keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Pupil and arousal

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220579/pupillary-responses-to-static-images-of-men-and-women-a-possible-measure-of-sexual-interest
#1
Robert J Snowden, Aimee McKinnon, Julie Fitoussi, Nicola S Gray
The pupil dilates to images that are arousing. In Experiment 1, we examined if the pupil's response to brief presentations (2,000 ms) of static images could be used to identify individuals' sexual orientation. Participants were grouped according to their self-reported gender and sexual orientation (male heterosexual, N = 20; male bisexual, N = 13; male homosexual, N = 19; female heterosexual, N = 28; female bisexual, N = 21; female homosexual, N = 17). Pupil size was monitored to images of men in seminude poses, women in seminude poses, or neutral images...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181589/disentangling-brain-activity-related-to-the-processing-of-emotional-visual-information-and-emotional-arousal
#2
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal...
November 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107022/error-blindness-and-motivational-significance-shifts-in-networks-centering-on-anterior-insula-co-vary-with-error-awareness-and-pupil-dilation
#3
Helga A Harsay, Michael X Cohen, Marcus Spaan, Wouter D Weeda, Sander Nieuwenhuis, K Richard Ridderinkhof
This investigation aims to further our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the awareness of one's erroneous actions. While all errors are registered as such in the rostral cingulate zone, errors enter awareness only when the anterior insula cortex is activated. Aware but not unaware errors elicit autonomic nervous system reactivity. Our aim is to investigate the hypothesis that activation in the insula during error awareness is related to autonomic arousal and to inter-regional interactions with other areas of the brain...
October 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089919/nasal-oxytocin-treatment-biases-dogs-visual-attention-and-emotional-response-toward-positive-human-facial-expressions
#4
Sanni Somppi, Heini Törnqvist, József Topál, Aija Koskela, Laura Hänninen, Christina M Krause, Outi Vainio
The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051563/women-s-self-rated-attraction-to-male-faces-does-not-correspond-with-physiological-arousal
#5
S Hagerman, Z Woolard, K Anderson, B W Tatler, F R Moore
There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034334/arousal-related-adjustments-of-perceptual-biases-optimize-perception-in-dynamic-environments
#6
Kamesh Krishnamurthy, Matthew R Nassar, Shilpa Sarode, Joshua I Gold
Prior expectations can be used to improve perceptual judgments about ambiguous stimuli. However, little is known about if and how these improvements are maintained in dynamic environments in which the quality of appropriate priors changes from one stimulus to the next. Using a sound-localization task, we show that changes in stimulus predictability lead to arousal-mediated adjustments in the magnitude of prior-driven biases that optimize perceptual judgments about each stimulus. These adjustments depend on task-dependent changes in the relevance and reliability of prior expectations, which subjects update using both normative and idiosyncratic principles...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030228/the-relation-between-young-children-s-physiological-arousal-and-their-motivation-to-help-others
#7
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Katharina Müller, Michael Tomasello
Children are motivated to help others from an early age. However, little is known about the internal biological mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we compiled data from five separate studies in which children, ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1) children's internal physiological arousal via changes in their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of their providing help. The results showed that the greater the baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and more likely children were to help the adult...
October 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#8
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984508/subjective-physiological-and-behavioural-responses-towards-evaluatively-conditioned-stimuli
#9
Ferdinand Pittino, Katrin M Kliegl, Anke Huckauf
Evaluative Conditioning (EC) is commonly defined as the change in liking of a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) due to its pairings with an affective unconditioned stimulus (US). In Experiment 1, we investigated effects of repeated stimulus pairings on affective responses, i.e. valence and arousal ratings, pupil size, and duration estimation. After repeatedly pairing the CSs with affective USs, a consistent pattern of affective responses emerged: The CSnegative was rated as being more negative and more arousing, resulted in larger pupils, and was temporally overestimated compared to the CSneutral...
October 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961277/individual-differences-in-eye-blink-rate-predict-both-transient-and-tonic-pupil-responses-during-reversal-learning
#10
Joanne C Van Slooten, Sara Jahfari, Tomas Knapen, Jan Theeuwes
The pupil response under constant illumination can be used as a marker of cognitive processes. In the past, pupillary responses have been studied in the context of arousal and decision-making. However, recent work involving Parkinson's patients suggested that pupillary responses are additionally affected by reward sensitivity. Here, we build on these findings by examining how pupil responses are modulated by reward and loss while participants (N = 30) performed a Pavlovian reversal learning task. In fast (transient) pupil responses, we observed arousal-based influences on pupil size both during the expectation of upcoming value and the evaluation of unexpected monetary outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857664/the-role-of-pupil-size-in-communication-is-there-room-for-learning
#11
Mariska E Kret
The eyes are extremely important for communication. The muscles around the eyes express emotional states and the size of the pupil signals whether a person is aroused and alert or bored and fatigued. Pupil size is an overlooked social signal, yet is readily picked up by observers. Observers mirror their own pupil sizes in response, which can influence social impressions. In a landmark study by Hess [1975. The role of pupil size in communication. Scientific American, 233(5), 110-119] it was shown that individuals with large pupils are perceived more positively than individuals with small pupils...
August 31, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851872/human-eyes-with-dilated-pupils-induce-pupillary-contagion-in-infants
#12
Christine Fawcett, Melda Arslan, Terje Falck-Ytter, Herbert Roeyers, Gustaf Gredebäck
Being sensitive and responsive to others' internal states is critical for social life. One reliable cue to what others might be feeling is pupil dilation because it is linked to increases in arousal. When adults view an individual with dilated pupils, their pupils dilate in response, suggesting not only sensitivity to pupil size, but a corresponding response as well. However, little is known about the origins or mechanism underlying this phenomenon of pupillary contagion. Here we show that 4- to 6-month-old infants show pupillary contagion when viewing photographs of eyes with varying pupil sizes: their pupils dilate in response to others' large, but not small or medium pupils...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#13
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757234/non-contact-measurement-of-heart-response-reflected-in-human-eye
#14
Sangin Park, Myoung Ju Won, Dong Won Lee, Mincheol Whang
This study aims to develop a non-contact measurement technique for cardiac response that uses an infrared image of the patient's pupil. The pupil contraction rhythm is related to the autonomic balance and major organs (such as the heart) via a neural pathway. In this study, the response of the heart was determined by analyzing the pupillary rhythm based on the harmonic frequencies between them. Seventy undergraduate volunteers of both genders, (35 females and 35 males), with ages ranging between 20 and 30years (mean: 24...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743966/pupil-adaptation-corresponds-to-quantitative-measures-of-autism-traits-in-children
#15
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
The pupil is known to reflect a range of psychological and physiological variables, including cognitive effort, arousal, attention, and even learning. Within autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some work has used pupil physiology to successfully classify patients with or without autism. As we have come to understand the heterogeneity of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between quantitative traits and physiological markers has become increasingly more important, as this may lead us closer to the underlying biological basis for atypical responses and behaviors...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734217/emotional-arousal-and-recognition-memory-are-differentially-reflected-in-pupil-diameter-responses-during-emotional-memory-for-negative-events-in-younger-and-older-adults
#16
Dorothea Hämmerer, Alexandra Hopkins, Matthew J Betts, Anne Maaß, Ray J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses...
June 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#17
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672367/pupil-dilation-to-illusory-motion-in-peripheral-drift-images-perception-versus-reality
#18
Steve Beukema, Jay A Olson, Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Peripheral drift is a specific type of illusory motion that causes observers to perceive motion in a static image. We aimed to determine whether pupil dilation occurs during the perception of illusory motion. In three experiments investigating pupil-size changes to peripheral drift, pupil response differences were observed between symmetric patterns (SPs) that elicited no impression of motion and repeated asymmetric patterns (RAPs) that did. All participants reported the perception of motion in the RAP condition and showed significantly greater pupil dilation to these stimuli as compared with viewing stimuli in the SP condition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#19
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#20
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
keyword
keyword
98085
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"