-/-) mice, which lack Ly6C(low) monocytes, or to Ly6C(low)-depleted mice led to the emergence of blood-patrolling monocytes with a profile similar to that of Ly6C(low) monocytes, including high expression of CX3CR1 and LFA1...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811289/primary-tumors-limit-metastasis-formation-through-induction-of-il15-mediated-crosstalk-between-patrolling-monocytes-and-nk-cells
#7
Hiroshi Kubo, Sofia Mensurado, Natacha Goncalves-Sousa, Karine Serre, Bruno Silva-Santos
Metastases are responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Although tumor cells can become invasive early during cancer progression, metastases formation typically occurs as a late event. How the immune response to primary tumors may dictate this outcome remains poorly understood, which hampers our capacity to manipulate it therapeutically. Here we used a two-step experimental model, based on the highly aggressive B16F10 melanoma, that temporally segregates the establishment of primary tumors (subcutaneously) and the formation of lung metastases (from intravenous injection)...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650342/inflammatory-ly6chi-monocytes-and-their-conversion-to-m2-macrophages-drive-atherosclerosis-regression
#8
Karishma Rahman, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Stephen A Ramsey, Noemi Rotllan Vila, Natasha M Girgis, Jianhua Liu, Viktoria Gusarova, Jesper Gromada, Ada Weinstock, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke, Edward A Fisher
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and developing therapies to promote its regression is an important clinical goal. We previously established that atherosclerosis regression is characterized by an overall decrease in plaque macrophages and enrichment in markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. We have now investigated the origin and functional requirement for M2 macrophages in regression in normolipidemic mice that received transplants of atherosclerotic aortic segments. We compared plaque regression in WT normolipidemic recipients and those deficient in chemokine receptors necessary to recruit inflammatory Ly6Chi (Ccr2-/- or Cx3cr1-/-) or patrolling Ly6Clo (Ccr5-/-) monocytes...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615357/donor-pulmonary-intravascular-nonclassical-monocytes-recruit-recipient-neutrophils-and-mediate-primary-lung-allograft-dysfunction
#9
Zhikun Zheng, Stephen Chiu, Mahzad Akbarpour, Haiying Sun, Paul A Reyfman, Kishore R Anekalla, Hiam Abdala-Valencia, Daphne Edgren, Wenjun Li, Daniel Kreisel, Farida V Korobova, Ramiro Fernandez, Alexandra McQuattie-Pimentel, Zheng J Zhang, Harris Perlman, Alexander V Misharin, G R Scott Budinger, Ankit Bharat
Primary graft dysfunction is the predominant driver of mortality and graft loss after lung transplantation. Recruitment of neutrophils as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to cause primary graft dysfunction; however, the mechanisms that regulate neutrophil influx into the injured lung are incompletely understood. We found that donor-derived intravascular nonclassical monocytes (NCMs) are retained in human and murine donor lungs used in transplantation and can be visualized at sites of endothelial injury after reperfusion...
June 14, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586340/patrolling-monocytes-sense-peripheral-infection-and-induce-cytokine-mediated-neuronal-dysfunction
#10
Josef Priller, Chotima Böttcher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566450/monocyte-subtypes-and-the-ccr2-chemokine-receptor-in-cardiovascular-disease
#11
REVIEW
Carolina N França, Maria C O Izar, Marinella N S Hortêncio, Jônatas B do Amaral, Carlos E S Ferreira, Izabela D Tuleta, Francisco A H Fonseca
Monocytes circulate in the blood and migrate to inflammatory tissues, but their functions can be either detrimental or beneficial, depending on their phenotypes. In humans, classical monocytes are inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)14(++)CD16(-)CCR2(++) cells originated from the bone marrow or spleen reservoirs and comprise ≥92% of monocytes. Intermediate monocytes (CD14(++)CD16(+)CCR2(+)) are involved in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines [such as interleukin (IL)-10], reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proinflammatory mediators [such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β)...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546658/endothelial-alterations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-potential-effect-of-monocyte-interaction
#12
REVIEW
Laura Atehortúa, Mauricio Rojas, Gloria M Vásquez, Diana Castaño
Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are prone to develop atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases five times more often than the general population; this increase in frequency could be partially explained by an increase in the macrovasculature endothelial damage. In these autoimmune diseases, a microvascular endothelial injury has also been reported in different organs and tissues, especially in sites where ultrafiltration processes occur...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546349/a-polecat-s-view-of-patrolling-monocytes
#13
EDITORIAL
Jesse W Williams, Gwendalyn J Randolph, Bernd H Zinselmeyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514690/genomic-characterization-of-murine-monocytes-reveals-c-ebp%C3%AE-transcription-factor-dependence-of-ly6c-cells
#14
Alexander Mildner, Jörg Schönheit, Amir Giladi, Eyal David, David Lara-Astiaso, Erika Lorenzo-Vivas, Franziska Paul, Louise Chappell-Maor, Josef Priller, Achim Leutz, Ido Amit, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are circulating, short-lived mononuclear phagocytes, which in mice and man comprise two main subpopulations. Murine Ly6C(+) monocytes display developmental plasticity and are recruited to complement tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells on demand. Murine vascular Ly6C(-) monocytes patrol the endothelium, act as scavengers, and support vessel wall repair. Here we characterized population and single cell transcriptomes, as well as enhancer and promoter landscapes of the murine monocyte compartment...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435674/the-three-rs-recruitment-retention-and-residence-of-leukocytes-in-the-liver
#15
REVIEW
Hayley A McNamara, Ian A Cockburn
The composition of leukocytes in the liver is highly distinct from that of the blood and lymphoid organs. In particular, the liver is highly enriched in non-conventional T cells such as natural killer T (NKT) cells, γδ T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells. In addition, there are significant populations of tissue-resident NK cells (or innate lymphoid cells (ILC1)) and memory CD8(+) T cells. These cells are joined in conditions of inflammation by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. In recent years a multitude of studies have generated insights into how these cells arrest, move and remain resident in the liver...
December 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327462/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-youth-investigating-the-relationship-with-immune-activation
#16
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Chanda C Graves, Ashley Alexander, Anita K Grover, S Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Neurocognitive performance was assessed by age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302649/endothelial-protective-monocyte-patrolling-in-large-arteries-intensified-by-western-diet-and-atherosclerosis
#17
Amado Quintar, Sara McArdle, Dennis Wolf, Alex Marki, Erik Ehinger, Melanie Vassallo, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, Klaus Ley, Konrad Buscher
RATIONALE: Nonclassical mouse monocyte (CX3CR1(high), Ly-6C(low)) patrolling along the vessels of the microcirculation is critical for endothelial homeostasis and inflammation. Because of technical challenges, it is currently not established how patrolling occurs in large arteries. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to elucidate the molecular, migratory, and functional phenotypes of patrolling monocytes in the high shear and pulsatile environment of large arteries in healthy, hyperlipidemic, and atherosclerotic conditions...
May 26, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299776/toll-like-receptors-elicit-different-recruitment-kinetics-of-monocytes-and-neutrophils-in-mouse-acute-inflammation
#18
Beat A Imhof, Stephane Jemelin, Yalin Emre
Leukocyte recruitment is an important process in combating pathogens. The largest class of circulating leukocytes are neutrophils, which rapidly invade inflamed tissue, followed by inflammatory Ly6C(+) monocytes. Ly6C(low) monocytes patrol the endothelial wall routinely in the steady state. We recently reported early luminal recruitment of Ly6C(low) monocytes, which preceded and orchestrated neutrophil arrival and extravasation in response to TLR7/8-mediated vascular inflammation. Here we dissected the kinetics of recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils and examined the dynamics of Ly6C(low) monocytes in response to several other Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, using intravital confocal microscopy...
June 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263668/monocytes-macrophages-and-osteoclasts-in-osteosarcoma
#19
Fergal C Kelleher, Hazel O'Sullivan
Macrophages appear to have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. These highly diverse plastic cells are subdivided into classical or inflammatory macrophages known as M1 and alternative macrophages, which decrease inflammation and are reparative, called M2. Although primary and metastatic osteosarcomas are infiltrated with M2 macrophages, targeting the M1 macrophages with the immune adjuvant muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl ethanolamine (MTP-PE) has been the greatest recent therapeutic advance in osteosarcoma...
September 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226228/antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-skin
#20
Sakeen W Kashem, Muzlifah Haniffa, Daniel H Kaplan
Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin include dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. They are highly dynamic, with the capacity to enter skin from the peripheral circulation, patrol within tissue, and migrate through lymphatics to draining lymph nodes. Skin APCs are endowed with antigen-sensing, -processing, and -presenting machinery and play key roles in initiating, modulating, and resolving cutaneous inflammation. Skin APCs are a highly heterogeneous population with functionally specialized subsets that are developmentally imprinted and modulated by local tissue microenvironmental and inflammatory cues...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
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