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Pupil and arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811624/pupil-size-tracks-attentional-performance-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#1
G Wainstein, D Rojas-Líbano, N A Crossley, X Carrasco, F Aboitiz, T Ossandón
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757234/non-contact-measurement-of-heart-response-reflected-in-human-eye
#2
Sangin Park, Myoung Ju Won, Dong Won Lee, Mincheol Whang
This study aims to develop a non-contact measurement technique for cardiac response that uses an infrared image of the patient's pupil. The pupil contraction rhythm is related to the autonomic balance and major organs (such as the heart) via a neural pathway. In this study, the response of the heart was determined by analyzing the pupillary rhythm based on the harmonic frequencies between them. Seventy undergraduate volunteers of both genders, (35 females and 35 males), with ages ranging between 20 and 30years (mean: 24...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743966/pupil-adaptation-corresponds-to-quantitative-measures-of-autism-traits-in-children
#3
Antoinette Sabatino DiCriscio, Vanessa Troiani
The pupil is known to reflect a range of psychological and physiological variables, including cognitive effort, arousal, attention, and even learning. Within autism spectrum disorder (ASD), some work has used pupil physiology to successfully classify patients with or without autism. As we have come to understand the heterogeneity of ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders, the relationship between quantitative traits and physiological markers has become increasingly more important, as this may lead us closer to the underlying biological basis for atypical responses and behaviors...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734217/emotional-arousal-and-recognition-memory-are-differentially-reflected-in-pupil-diameter-responses-during-emotional-memory-for-negative-events-in-younger-and-older-adults
#4
Dorothea Hämmerer, Alexandra Hopkins, Matthew J Betts, Anne Maaß, Ray J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
A better memory for negative emotional events is often attributed to a conjoint impact of increased arousal and noradrenergic modulation (NA). A decline in NA during aging is well documented but its impact on memory function during aging is unclear. Using pupil diameter (PD) as a proxy for NA, we examined age differences in memory for negative events in younger (18-30 years) and older (62-83 years) adults based on a segregation of early arousal to negative events, and later retrieval-related PD responses...
June 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729927/fatigue-and-cognition-pupillary-responses-to-problem-solving-in-early-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#5
Sigrid A de Rodez Benavent, Gro O Nygaard, Hanne F Harbo, Siren Tønnesen, Piotr Sowa, Nils I Landrø, Marte Wendel-Haga, Lars Etholm, Kristian B Nilsen, Liv Drolsum, Emilia Kerty, Elisabeth G Celius, Bruno Laeng
INTRODUCTION: In early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, cognitive changes and fatigue are frequent and troublesome symptoms, probably related to both structural and functional brain changes. Whether there is a common cause of these symptoms in MS is unknown. In theory, an altered regulation of central neuropeptides can lead to changes in regulation of autonomic function, cognitive difficulties, and fatigue. Direct measurements of central neuropeptides are difficult to perform, but measurements of the eye pupil can be used as a reliable proxy of function...
July 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672367/pupil-dilation-to-illusory-motion-in-peripheral-drift-images-perception-versus-reality
#6
Steve Beukema, Jay A Olson, Ben J Jennings, Frederick A A Kingdom
Peripheral drift is a specific type of illusory motion that causes observers to perceive motion in a static image. We aimed to determine whether pupil dilation occurs during the perception of illusory motion. In three experiments investigating pupil-size changes to peripheral drift, pupil response differences were observed between symmetric patterns (SPs) that elicited no impression of motion and repeated asymmetric patterns (RAPs) that did. All participants reported the perception of motion in the RAP condition and showed significantly greater pupil dilation to these stimuli as compared with viewing stimuli in the SP condition...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638055/pupil-response-hazard-rates-predict-perceived-gaze-durations
#7
Nicola Binetti, Charlotte Harrison, Isabelle Mareschal, Alan Johnston
We investigated the mechanisms for evaluating perceived gaze-shift duration. Timing relies on the accumulation of endogenous physiological signals. Here we focused on arousal, measured through pupil dilation, as a candidate timing signal. Participants timed gaze-shifts performed by face stimuli in a Standard/Probe comparison task. Pupil responses were binned according to "Longer/Shorter" judgements in trials where Standard and Probe were identical. This ensured that pupil responses reflected endogenous arousal fluctuations opposed to differences in stimulus content...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578187/pupillometric-and-saccadic-measures-of-affective-and-executive-processing-in-anxiety
#8
Piril Hepsomali, Julie A Hadwin, Simon P Liversedge, Matthew Garner
Anxious individuals report hyper-arousal and sensitivity to environmental stimuli, difficulties concentrating, performing tasks efficiently and inhibiting unwanted thoughts and distraction. We used pupillometry and eye-movement measures to compare high vs. low anxious individuals hyper-reactivity to emotional stimuli (facial expressions) and subsequent attentional biases in a memory-guided pro- and antisaccade task during conditions of low and high cognitive load (short vs. long delay). High anxious individuals produced larger and slower pupillary responses to face stimuli, and more erroneous eye-movements, particularly following long delay...
May 31, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560724/the-time-course-of-pupil-dilation-evoked-by-visual-sexual-stimuli-exploring-the-underlying-ans-mechanisms
#9
Johannes B Finke, Christian E Deuter, Xenia Hengesch, Hartmut Schächinger
The early processing of visual sexual stimuli shows signs of automaticity. Moreover, there is evidence for sex-specific patterns in cognitive and physiological responding to erotica. However, little is known about the time course of rapid pupillary responses to sexual stimuli and their correspondence with other measures of autonomic activity in women and men. To study pupil dilation as an implicit measure of sexual arousal at various stages of picture processing, we presented 35 heterosexual participants with pictures showing either erotic couples or single (male/female) erotic nudes, contrasted with people involved in everyday situations...
May 31, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551715/direct-comparison-of-the-acute-subjective-emotional-autonomic-and-endocrine-effects-of-mdma-methylphenidate-and-modafinil-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Patrick C Dolder, Felix Müller, Yasmin Schmid, Stefan J Borgwardt, Matthias E Liechti
RATIONALE: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. METHODS: We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants...
May 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504528/the-importance-of-arousal-for-variation-in-working-memory-capacity-and-attention-control-a-latent-variable-pupillometry-study
#11
Nash Unsworth, Matthew K Robison
A great deal of prior research has examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and attention control. The current study explored the role of arousal in individual differences in WMC and attention control. Participants performed multiple WMC and attention control tasks. During the attention control tasks participants were periodically probed regarding their current attentional state and both baseline and task-evoked pupillary responses were recorded as indicators of tonic arousal and phasic arousal because of attentional effort, respectively...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495972/multiple-transient-signals-in-human-visual-cortex-associated-with-an-elementary-decision
#12
Thomas Meindertsma, Niels A Kloosterman, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Tobias H Donner
The cerebral cortex continuously undergoes changes in its state, which are manifested in transient modulations of the cortical power spectrum. Cortical state changes also occur at full wakefulness and during rapid cognitive acts, such as perceptual decisions. Previous studies found a global modulation of beta-band (12-30 Hz) activity in human and monkey visual cortex during an elementary visual decision: reporting the appearance or disappearance of salient visual targets surrounded by a distractor. The previous studies disentangled neither the motor action associated with behavioral report nor other secondary processes, such as arousal, from perceptual decision processing per se...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481033/sympathetic-ans-modulation-of-pupil-diameter-in-emotional-scene-perception-effects-of-hedonic-content-brightness-and-contrast
#13
Margaret M Bradley, Rosemarie G Sapigao, Peter J Lang
A series of studies investigated the effects of hedonic content, brightness, and contrast on pupil diameter during free viewing of natural scenes, assessing the amplitude of the initial light reflex and subsequent sustained pupil diameter change. Hedonic picture content varied from highly arousing scenes of erotica and violence to scenes depicting nature, babies, loss, contamination, food, and more. Despite equivalent overall picture brightness and contrast, pupil diameter still varied as a function of the local brightness of central vision at fixation...
May 8, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383284/dynamic-modulation-of-decision-biases-by-brainstem-arousal-systems
#14
Jan Willem de Gee, Olympia Colizoli, Niels A Kloosterman, Tomas Knapen, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Tobias H Donner
Decision-makers often arrive at different choices when faced with repeated presentations of the same evidence. Variability of behavior is commonly attributed to noise in the brain's decision-making machinery. We hypothesized that phasic responses of brainstem arousal systems are a significant source of this variability. We tracked pupil responses (a proxy of phasic arousal) during sensory-motor decisions in humans, across different sensory modalities and task protocols. Large pupil responses generally predicted a reduction in decision bias...
April 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262942/young-children-want-to-see-others-get-the-help-they-need
#15
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Tobias Grossmann, Michael Tomasello
Children's instrumental helping has sometimes been interpreted as a desire to complete action sequences or to restore the physical order of things. Two-year-old children (n = 51) selectively retrieved for an adult the object he needed rather than one he did not (but which equally served to restore the previous order of things), and those with greater internal arousal (i.e., pupil dilation) were faster to help. In a second experiment (n = 64), children's arousal increased when they witnessed an adult respond inappropriately to another adult's need...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256514/pupil-linked-arousal-is-driven-by-decision-uncertainty-and-alters-serial-choice-bias
#16
Anne E Urai, Anke Braun, Tobias H Donner
While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty...
March 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166792/mothers-pupillary-responses-to-infant-facial-expressions
#17
Santeri Yrttiaho, Dana Niehaus, Eileen Thomas, Jukka M Leppänen
BACKGROUND: Human parental care relies heavily on the ability to monitor and respond to a child's affective states. The current study examined pupil diameter as a potential physiological index of mothers' affective response to infant facial expressions. METHODS: Pupillary time-series were measured from 86 mothers of young infants in response to an array of photographic infant faces falling into four emotive categories based on valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (mild vs...
February 6, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134323/time-domain-analysis-for-extracting-fast-paced-pupil-responses
#18
Alexandre Zénon
The eye pupil reacts to cognitive processes, but its analysis is challenging when luminance varies or when stimulation is fast-paced. Current approaches relying on deconvolution techniques do not account for the strong low-frequency spontaneous changes in pupil size or the large interindividual variability in the shape of the responses. Here a system identification framework is proposed in which the pupil responses to different parameters are extracted by means of an autoregressive model with exogenous inputs...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118366/as-far-as-the-eye-can-see-relationship-between-psychopathic-traits-and-pupil-response-to-affective-stimuli
#19
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathic individuals show a range of affective processing deficits, typically associated with the interpersonal/affective component of psychopathy. However, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether psychopathy, within both offender and community populations, is associated with deficient autonomic responses to the simple presentation of affective stimuli. Changes in pupil diameter occur in response to emotionally arousing stimuli and can be used as an objective indicator of physiological reactivity to emotion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072452/what-our-eyes-tell-us-about-feelings-tracking-pupillary-responses-during-emotion-regulation-processes
#20
Valerie L Kinner, Lars Kuchinke, Angelika M Dierolf, Christian J Merz, Tobias Otto, Oliver T Wolf
Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self-report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses...
April 2017: Psychophysiology
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