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Tarsal bones

Heather A Richbourg, Matthew J Martin, Emma R Schachner, Margaret A McNulty
Rodent models are used for a variety of orthopedic research applications; however, anatomy references include mostly artistic representations. Advanced imaging techniques, including micro-computed tomography (microCT), can provide more accurate representations of subtle anatomical characteristics. A recent microCT atlas of laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) anatomy depicts the central and tarsal bone III (T3) as a single bone, differing from previous references. Fusion of tarsal bones is generally characterized as pathological secondary to mutations associated with growth factors, and normal variation has not been documented in the mouse tarsus...
October 12, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Patricia C Dischinger, Joseph A Kufera, Shiu M Ho, Gabriel E Ryb, Stewart Wang
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to examine trends in ankle/foot (A/F) injuries during the period 2001-2014, in order to determine whether the incidence of these injuries has changed and whether a previously identified difference in risk by gender still existed. In addition, other driver and crash-related risk factors were examined separately for men and women. METHODS: Passenger vehicle drivers aged 16+ were identified from NASS-CDS; weighted data were analyzed for model years 2001-2014...
September 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
S E Hoey, A H Biedrzycki, M J Livesey, R Drees
Juvenile bovine patients who present with clinical signs of lameness are commonly evaluated using radiographic techniques both within a hospital setting and in a farm environment. The radiographic development of the juvenile bovine skeleton is currently poorly documented. In this study, the limbs of four heifer calves were sequentially radiographed to assess development of the juvenile bovine appendicular skeleton in the first 12 months of life. Images were acquired at three weeks, three months, six months, nine months and one year of age...
August 24, 2016: Veterinary Record
Shishir Suranigi, Kanagasabai Rengasamy, Syed Najimudeen, James Gnanadoss
Osteochondroma or exostosis is the most common benign bone tumor, and occurring frequently in the proximal humerus, tibia, and distal femur. It rarely affects talus. Osteochondroma of talus is a very rare etiology of tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS). We report a rare case of extensive osteochondroma of the talus in a 60 year old female presenting with multiple swellings around the ankle and symptoms suggestive of tarsal tunnel syndrome. En-block excision of the multiple masses was done. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma...
June 2016: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Jennifer J Ree, Wendy I Baltzer, Katy L Townsend
A technique for using free autogenous omental grafting with arthrodesis in dogs is described and radiographic osseous union and complications after surgery are evaluated. This retrospective study matched body weight and procedure type for 8 cases of pancarpal arthrodesis, 4 cases of pantarsal arthrodesis, and 2 cases of partial tarsal arthrodesis in dogs with omental and cancellous bone autograft (OBG group) and with cancellous bone autograft alone (BG group). Radiographs were reviewed 9 to 12 weeks after surgery to compare scores of radiographic osseous union and it was found that the OBG group had higher scores than the BG group...
August 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Angel Zeininger, Biren A Patel, Bernhard Zipfel, Kristian J Carlson
Australopithecus africanus has been interpreted as having a rigid lateral foot. One mechanism contributing to a rigid foot during push-off in humans is a calcaneocuboid joint (CCJ) with limited dorsiflexion and a "close-packed" talocalcaneal joint (TCJ). In contrast, apes likely have a greater CCJ range of motion and lack a close-packed TCJ. Differences in tarsal arthrokinematics may result in different joint loading environments. In Homo sapiens, we tested the hypothesis that dorsal and plantar CCJ and the TCJ show evidence of predictable habitual loading...
August 2016: Journal of Human Evolution
Carine Le Goff, Curtis Rogers, Wilfried Le Goff, Graziella Pinto, Damien Bonnet, Maya Chrabieh, Olivier Alibeu, Patrick Nistchke, Arnold Munnich, Capucine Picard, Valérie Cormier-Daire
Cardiospondylocarpofacial (CSCF) syndrome is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion and extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations. Whole-exome sequencing identified heterozygous MAP3K7 mutations in six distinct CSCF-affected individuals from four families and ranging in age from 5 to 37 years. MAP3K7 encodes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 signaling pathway...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
M D Chen Wang, Xiang Geng, Shaobai Wang, M D Xin Ma, M D Xu Wang, M D Jiazhang Huang, M D Chao Zhang, M S Li Chen, Junsheng Yang, Kan Wang
The tarsal bones articulate with each other and demonstrate complicated kinematic characteristics. The in vivo motions of these tarsal joints during normal gait are still unclear. Seven healthy subjects were recruited and fourteen feet in total were tested in the current study. Three dimensional models of the tarsal bones were first created using CT scanning. Corresponding local 3D coordinate systems of each tarsal bone was subsequently established for 6DOF motion decompositions. The fluoroscopy system captured the lateral fluoroscopic images of the targeted tarsal region whilst the subject was walking...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
Juan-Antonio Díaz-Mancha, José Manuel Castillo-López, Pedro V Munuera-Martinez, Lourdes María Fernández-Seguín, Juan Polo-Padillo, Alberto Marcos Heredia-Rizo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the knowledge of fourth-year medicine, physiotherapy (PT), nursing, and podiatry students in carpal and tarsal bone anatomy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out. Based on a nonprobability convenience sampling, 177 fourth-year students (117 women and 60 men, mean age of 23.16 ± 3.82 years) from the podiatry (n = 39), nursing (n = 26), PT (n = 73), and medicine (n = 39) schools at a large Spanish university were included...
July 2016: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
P Fenton, S Al-Nammari, C Blundell, M Davies
AIMS: Although infrequent, a fracture of the cuboid can lead to significant disruption of the integrity of the midfoot and its function. The purpose of this study was to classify the pattern of fractures of the cuboid, relate them to the mechanism of injury and suggest methods of managing them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with radiologically reported cuboid fractures. Fractures were grouped according to commonly occurring patterns of injury...
July 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
Felix Wallborn, Charlotte Söffler, Philipp Winkels, Marcus Hess, Peter Engelhardt
A 3-year-old Labrador Retriever originating from Spain was presented with a left-sided hind limb lameness for several months. The orthopedic examination revealed a pain response when palpating the left tarsal joint. Radiographic and computed tomographic studies showed polyostotic, aggressive osteolytic bone lesions with mild erosive arthritis. The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis was confirmed by bone biopsy and the detection of the pathogen by PCR. Three weeks after initiation of therapy with allopurinol, the dog presented no signs of lameness...
August 17, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Tianquan Wang, Jian Lin, Dajiang Song, Heping Zheng, Chunlin Hou, Lei Li, Zedong Wu
BACKGROUND: Detailed investigation of the vasculature of the lateral aspect of the foot has rarely been presented. However, harvesting the flap in this area to cover defects of the foot and hand is highly important. Repair of soft-tissue defects at the forefoot remains a challenge in reconstructive surgery. This study explores the characteristics of the distal-based lateral dorsal cutaneous neuro-lateral plantar venofasciocutaneous flap pedicled with the lateral plantar artery perforator of the fifth metatarsal bone to establish a repair procedure for ulcers or defects in the forefoot region...
June 13, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Vanna Rocchi, Ming-Tung Huang, James D Bomar, Scott Mubarak
PURPOSE: It has been the observation of the senior author that there is a bony fullness or "double medial malleolus" over the middle facet as a consistent finding with most talocalcaneal coalitions (TCC). To document this observation, we reviewed records and radiographs in 3 patient groups. METHODS: Part 1: retrospective chart review was completed for 111 feet to determine the clinical presence of a palpable "double medial malleolus." Part 2: computed tomography (CT) scans for evaluation of tarsal coalition or symptomatic flatfoot between January 2006 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed for the same cohort...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
B Dupont, A Datry, S Poirée, A Canestri, S Boucheneb, E Fourniols
UNLABELLED: We report the case of a fungal mycetoma due to Madurella mycetomatis that failed to respond to surgery and antifungal treatment but responded strongly to the addition of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). This African patient was born in Mauritania in 1972. He was a herdsman, living close to the Senegal River. The first nodules appeared on the left foot at the age of 13years (1985). The patient suffered frequent flare-ups with the appearance of black grains and underwent surgery in 1988 and 1992 in Senegal...
June 2016: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Graciela Piñeiro, Pablo Núñez Demarco, Melitta D Meneghel
The hypotheses about the origin of the primitive amniotic tarsus are very speculative. Early studies argued that the origin of the astragalus, one of the largest proximal bones in the tarsus of basal amniotes, was produced by either the fusion of two, three, or even four of the original tarsal bones, the intermedium, the tibiale and the proximal centralia (c4 and c3), or that the intermedium alone transforms into the primitive astragalus. More recent studies have shown that the structure of the tarsus in Captorhinus supports the former hypothesis about a fusion of the intermedium, the tibiale, the proximal centrale (c4) and eventually c3, producing a purportedly multipartite structure of the amniotic astragalus, but the issue remained contentious...
2016: PeerJ
Maj Uma E Ramadorai, Matthew W Beuchel, Bruce J Sangeorzan
Fractures of the tarsal navicular are commonly the result of trauma or chronic overload. Because of its complex anatomy and blood supply, the tarsal navicular is susceptible to osteonecrosis, and injury to this bone can lead to posttraumatic arthrosis of the surrounding joints. Diagnosis of the injury, especially in patients with stress fractures, can require a high index of suspicion and the use of advanced imaging. The treatment of stress fracture is controversial and ranges from immobilization in a non-weight-bearing cast or boot to internal fixation with or without bone grafting...
June 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Haruhiko Machida, Toshiyuki Yuhara, Mieko Tamura, Takuya Ishikawa, Etsuko Tate, Eiko Ueno, Katelyn Nye, John M Sabol
With flat-panel detector mammography, radiography, and fluoroscopy systems, digital tomosynthesis (DT) has been recently introduced as an advanced clinical application that removes overlying structures, enhances local tissue separation, and provides depth information about structures of interest by providing high-quality tomographic images. DT images are generated from projection image data, typically using filtered back-projection or iterative reconstruction. These low-dose x-ray projection images are easily and swiftly acquired over a range of angles during a single linear or arc sweep of the x-ray tube assembly...
May 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Selwyn Arlington Headley, Francisco Claudio D Mota, Scott Lindsay, Luiza M de Oliveira, Alessandra Aparecida Medeiros, Lucienne Garcia Pretto-Giordano, João Paulo Elsen Saut, Mark Krockenberger
This article describes the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical findings associated with Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii in a 4-year-old female Boxer dog from Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Clinically, there was a swelling at the right metatarsal region and the hock joint with enlargement of regional lymph nodes. Radiographical evaluation revealed lysis of the tarsal bone; cytology demonstrated cryptococcal intralesional organisms at the swollen joint. Despite empirical antifungals therapeutic, the animal developed neurological cryptococcosis and died spontaneously...
August 2016: Mycopathologia
U Hagag, M Tawfiek, W Brehm, K Gerlach
The objective of this study was to provide a detailed multiplanar computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the bovine tarsus. The tarsal regions from twelve healthy adult cow cadavers were scanned in both soft and bone windows via a 16-slice multidetector CT scanner. Tarsi were frozen at -20(o) C and sectioned to 10-mm-thick slices in transverse, dorsal and sagittal planes respecting the imaging protocol. The frozen sections were cleaned and then photographed. Anatomic structures were identified, labelled and compared with the corresponding CT images...
April 22, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
Jaime Rice Denning
Tarsal coalition (a congenital fibrous, cartilaginous, or bony connection between two bones) classically presents with recurrent ankle sprains or with insidious onset of a painful, stiff flatfoot. Flatfoot is a benign finding most of the time, but it is important to distinguish the rigid flatfoot from the flexible flatfoot. A patient with recurrent sprains of the ankle or a stiff flatfoot should be evaluated for a tarsal coalition. The key to making the diagnosis is careful examination for stiffness in the subtalar joint and appropriate imaging studies...
April 2016: Pediatric Annals
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