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GI Malignancy

Shin Hwang, Chul-Soo Ahn, Ki-Hun Kim, Deok-Bog Moon, Tae-Yong Ha, Gi-Won Song, Dong-Hwan Jung, Gil-Chun Park, Sung-Gyu Lee
Backgrounds/Aims: Long-term immunosuppression regimens after liver transplantation (LT) are rarely reported in detail. We aimed to provide information on actual long-term immunosuppression regimens through this cross-sectional study. Methods: Our institutional LT database was searched for adult patients who underwent primary LT operation from 2000 to 2016. We identified 3620 live recipients with actual information on immunosuppressive agent use for 1-17 years. Results: The study cohort was divided into 7 groups according to posttransplantation period...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Allen Cohn, Michael A Morse, Bert O'Neil, Samuel Whiting, Claire Coeshott, John Ferraro, Donald Bellgrau, David Apelian, Timothy C Rodell
We are developing whole, heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, engineered to encode target proteins, which stimulate immune responses against malignant cells expressing those targets. This phase 1 trial, enrolling patients with advanced colorectal or pancreas cancer, was designed to evaluate safety, immunogenicity, response, and overall survival of ascending doses of the GI-4000 series of products, which express 3 different forms of mutated Ras proteins. The study enrolled 33 heavily pretreated subjects (14 with pancreas and 19 with colorectal cancer), whose tumors were genotyped before enrollment to identify the specific ras mutation and thereby to identify which GI-4000 product to administer...
April 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
G Mulkerrin, N M Hogan, M Sheehan, M R Joyce
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs) are a rare slow growing malignancy, accounting for less than 1% of all gastrointestinal (GI) tract tumors. These tumors are usually discovered incidentally by endoscopy, surgery or radiology. However on occasions they may present with significant symptoms including GI blood loss. This case report discusses an atypical presentation of a GIST in a 57-year-old female. CASE PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following one episode of melena...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Dong Il Gwon, Gi-Young Ko, Jong Woo Kim, Heung Kyu Ko, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Kyu-Bo Sung
Objective: To investigate the technical safety and clinical efficacy of a double-stent system with long duodenal extension in patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 48 consecutive patients (31 men, 17 women; mean age, 61 years; age range, 31-77 years) with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstructions from May 2013 to December 2015. All patients were treated with a double-stent system with long duodenal covered extension (16 cm or 21 cm)...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Hans G Beger, Benjamin Mayer
The metrics for measuring early postoperative morbidity after resection of pancreatic neoplastic tumors are overall morbidity, severe surgery-related morbidity, frequency of reoperation and reintervention, in-hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and length of hospital stay. Thirty-day readmission after discharge is additionally an indispensable criterion to assess quality of surgery. The metrics for surgery-associated long-term results after pancreatic resections are survival times, new onset of diabetes (DM), impaired glucose tolerance, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, body mass index and GI motility dysfunctions...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
Mohammed A Al-Masni, Mugahed A Al-Antari, Jeong-Min Park, Geon Gi, Tae-Yeon Kim, Patricio Rivera, Edwin Valarezo, Mun-Taek Choi, Seung-Moo Han, Tae-Seong Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Automatic detection and classification of the masses in mammograms are still a big challenge and play a crucial role to assist radiologists for accurate diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a novel Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on one of the regional deep learning techniques, a ROI-based Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which is called You Only Look Once (YOLO). Although most previous studies only deal with classification of masses, our proposed YOLO-based CAD system can handle detection and classification simultaneously in one framework...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Bhavani S Gannavarapu, Steven K M Lau, Kristen Carter, Nathan A Cannon, Ang Gao, Chul Ahn, Jeffrey J Meyer, David J Sher, Aminah Jatoi, Rodney Infante, Puneeth Iyengar
PURPOSE: Cancer-associated weight loss is associated with poor prognosis in advanced malignancy; however, its pretreatment prevalence and survival impact are inadequately described in large cohorts. Such data, stratified by tumor type and stage, may facilitate the optimal and timely allocation of complementary care, leading to improvements in patient survival and quality of life. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 3,180 consecutively treated adult patients with lung or GI (including colorectal, liver, and pancreatic) cancer...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Akina Tohya, Atsushi Kohjitani, Sachi Ohno, Kaoru Yamashita, Yozo Manabe, Mitsutaka Sugimura
Background: Secretion of hormones, which antagonize the action of insulin, is facilitated in response to surgery, and acute resistance to the action of insulin develops. Our aim is to elucidate the effects of intraoperative glycemic control by glucose-insulin (GI) infusion on postoperative complications and outcomes in major oral and maxillofacial surgery. Findings: Thirty patients aged ≥ 60 years undergoing a radical operation of oral malignant tumors with tissue reconstruction (≥ 8 h) were analyzed...
2018: JA Clin Rep
Cheng Shi Chen, Sohee Park, Ji Hoon Shin, Yasir Nouri, Jong-Woo Kim, Hyun-Ki Yoon, Gi-Young Ko
Background Endovascular treatment has become a significant therapeutic option for the management of intractable bleeding in gynecologic malignancies. However, the endovascular treatment types were almost never mentioned when active bleeding from different arteries was identified. Purpose To present angiographic details and evaluate clinical efficacy of endovascular treatments to control active vaginal bleeding in uterine cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. Material and Methods In this retrospective study, six, consecutive cervical cancer patients treated with radiotherapy who underwent endovascular treatment for active vaginal bleeding were included...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Benjamin D Hallowell, Sara W Robb, Kristina W Kintziger
As HIV-seropositive individuals live longer, they are more likely to acquire conditions seen in the general population. Excluding AIDS-defining malignancies, HIV-seropositive individuals are more likely to develop cancer than individuals in the general population. In order to better inform future screening and prevention efforts in this population, we compared the geographic distribution and location characteristics of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative cancer cases in South Carolina (SC). To do this we obtained linked HIV and cancer data from the SC enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System and Central Cancer Registry...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Ashleigh Scott, Siok-Keen Tey, Jason Butler, Glen A Kennedy
BACKGROUND / AIM: Acute gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GI-GVHD) following haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) is a common and life-threatening complication. Endoscopic biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract is required for diagnosis. However, clear evidence to optimise this diagnostic approach is lacking, leading to variation in diagnostic sensitivity between institutions. We aimed to assess the clinical, endoscopic and histological findings of endoscopies performed for suspected acute GI-GVHD at our institution to better define the optimal use of this strategy...
February 1, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Hui-Wen Xiao, Yuan Li, Dan Luo, Jia-Li Dong, Li-Xin Zhou, Shu-Yi Zhao, Qi-Sheng Zheng, Hai-Chao Wang, Ming Cui, Sai-Jun Fan
Although radiation therapy is a cornerstone of modern management of malignancies, various side effects are inevitably linked to abdominal and pelvic cancer after radiotherapy. Radiation-mediated gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity impairs the life quality of cancer survivors and even shortens their lifespan. Hydrogen has been shown to protect against tissue injuries caused by oxidative stress and excessive inflammation, but its effect on radiation-induced intestinal injury was previously unknown. In the present study, we found that oral gavage with hydrogen-water increased the survival rate and body weight of mice exposed to total abdominal irradiation (TAI); oral gavage with hydrogen-water was also associated with an improvement in GI tract function and the epithelial integrity of the small intestine...
January 26, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
S Y Moorcraft, D Gonzalez de Castro, D Cunningham, T Jones, B A Walker, C Peckitt, L C Yuan, M Frampton, R Begum, Z Eltahir, A Wotherspoon, L S Teixeira Mendes, S Hulkki Wilson, A Gillbanks, C Baratelli, N Fotiadis, A Patel, C Braconi, N Valeri, M Gerlinger, S Rao, D Watkins, I Chau, N Starling
Background: Targeted capture sequencing can potentially facilitate precision medicine, but the feasibility of this approach in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies is unknown. Patients and methods: The FOrMAT (Feasibility of a Molecular Characterisation Approach to Treatment) study was a feasibility study enrolling patients with advanced GI malignancies from February 2014 to November 2015. Targeted capture sequencing (mainly using archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded diagnostic/resection samples) was carried out to detect mutations, copy number variations and translocations in up to 46 genes which had prognostic/predictive significance or were targets in current/upcoming clinical trials...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
G Seeta Rama Raju, E Pavitra, Neha Merchant, Hoomin Lee, Ganji Lakshmi Vara Prasad, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han
Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process involving large protein degradation by a ubiquitous autophagosomic signaling pathway, which is essential for cellular homeostasis. It is triggered by environmental factors such as stress, lack of nutrients, inflammation, and eliminating intracellular pathogens. Although the mechanisms underlying autophagy are still unclear, increasing evidence illuminates the magnitude of autophagy in a wide range of physiological processes and human diseases. Simultaneously, research community has focused on the triggering of autophagy by the internalization of engineered nanomaterials, which indicates a new line of revolution in cancer cure...
January 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
Yeqi Sun, Ruifen Wang, Meng Qiao, Yanchun Xu, Wenbin Guan, Lifeng Wang
Gastrointestinal cancers (GI) are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with heavy cancer-related mortalities. Even if continued development of therapy methods, therapy resistance has been a great obstruction for cancer treatment and thereby inevitably leads to depressed final mortality. Peritumoral cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a versatile population assisting cancer cells to build a facilitated tumor microenvironment (TME), has been demonstrated exerting a promotion influence on cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and also therapy resistance...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Teerada Daroontum, Kei Kohno, Ahmed E Eladl, Akira Satou, Ayako Sakakibara, Shoichi Matsukage, Naoki Yakushiji, Charin Ya-In, Shigeo Nakamura, Naoko Asano, Seiichi Kato
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to compare treated lymphoma-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) and methotrexate (MTX)-associated EBVMCU. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of a series of 15 Japanese patients (11 women, four men; median age 74 years, range 35-84 years), seven received MTX for the treatment of autoimmune disease and eight developed EBVMCU after treatment of malignant lymphoma [diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 4) without EBV association, adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (n = 2), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (n = 1), and follicular lymphoma (n = 1)]...
January 4, 2018: Histopathology
Leila Tchelebi, Nicholas Zaorsky, Heath Mackley
The role of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the management of upper gastrointestinal malignancies is constantly evolving. As radiation therapy techniques improve and are able to deliver more ablative doses of radiotherapy while sparing healthy tissue, radiation can be applied to a wider range of clinical scenarios. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows a high dose of radiation to be delivered to a highly conformal treatment volume in a short amount of time. Another potential advantage of SBRT is its ability to increase tumor immunogenicity, while also having less of an immunosuppressive effect on the patient, as compared to conventionally fractionated radiation therapy...
January 3, 2018: Biomedicines
Vinit Baliyan, Hamed Kordbacheh, Anushri Parakh, Avinash Kambadakone
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy with poor 5-year survival rate. Advances in surgical techniques and introduction of novel combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimens have necessitated the need for biomarkers for assessment of treatment response. Conventional imaging methods such as RECIST have been used for response evaluation in clinical trials particularly in patients with metastatic PDAC. However, the role of these approaches for assessing response to loco-regional and systemic therapies is limited due to complex morphological and histological nature of PDAC...
December 14, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Jordan M Cloyd, Yun Shin Chun, Naruhiko Ikoma, Jean Nicolas Vauthey, Tlhomas A Aloia, Amanda Cuddy, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, Y Nancy You
PURPOSE: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly elevated lifetime risk of developing biliary tract cancers (BTCs) compared to the general population. However, few studies have characterized the clinical characteristics, genetic features, or long-term outcomes of mismatch-repair deficient (dMMR) cholangiocarcinomas associated with LS. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained Familial High-Risk GI Cancer Clinic database identified all patients with BTCs evaluated from 2006 to 2016 who carried germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Lene Russell, Lars Broksø Holst, Lars Kjeldsen, Jakob Stensballe, Anders Perner
BACKGROUND: Patients with malignant haematological disease and especially those who require intensive care have an increased risk of bleeding and thrombosis, but none of these data were obtained in ICU patients only. We assessed the incidence of bleeding and thrombotic complications, use of blood products and risk factors for bleeding in an adult population of ICU patients with haematological malignancies. METHODS: We screened all patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome admitted to a university hospital ICU during 2008-2012...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
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