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Pupil and arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#1
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560724/the-time-course-of-pupil-dilation-evoked-by-visual-sexual-stimuli-exploring-the-underlying-ans-mechanisms
#2
Johannes B Finke, Christian E Deuter, Xenia Hengesch, Hartmut Schächinger
The early processing of visual sexual stimuli shows signs of automaticity. Moreover, there is evidence for sex-specific patterns in cognitive and physiological responding to erotica. However, little is known about the time course of rapid pupillary responses to sexual stimuli and their correspondence with other measures of autonomic activity in women and men. To study pupil dilation as an implicit measure of sexual arousal at various stages of picture processing, we presented 35 heterosexual participants with pictures showing either erotic couples or single (male/female) erotic nudes, contrasted with people involved in everyday situations...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551715/direct-comparison-of-the-acute-subjective-emotional-autonomic-and-endocrine-effects-of-mdma-methylphenidate-and-modafinil-in-healthy-subjects
#3
Patrick C Dolder, Felix Müller, Yasmin Schmid, Stefan J Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. METHODS: We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504528/the-importance-of-arousal-for-variation-in-working-memory-capacity-and-attention-control-a-latent-variable-pupillometry-study
#4
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and attention control. The current study explored the role of arousal in individual differences in WMC and attention control. Participants performed multiple WMC and attention control tasks. During the attention control tasks participants were periodically probed regarding their current attentional state and both baseline and task-evoked pupillary responses were recorded as indicators of tonic arousal and phasic arousal because of attentional effort, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495972/multiple-transient-signals-in-human-visual-cortex-associated-with-an-elementary-decision
#5
Thomas Meindertsma, Niels A Kloosterman, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Tobias H Donner
The cerebral cortex continuously undergoes changes in its state, which are manifested in transient modulations of the cortical power spectrum. Cortical state changes also occur at full wakefulness and during rapid cognitive acts, such as perceptual decisions. Previous studies found a global modulation of beta-band (12-30 Hz) activity in human and monkey visual cortex during an elementary visual decision: reporting the appearance or disappearance of salient visual targets surrounded by a distractor. The previous studies disentangled neither the motor action associated with behavioral report nor other secondary processes, such as arousal, from perceptual decision processing per se...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481033/sympathetic-ans-modulation-of-pupil-diameter-in-emotional-scene-perception-effects-of-hedonic-content-brightness-and-contrast
#6
Margaret M Bradley, Rosemarie G Sapigao, Peter J Lang
A series of studies investigated the effects of hedonic content, brightness, and contrast on pupil diameter during free viewing of natural scenes, assessing the amplitude of the initial light reflex and subsequent sustained pupil diameter change. Hedonic picture content varied from highly arousing scenes of erotica and violence to scenes depicting nature, babies, loss, contamination, food, and more. Despite equivalent overall picture brightness and contrast, pupil diameter still varied as a function of the local brightness of central vision at fixation...
May 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383284/dynamic-modulation-of-decision-biases-by-brainstem-arousal-systems
#7
Jan Willem de Gee, Olympia Colizoli, Niels A Kloosterman, Tomas Knapen, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Tobias H Donner
Decision-makers often arrive at different choices when faced with repeated presentations of the same evidence. Variability of behavior is commonly attributed to noise in the brain's decision-making machinery. We hypothesized that phasic responses of brainstem arousal systems are a significant source of this variability. We tracked pupil responses (a proxy of phasic arousal) during sensory-motor decisions in humans, across different sensory modalities and task protocols. Large pupil responses generally predicted a reduction in decision bias...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262942/young-children-want-to-see-others-get-the-help-they-need
#8
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Tobias Grossmann, Michael Tomasello
Children's instrumental helping has sometimes been interpreted as a desire to complete action sequences or to restore the physical order of things. Two-year-old children (n = 51) selectively retrieved for an adult the object he needed rather than one he did not (but which equally served to restore the previous order of things), and those with greater internal arousal (i.e., pupil dilation) were faster to help. In a second experiment (n = 64), children's arousal increased when they witnessed an adult respond inappropriately to another adult's need...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256514/pupil-linked-arousal-is-driven-by-decision-uncertainty-and-alters-serial-choice-bias
#9
Anne E Urai, Anke Braun, Tobias H Donner
While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty...
March 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166792/mothers-pupillary-responses-to-infant-facial-expressions
#10
Santeri Yrttiaho, Dana Niehaus, Eileen Thomas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. METHODS: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134323/time-domain-analysis-for-extracting-fast-paced-pupil-responses
#11
Alexandre Zénon
The eye pupil reacts to cognitive processes, but its analysis is challenging when luminance varies or when stimulation is fast-paced. Current approaches relying on deconvolution techniques do not account for the strong low-frequency spontaneous changes in pupil size or the large interindividual variability in the shape of the responses. Here a system identification framework is proposed in which the pupil responses to different parameters are extracted by means of an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118366/as-far-as-the-eye-can-see-relationship-between-psychopathic-traits-and-pupil-response-to-affective-stimuli
#12
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072452/what-our-eyes-tell-us-about-feelings-tracking-pupillary-responses-during-emotion-regulation-processes
#13
Valerie L Kinner, Lars Kuchinke, Angelika M Dierolf, Christian J Merz, Tobias Otto, Oliver T Wolf
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses...
April 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032676/hippocampal-gamma-band-synchrony-and-pupillary-responses-index-memory-during-visual-search
#14
Rodrigo Montefusco-Siegmund, Timothy K Leonard, Kari L Hoffman
Memory for scenes is supported by the hippocampus, among other interconnected structures, but the neural mechanisms related to this process are not well understood. To assess the role of the hippocampus in memory-guided scene search, we recorded local field potentials and multiunit activity from the hippocampus of macaques as they performed goal-directed search tasks using natural scenes. We additionally measured pupil size during scene presentation, which in humans is modulated by recognition memory. We found that both pupil dilation and search efficiency accompanied scene repetition, thereby indicating memory for scenes...
December 29, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973982/pupil-size-asymmetry-is-a-physiologic-trait-related-to-gender-attentional-function-and-personality
#15
William D Poynter
A small difference in the size of the two pupils is common in healthy individuals, a condition termed benign or physiologic anisocoria (BA). Past research indicates that BA is probably caused by asymmetry in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) function [e.g., Rosenberg (2008). Physiologic anisocoria: A manifestation of a physiologic sympathetic asymmetry. Neuro-Ophthalmology, 32, 147-149]. This study is the first to show that BA varies with psychological factors linked to brain asymmetry and autonomic arousal, including gender, attention, and personality...
December 14, 2016: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915119/neural-correlates-of-pupil-dilation-during-human-fear-learning
#16
Laura Leuchs, Max Schneider, Michael Czisch, Victor I Spoormaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning and extinction are prevailing experimental and etiological models for normal and pathological anxiety. Pupil dilations in response to conditioned stimuli are increasingly used as a robust psychophysiological readout of fear learning, but their neural correlates remain unknown. We aimed at identifying the neural correlates of pupil responses to threat and safety cues during a fear learning task. METHODS: Thirty-four healthy subjects underwent a fear conditioning and extinction paradigm with simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and pupillometry...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908561/beyond-eye-gaze-what-else-can-eyetracking-reveal-about-cognition-and-cognitive-development
#17
REVIEW
Maria K Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T Miller Singley, Silvia A Bunge
This review provides an introduction to two eyetracking measures that can be used to study cognitive development and plasticity: pupil dilation and spontaneous blink rate. We begin by outlining the rich history of gaze analysis, which can reveal the current focus of attention as well as cognitive strategies. We then turn to the two lesser-utilized ocular measures. Pupil dilation is modulated by the brain's locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, which controls physiological arousal and attention, and has been used as a measure of subjective task difficulty, mental effort, and neural gain...
June 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855175/reappraisal-and-distraction-emotion-regulation-strategies-are-associated-with-distinct-patterns-of-visual-attention-and-differing-levels-of-cognitive-demand
#18
Gregory P Strauss, Kathryn L Ossenfort, Kayla M Whearty
Multiple emotion regulation strategies have been identified and found to differ in their effectiveness at decreasing negative emotions. One reason for this might be that individual strategies are associated with differing levels of cognitive demand and require distinct patterns of visual attention to achieve their effects. In the current study, we tested this hypothesis in a sample of psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 25) who attempted to down-regulate negative emotion to photographs from the International Affective Picture System using cognitive reappraisal or distraction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847470/pupil-dynamics-reflect-behavioral-choice-and-learning-in-a-go-nogo-tactile-decision-making-task-in-mice
#19
Christian R Lee, David J Margolis
The eye's pupil undergoes dynamic changes in diameter associated with cognitive effort, motor activity and emotional state, and can be used to index brain state across mammalian species. Recent studies in head-fixed mice have linked arousal-related pupil dynamics with global neural activity as well as the activity of specific neuronal populations. However, it has remained unclear how pupil dynamics in mice report trial-by-trial performance of behavioral tasks, and change on a longer time scale with learning...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807173/correlation-between-pupil-size-and-subjective-passage-of-time-in-non-human-primates
#20
Tomoki W Suzuki, Jun Kunimatsu, Masaki Tanaka
Our daily experience of time is strongly influenced by internal states, such as arousal, attention, and mood. However, the underlying neuronal mechanism remains largely unknown. To investigate this, we recorded pupil diameter, which is closely linked to internal factors and neuromodulatory signaling, in monkeys performing the oculomotor version of the time production paradigm. In the self-timed saccade task, animals were required to make a memory-guided saccade during a predetermined time interval following a visual cue...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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