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Pupil and arousal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601889/sleep-deprivation-increases-the-costs-of-attentional-effort-performance-preference-and-pupil-size
#1
Stijn A A Massar, Julian Lim, Karen Sasmita, Michael W L Chee
Sleep deprivation (SD) consistently degrades performance in tasks requiring sustained attention, resulting in slower and more variable response times that worsen with time-on-task. Loss of motivation to exert effort may exacerbate performance degradation during SD. To test this, we evaluated sustained performance on a vigilance task, combining this with an effort-based decision-making task and pupillometry. Vigilance was tested at rest and after sleep deprivation, under different incentive conditions (1, 5 or 15 cents for fast responses)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574231/reduced-pupil-dilation-during-action-preparation-in-schizophrenia
#2
Katharine N Thakkar, Jan W Brascamp, Livon Ghermezi, Kassidy Fifer, Jeffrey D Schall, Sohee Park
Impairments in cognitive control-the ability to exert control over thoughts and actions and respond flexibly to the environment-are well-documented in schizophrenia. However, the degree to which experimental task performance reflects true cognitive control impairments or more general alterations in effort, arousal and/or task preparedness is unclear. Pupillary responses can provide insight into these latter factors, as the pupil dilates with degree of cognitive effort and response preparation. In the current study, 16 medicated outpatients with schizophrenia (SZP) and 18 healthy controls performed a task that measures the ability to reactively inhibit and modify a planned action-the double-step task...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562173/effects-of-arousal-on-mouse-sensory-cortex-depend-on-modality
#3
Daisuke Shimaoka, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP). VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559673/pupil-dilation-reflects-the-time-course-of-emotion-recognition-in-human-vocalizations
#4
Manuel Oliva, Andrey Anikin
The processing of emotional signals usually causes an increase in pupil size, and this effect has been largely attributed to autonomic arousal prompted by the stimuli. Additionally, changes in pupil size were associated with decision making during non-emotional perceptual tasks. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between pupil size fluctuations and the process of emotion recognition. Participants heard human nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying) and indicated the emotional state of the speakers as soon as they had identified it...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541045/hot-speech-and-exploding-bombs-autonomic-arousal-during-emotion-classification-of-prosodic-utterances-and-affective-sounds
#5
Rebecca Jürgens, Julia Fischer, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional expressions provide strong signals in social interactions and can function as emotion inducers in a perceiver. Although speech provides one of the most important channels for human communication, its physiological correlates, such as activations of the autonomous nervous system (ANS) while listening to spoken utterances, have received far less attention than in other domains of emotion processing. Our study aimed at filling this gap by investigating autonomic activation in response to spoken utterances that were embedded into larger semantic contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463909/the-effects-of-5-hydroxytryptophan-on-attention-and-central-serotonin-neurochemistry-in-the-rhesus-macaque
#6
Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Nicholas A Fagan, George M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W C Chang
Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are often associated with impaired serotonergic function. However, serotonergic interventions yield inconsistent effects on behavioral impairments. To better understand serotonin's role in these pathologies, we investigated the role of serotonin in a behavior frequently impaired in depression and anxiety, attention. In this study, we used a quantitative, repeated, within-subject, design to test how L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate serotonin precursor, modulates central serotoninergic function and attention in macaques...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378283/emotion-lies-in-the-eye-of-the-listener-emotional-arousal-to-novel-sounds-is-reflected-in-the-sympathetic-contribution-to-the-pupil-dilation-response-and-the-p3
#7
Andreas Widmann, Erich Schröger, Nicole Wetzel
Novel sounds in the auditory oddball paradigm elicit a biphasic dilation of the pupil (PDR) and P3a as well as novelty P3 event-related potentials (ERPs). The biphasic PDR has been hypothesized to reflect the relaxation of the iris sphincter muscle due to parasympathetic inhibition and the constriction of the iris dilator muscle due to sympathetic activation. We measured the PDR and the P3 to neutral and to emotionally arousing negative novels in dark and moderate lighting conditions. By means of principal component analysis (PCA) of the PDR data we extracted two components: the early one was absent in darkness and, thus, presumably reflects parasympathetic inhibition, whereas the late component occurred in darkness and light and presumably reflects sympathetic activation...
January 25, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340968/a-novel-blink-detection-method-based-on-pupillometry-noise
#8
Ronen Hershman, Avishai Henik, Noga Cohen
Pupillometry (or the measurement of pupil size) is commonly used as an index of cognitive load and arousal. Pupil size data are recorded using eyetracking devices that provide an output containing pupil size at various points in time. During blinks the eyetracking device loses track of the pupil, resulting in missing values in the output file. The missing-sample time window is preceded and followed by a sharp change in the recorded pupil size, due to the opening and closing of the eyelids. This eyelid signal can create artificial effects if it is not removed from the data...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312818/pupillometry-reveals-the-physiological-underpinnings-of-the-aversion-to-holes
#9
Vladislav Ayzenberg, Meghan R Hickey, Stella F Lourenco
An unusual, but common, aversion to images with clusters of holes is known as trypophobia. Recent research suggests that trypophobic reactions are caused by visual spectral properties also present in aversive images of evolutionary threatening animals (e.g., snakes and spiders). However, despite similar spectral properties, it remains unknown whether there is a shared emotional response to holes and threatening animals. Whereas snakes and spiders are known to elicit a fear reaction, associated with the sympathetic nervous system, anecdotal reports from self-described trypophobes suggest reactions more consistent with disgust, which is associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301874/locus-coeruleus-activity-strengthens-prioritized-memories-under-arousal
#10
David V Clewett, Ringo Huang, Rico Velasco, Tae-Ho Lee, Mara Mather
Recent models posit that bursts of locus ceruleus (LC) activity amplify neural gain such that limited attention and encoding resources focus even more on prioritized mental representations under arousal. Here, we tested this hypothesis in human males and females using fMRI, neuromelanin MRI, and pupil dilation, a biomarker of arousal and LC activity. During scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive encoding task in which threat of punishment motivated them to prioritize encoding of scene images over superimposed objects...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246389/mitigating-passive-fatigue-during-monotonous-drives-with-thermal-stimuli-insights-into-the-effect-of-different-stimulation-durations
#11
Elisabeth Schmidt, Angelika C Bullinger
Driving on monotonous roads has been shown to cause passive fatigue as even non-sleep-deprived drivers suffer from the lack of stimuli. Consequently, alertness is reduced and the risk of accidents increases. To counteract this risk, measures need to be taken to mitigate driver fatigue. While in the past, some studies have been focused on the potential of thermal stimuli to reduce fatigue, their results seem inconclusive. Examining the study conditions in which the thermal stimuli were studied, it becomes obvious that the duration of the thermal stimulus strongly affects perceived fatigue...
December 12, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220579/pupillary-responses-to-static-images-of-men-and-women-a-possible-measure-of-sexual-interest
#12
Robert J Snowden, Aimee McKinnon, Julie Fitoussi, Nicola S Gray
The pupil dilates to images that are arousing. In Experiment 1, we examined if the pupil's response to brief presentations (2,000 ms) of static images could be used to identify individuals' sexual orientation. Participants were grouped according to their self-reported gender and sexual orientation (male heterosexual, N = 20; male bisexual, N = 13; male homosexual, N = 19; female heterosexual, N = 28; female bisexual, N = 21; female homosexual, N = 17). Pupil size was monitored to images of men in seminude poses, women in seminude poses, or neutral images...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181589/disentangling-brain-activity-related-to-the-processing-of-emotional-visual-information-and-emotional-arousal
#13
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal...
November 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107022/error-blindness-and-motivational-significance-shifts-in-networks-centering-on-anterior-insula-co-vary-with-error-awareness-and-pupil-dilation
#14
Helga A Harsay, Michael X Cohen, Marcus Spaan, Wouter D Weeda, Sander Nieuwenhuis, K Richard Ridderinkhof
This investigation aims to further our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying the awareness of one's erroneous actions. While all errors are registered as such in the rostral cingulate zone, errors enter awareness only when the anterior insula cortex is activated. Aware but not unaware errors elicit autonomic nervous system reactivity. Our aim is to investigate the hypothesis that activation in the insula during error awareness is related to autonomic arousal and to inter-regional interactions with other areas of the brain...
October 26, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089919/nasal-oxytocin-treatment-biases-dogs-visual-attention-and-emotional-response-toward-positive-human-facial-expressions
#15
Sanni Somppi, Heini Törnqvist, József Topál, Aija Koskela, Laura Hänninen, Christina M Krause, Outi Vainio
The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline) nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051563/women-s-self-rated-attraction-to-male-faces-does-not-correspond-with-physiological-arousal
#16
S Hagerman, Z Woolard, K Anderson, B W Tatler, F R Moore
There has been little work to determine whether attractiveness ratings of faces correspond to sexual or more general attraction. We tested whether a measure of women's physiological arousal (pupil diameter change) was correlated with ratings of men's facial attractiveness. In Study 1, women rated the faces of men for whom we also measured salivary testosterone. They rated each face for attractiveness, and for desirability for friendship and long- and short-term romantic relationships. Pupil diameter change was not related to subjective ratings of attractiveness, but was positively correlated with the men's testosterone...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034334/arousal-related-adjustments-of-perceptual-biases-optimize-perception-in-dynamic-environments
#17
Kamesh Krishnamurthy, Matthew R Nassar, Shilpa Sarode, Joshua I Gold
Prior expectations can be used to improve perceptual judgments about ambiguous stimuli. However, little is known about if and how these improvements are maintained in dynamic environments in which the quality of appropriate priors changes from one stimulus to the next. Using a sound-localization task, we show that changes in stimulus predictability lead to arousal-mediated adjustments in the magnitude of prior-driven biases that optimize perceptual judgments about each stimulus. These adjustments depend on task-dependent changes in the relevance and reliability of prior expectations, which subjects update using both normative and idiosyncratic principles...
2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030228/the-relation-between-young-children-s-physiological-arousal-and-their-motivation-to-help-others
#18
Robert Hepach, Amrisha Vaish, Katharina Müller, Michael Tomasello
Children are motivated to help others from an early age. However, little is known about the internal biological mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we compiled data from five separate studies in which children, ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1) children's internal physiological arousal via changes in their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of their providing help. The results showed that the greater the baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and more likely children were to help the adult...
October 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#19
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984508/subjective-physiological-and-behavioural-responses-towards-evaluatively-conditioned-stimuli
#20
Ferdinand Pittino, Katrin M Kliegl, Anke Huckauf
Evaluative Conditioning (EC) is commonly defined as the change in liking of a stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) due to its pairings with an affective unconditioned stimulus (US). In Experiment 1, we investigated effects of repeated stimulus pairings on affective responses, i.e. valence and arousal ratings, pupil size, and duration estimation. After repeatedly pairing the CSs with affective USs, a consistent pattern of affective responses emerged: The CSnegative was rated as being more negative and more arousing, resulted in larger pupils, and was temporally overestimated compared to the CSneutral...
October 6, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
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