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Pupil and arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#1
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
November 11, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855175/reappraisal-and-distraction-emotion-regulation-strategies-are-associated-with-distinct-patterns-of-visual-attention-and-differing-levels-of-cognitive-demand
#2
Gregory P Strauss, Kathryn L Ossenfort, Kayla M Whearty
Multiple emotion regulation strategies have been identified and found to differ in their effectiveness at decreasing negative emotions. One reason for this might be that individual strategies are associated with differing levels of cognitive demand and require distinct patterns of visual attention to achieve their effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a sample of psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 25) who attempted to down-regulate negative emotion to photographs from the International Affective Picture System using cognitive reappraisal or distraction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847470/pupil-dynamics-reflect-behavioral-choice-and-learning-in-a-go-nogo-tactile-decision-making-task-in-mice
#3
Christian R Lee, David J Margolis
The eye's pupil undergoes dynamic changes in diameter associated with cognitive effort, motor activity and emotional state, and can be used to index brain state across mammalian species. Recent studies in head-fixed mice have linked arousal-related pupil dynamics with global neural activity as well as the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, it has remained unclear how pupil dynamics in mice report trial-by-trial performance of behavioral tasks, and change on a longer time scale with learning...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807173/correlation-between-pupil-size-and-subjective-passage-of-time-in-non-human-primates
#4
Tomoki W Suzuki, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
: Our daily experience of time is strongly influenced by internal states, such as arousal, attention, and mood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate this, we recorded pupil diameter, which is closely linked to internal factors and neuromodulatory signaling, in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the time production paradigm. In the self-timed saccade task, animals were required to make a memory-guided saccade during a predetermined time interval following a visual cue...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800601/children-s-intrinsic-motivation-to-provide-help-themselves-after-accidentally-harming-others
#5
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Michael Tomasello
Little is known about the flexibility of children's prosocial motivation. Here, 2- and 3-year-old children's (n = 128) internal arousal, as measured via changes in pupil dilation, was increased after they accidentally harmed a victim but were unable to repair the harm. If they were able to repair (or if they themselves did not cause the harm and the help was provided by someone else) their arousal subsided. This suggests that children are especially motivated to help those whom they have harmed, perhaps out of a sense of guilt and a desire to reconcile with them...
November 1, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776633/unexpected-arousal-modulates-the-influence-of-sensory-noise-on-confidence
#6
Micah Allen, Darya Frank, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Joel S Winston, Tobias U Hauser, Geraint Rees
Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision...
October 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734171/the-effects-of-positive-versus-negative-mood-states-on-attentional-processes-during-exposure-to-erotica
#7
Joana Carvalho, Raquel Pereira, Diana Barreto, Pedro J Nobre
The relationship between emotions and sexual functioning has been documented since early sex research. Among other effects, emotions are expected to impact sexual response by shaping individuals' attention to sexual cues; yet, this assumption has not been tested. This study aimed to investigate whether attentional processes to sexual cues are impacted by state emotions, and whether the processes impacted by emotions relate to subjective sexual arousal to a sex film clip. A total of 52 men and 73 women were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (1) a negative mood induction condition (sadness as dominant emotion), (2) a positive mood induction condition (amusement as dominant emotion), and a (3) neutral/control condition...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731503/pupillometry-reveals-changes-in-physiological-arousal-during-a-sustained-listening-task
#8
Ronan McGarrigle, Piers Dawes, Andrew J Stewart, Stefanie E Kuchinsky, Kevin J Munro
Hearing loss is associated with anecdotal reports of fatigue during periods of sustained listening. However, few studies have attempted to measure changes in arousal, as a potential marker of fatigue, over the course of a sustained listening task. The present study aimed to examine subjective, behavioral, and physiological indices of listening-related fatigue. Twenty-four normal-hearing young adults performed a speech-picture verification task in different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) while their pupil size was monitored and response times recorded...
October 12, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720997/autonomic-nervous-system-reactivity-within-the-valence-arousal-affective-space-modulation-by-sex-and-age
#9
Patrick Gomez, Armin von Gunten, Brigitta Danuser
In the present study, we examined how sex and age shape cardiovascular, electrodermal, and pupillary reactivity to picture series within the valence-arousal affective space in a sample of 176 healthy younger, middle-aged, and older men and women. Across participants, heart rate (HR) decelerated with increasing self-reported unpleasantness, whereas skin conductance level (SCL) and pupil size (PS) increased with increasing self-rated arousal. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure increased with increasing self-rated arousal when valence was pleasant but much less when valence was unpleasant...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715716/pupil-diameter-may-reflect-motor-control-and-learning
#10
Olivier White, Robert M French
Non-luminance-mediated changes in pupil diameter have been used since the first studies by Darwin in 1872 as indicators of clinical, cognitive, and arousal states. However, the relation between processes involved in motor control and changes in pupil diameter remains largely unknown. Twenty participants attempted to compensate random walks of a cursor with a computer mouse to restrain its trajectory within a target circle while the authors recorded their pupil diameters. Two conditions allowed the authors to experimentally manipulate the motor and cognitive components of the task...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715316/using-the-research-domain-criteria-framework-to-explore-associations-between-mmpi-2-rf-constructs-and-physiological-variables-assessed-by-eye-tracker-technology
#11
David M McCord, Margaret C Achee, Elissa M Cannon, Tiffany M Harrop, William D Poynter
The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616938/greater-pupil-size-in-response-to-emotional-faces-as-an-early-marker-of-social-communicative-difficulties-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism
#12
Jennifer B Wagner, Rhiannon J Luyster, Helen Tager-Flusberg, Charles A Nelson
When scanning faces, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown reduced visual attention (e.g., less time on eyes) and atypical autonomic responses (e.g., heightened arousal). To understand how these differences might explain sub-clinical variability in social functioning, 9-month-olds, with or without a family history of ASD, viewed emotionally-expressive faces, and gaze and pupil diameter (a measure of autonomic activation) were recorded using eye-tracking. Infants at high-risk for ASD with no subsequent clinical diagnosis (HRA-) and low-risk controls (LRC) showed similar face scanning and attention to eyes and mouth...
September 2016: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527877/pupil-dilation-to-explicit-and-non-explicit-sexual-stimuli
#13
Tuesday M Watts, Luke Holmes, Ritch C Savin-Williams, Gerulf Rieger
Pupil dilation to explicit sexual stimuli (footage of naked and aroused men or women) can elicit sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. If similar patterns were replicated with non-explicit sexual stimuli (footage of dressed men and women), then pupil dilation could be indicative of automatic sexual response in fully noninvasive designs. We examined this in 325 men and women with varied sexual orientations to determine whether dilation patterns to non-explicit sexual stimuli resembled those to explicit sexual stimuli depicting the same sex or other sex...
August 15, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493767/pupil-dilation-as-an-index-of-preferred-mutual-gaze-duration
#14
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Antoine Coutrot, Alan Johnston, Isabelle Mareschal
Most animals look at each other to signal threat or interest. In humans, this social interaction is usually punctuated with brief periods of mutual eye contact. Deviations from this pattern of gazing behaviour generally make us feel uncomfortable and are a defining characteristic of clinical conditions such as autism or schizophrenia, yet it is unclear what constitutes normal eye contact. Here, we measured, across a wide range of ages, cultures and personality types, the period of direct gaze that feels comfortable and examined whether autonomic factors linked to arousal were indicative of people's preferred amount of eye contact...
July 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445930/the-berlin-affective-word-list-for-children-kidbawl-exploring-processing-of-affective-lexical-semantics-in-the-visual-and-auditory-modalities
#15
Teresa Sylvester, Mario Braun, David Schmidtke, Arthur M Jacobs
While research on affective word processing in adults witnesses increasing interest, the present paper looks at another group of participants that have been neglected so far: pupils (age range: 6-12 years). Introducing a variant of the Berlin Affective Wordlist (BAWL) especially adapted for children of that age group, the "kidBAWL," we examined to what extent pupils process affective lexical semantics similarly to adults. In three experiments using rating and valence decision tasks in both the visual and auditory modality, it was established that children show the two ubiquitous phenomena observed in adults with emotional word material: the asymmetric U-shaped function relating valence to arousal ratings, and the inversely U-shaped function relating response times to valence decision latencies...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27426512/chemogenetic-activation-of-melanopsin-retinal-ganglion-cells-induces-signatures-of-arousal-and-or-anxiety-in-mice
#16
Nina Milosavljevic, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Christopher A Procyk, Robert J Lucas
Functional imaging and psychometric assessments indicate that bright light can enhance mood, attention, and cognitive performance in humans. Indirect evidence links these events to light detection by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) [1-9]. However, there is currently no direct demonstration that mRGCs can have such an immediate effect on mood or behavioral state in any species. We addressed this deficit by using chemogenetics to selectively activate mRGCs, simulating the excitatory effects of bright light on this cell type in dark-housed mice...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27390774/frontostriatal-circuit-dynamics-correlate-with-cocaine-cue-evoked-behavioral-arousal-during-early-abstinence
#17
Wesley C Smith, Matthew H Rosenberg, Leslie D Claar, Victoria Chang, Sagar N Shah, Wendy M Walwyn, Christopher J Evans, Sotiris C Masmanidis
It is thought that frontostriatal circuits play an important role in mediating conditioned behavioral responses to environmental stimuli that were previously encountered during drug administration. However, the neural correlates of conditioned responses to drug-associated cues are not well understood at the level of large populations of simultaneously recorded neurons, or at the level of local field potential (LFP) synchrony in the frontostriatal network. Here we introduce a behavioral assay of conditioned arousal to cocaine cues involving pupillometry in awake head-restrained mice...
May 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291493/spontaneous-pupil-dilations-during-the-resting-state-are-associated-with-activation-of-the-salience-network
#18
Max Schneider, Pamela Hathway, Laura Leuchs, Philipp G Sämann, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly applied for the development of functional biomarkers in brain disorders. Recent studies have revealed spontaneous vigilance drifts during the resting state, involving changes in brain activity and connectivity that challenge the validity of uncontrolled rs-fMRI findings. In a combined rs-fMRI/eye tracking study, the pupil size of 32 healthy subjects after 2h of sleep restriction was recorded as an indirect index for activity of the locus coeruleus, the brainstem's noradrenergic arousal center...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217115/disentangling-the-roles-of-arousal-and-amygdala-activation-in-emotional-declarative-memory
#19
Lycia D de Voogd, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli...
September 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207876/pupillary-contagion-in-infancy-evidence-for-spontaneous-transfer-of-arousal
#20
Christine Fawcett, Victoria Wesevich, Gustaf Gredebäck
Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded...
July 2016: Psychological Science
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