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GI Malignancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434400/role-of-modern-immunotherapy-in-gastrointestinal-malignancies-a-review-of-current-clinical-progress
#1
REVIEW
Zin W Myint, Gaurav Goel
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with a huge disease burden worldwide. There is clearly a significant unmet need for new drugs and therapies to further improve the treatment outcomes of GI malignancies. Immunotherapy is a novel treatment strategy that is emerging as an effective and promising treatment option against several types of cancers. CTLA-4 and PD-1 are critical immune checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate T cell activation via distinct mechanisms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429164/detection-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens-in-oncology-patients-by-highly-multiplexed-molecular-panels
#2
C C Otto, L H Chen, T He, Y-W Tang, N E Babady
We compared the frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) pathogen detection in an oncology patient population by two multiplexed molecular assays, the Luminex xTAG® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP, which identifies 14 GI pathogens) and the BioFire Gastrointestinal Panel (BFGP, which identifies 22 GI pathogens). We additionally reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients tested with both panels. A total of 200 prospectively collected and 81 archived stool samples were tested by both panels. In the prospective cohort, the GPP and BFGP identified a pathogen in 33...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427756/human-tissue-kallikreins-blood-levels-and-response-to-radiotherapy-in-intermediate-risk-prostate-cancer
#3
Nicola J Nasser, John Thoms, Antoninus Soosaipillai, Melania Pintilie, Ri Wang, Eleftherios P Diamandis, Robert G Bristow
OBJECTIVES: Kallikreins are serine proteases over expressed in many malignancies. In this study, we measure changes in serum kallikrein (KLKs) levels during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in prostate cancer patients, and find potential correlations between serum kallikrein level and normal tissues toxicity during radiation. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with prostate cancer were recruited as follows: group 1, definitive standard fractionation IMRT (78Gy in 39 fractions, n=15); group 2, definitive hypofractionated IMRT (60Gy in 20 fractions, n=15); and group 3, IMRT postprostatectomy (66Gy in 33 fractions, n=19)...
April 17, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414670/diulafoy-s-lesion-an-uncanny-etiology-of-gastrointestinal-bleed
#4
V Gasia, O Lamendola
INTRODUCTION: Dieulafoy's lesion is a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening, condition. It accounts for 1-2 percent of acute gastrointestinal (GI); bleeding. CASE: A 99-year-old woman was initially admitted due to left lower extremity cellulitis related to chronic venous stasis ulcer and was receiving broad-spectrum IV antibiotics. Upon admission to the medical floor, she had an episode of hematemesis and multiple bowel movements with black-tarry stools...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410575/effects-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-gastrointestinal-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Jing Yu, Lian Liu, Yue Zhang, Jia Wei, Fan Yang
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy including early-stage cancer. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in the prognosis of GI cancer patients undergoing surgery. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, EBSCO-Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CNKI and Wanfang to identify primary research reporting the effects of n-3 PUFAs compared with isocaloric nutrition on GI cancer patients who underwent surgery up to the end of June 30, 2016...
April 14, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377935/gastrointestinal-bleeding-from-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-the-stomach
#6
Andree Koop, Bhaumik Brauhmbhatt, Jason Lewis, Michele D Lewis
We present a rare case of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding associated with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma to the stomach. Prostate cancer, which is the most common noncutaneous malignancy among men, rarely spreads to the stomach, with only 7 cases reported in the English literature. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and GI bleeding. Our patient was treated with epinephrine injection and bipolar cautery, but GI bleeding recurred 7 months later when he had worsening of his thrombocytopenia while using ibuprofen...
2017: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352323/correlation-between-genotype-and-phenotype-in-three-families-with-peutz-jeghers-syndrome
#7
Yanli Zhang, Yao Ke, Xueni Zheng, Qing Liu, Xiaohong Duan
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a hereditary disorder characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentations, gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis and an increased risk of certain malignancies. Little is known about the causative genes of PJS, or their association with the clinical phenotypes of PJS. The present study reports the results of clinical and genetic analysis of three Chinese families with PJS. In addition, the medical histories and clinical manifestations of these families were compared. DNA was collected from the blood samples of patients with PJS and controls...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337661/the-value-of-multidisciplinary-team-meetings-for-patients-with-gastrointestinal-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Yara L Basta, Sifra Bolle, Paul Fockens, Kristien M A J Tytgat
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is rising and most patients with GI malignancies are discussed by a multidisciplinary team (MDT). We performed a systematic review to assess whether MDTs for patients with GI malignancies can correctly change diagnosis, tumor stage and subsequent treatment plan, and whether the treatment plan was implemented. METHODS: We performed a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326848/autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cells-for-refractory-crohn-s-disease
#9
C A DiNicola, A Zand, D W Hommes
Autologous hematopoietic stem cells are gaining ground as an effective and safe treatment for treating severe refractory Crohn's disease (CD). Autologous hematopoietic stem cell therapy (AHSCT) induces resetting of the immune system by de novo regeneration of T-cell repertoire and repopulation of epithelial cells by bone-marrow derived cells to help patients achieve clinical and endoscopic remission. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the use of AHSCT in treating patients with CD. Improvements in disease activity have been seen in patients with severe autoimmune disease and patients with severe CD who underwent AHSCT for a concomitant malignant hematological disease...
May 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321355/a-rare-presentation-of-sarcoidosis-as-a-pancreatic-head-mass
#10
Shruti Mony, Pradnya D Patil, Rebekah English, Ananya Das, Daniel A Culver, Tanmay S Panchabhai
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous syndrome of unknown etiology with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas being the pathognomonic pathological finding. Sarcoidosis most commonly involves the lungs and involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is uncommon. Pancreatic sarcoidosis is very rare, especially when it is the presenting feature of sarcoidosis and can masquerade as pancreatic cancer. Tissue infiltration in pancreatic sarcoidosis can lead to either a diffuse nodular appearance or a mass-like lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295272/diagnostic-performance-of-the-gynecology-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-for-malignant-adnexal-masses
#11
Tan Zhang, Fangxuan Li, Juntian Liu, Sheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Gynecology Imaging Reporting and Data System (GI-RADS) for diagnosis of malignant adnexal masses in a Chinese population. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted of patients who underwent evaluation of suspected adnexal masses at a hospital in Tianjin, China, between January 1, 2015, and January 31, 2016. Ultrasonographic diagnosis was based on the GI-RADS classification-a standardized summary of imaging data that estimates the risk of malignancy-and compared with the final pathological diagnosis...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289510/critical-analysis-of-feeding-jejunostomy-following-resection-of-upper-gastrointestinal-malignancies
#12
Andrew M Blakely, Saad Ajmal, Rachel E Sargent, Thomas T Ng, Thomas J Miner
AIM: To assess nutritional recovery, particularly regarding feeding jejunostomy tube (FJT) utilization, following upper gastrointestinal resection for malignancy. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of a prospectively-maintained database of adult patients who underwent esophagectomy or gastrectomy (subtotal or total) for cancer with curative intent, from January 2001 to June 2014. Patient demographics, the approach to esophagectomy, the extent of gastrectomy, FJT placement and utilization at discharge, administration of parenteral nutrition (PN), and complications were evaluated...
February 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283864/lower-gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-associated-with-hereditary-cancer-syndromes-a-case-series
#13
Trilokesh D Kidambi, Christina Pedley, Amie Blanco, Emily K Bergsland, Jonathan P Terdiman
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the colon and rectum are uncommon and not traditionally associated with hereditary GI cancer syndromes. However, with widespread implementation of colorectal cancer screening programs, lower GI NENs are being identified with increasing frequency. We report the first case series of six patients with lower GI NENs who were diagnosed with hereditary GI cancer syndromes by germline testing. Two patients presented with poorly differentiated rectal neuroendocrine carcinoma (NECs) with colonic polyposis and were found to have Familial Adenomatous Polyposis and MYH-Associated Polyposis, respectively...
March 10, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280621/inflammatory-bowel-diseases-activity-in-patients-undergoing-pelvic-radiation-therapy
#14
Pierre Annede, Thomas Seisen, Caroline Klotz, Renaud Mazeron, Pierre Maroun, Claire Petit, Eric Deutsch, Alberto Bossi, Christine Haie-Meder, Cyrus Chargari, Pierre Blanchard
BACKGROUND: Few studies with contradictory results have been published on the safety of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: From 1989 to 2015, a single center retrospective analysis was performed including all IBD patients who received pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT) for a pelvic malignancy. Treatment characteristics, IBD activity and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were examined...
February 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270879/anal-neuroendocrine-tumor-masquerading-as-external-hemorrhoids-a-case-report
#15
Muhammad Khan, Ahmed Dirweesh, Chikezie Alvarez, Herbert Conaway, Robert Moser
Neuroendocrine tumors in gastrointestinal (GI) tract are a rare source of GI malignancy with an estimated incidence of 2.5 - 5 per 100,000 people per year and the prevalence of 35 per 100,000. In the GI tract, they are located in decreasing order of frequency in appendix, ileum, rectum, stomach, and colon. Those found in the anal region represent just 1% of all malignancies of the anal canal. Their clinical presentation can be widely varying, sometimes being found incidentally with metastatic disease and an unknown primary source...
February 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260747/sonographic-evaluation-of-colonic-carcinoma-in-comparison-to-colonoscopy
#16
M R Debnath, C R Debnath, N U Ahamed, S M Shahjahan, S M Ahmed, J Nahar, T Akter
Colon cancer is one of the main causes of cancer death. Diagnosis requires the examination of the entire large bowel by means of radiological or endoscopic techniques. Though there is not a remarkable advancement in gastrointestinal (GI) tract evaluations, the modern radiological imaging methods emphasize the importance of ultrasonography (US) evaluations and stand US out as the scanning method in malignancies of the GI tract. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of cancers of the colon & it's accuracy in comparison to colonoscopy...
January 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257791/safety-and-efficacy-of-cap-assisted-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-for-sporadic-nonampullary-duodenal-adenomas
#17
Laith H Jamil, Amir Kashani, Neiveen Peter, Simon K Lo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Eradication of sporadic non-ampullary duodenal adenomas (SNADAs) is essential due to their high rate of malignant transformation. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) techniques are the alternative to the traditional surgical treatments of SNADAs. There are very limited data on the safety and efficacy of cap-assisted EMR (C-EMR) in the treatment of SNADA. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent C-EMR for SNADAs between July 2002 and April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed...
February 28, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253721/enterohormonal-disturbances-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#18
A L Zygulska, A Furgala, K Krzemieniecki, J Kaszuba-ZwoiNska, P Thor
Gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal peptides play a role in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies, and their abnormal levels may contribute to dysmotility. The aim of this study was to analyze plasma concentrations of enterohormones (motilin, ghrelin, gastrin and pancreatic polypeptide) and to verify if their abnormal levels may contribute to the severity of dyspeptic symptoms in colorectal cancer patients. The study included 60 patients with colorectal malignancies (22 men and 38 women), among them 30 individuals with colon cancers (group A) and 30 subjects with rectal tumors (group B)...
March 3, 2017: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245881/clinical-outcomes-of-gastrointestinal-brain-metastases-treated-with-radiotherapy
#19
Samrat M Sanghvi, Jonathan W Lischalk, Ling Cai, Sean Collins, Mani Nair, Brain Collins, Keith Unger
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases of gastrointestinal origin are a rare occurrence. Radiation therapy (RT) in the form of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is an effective established treatment modality in either the definitive or adjuvant setting. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term clinical outcomes of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) brain metastases treated with SRS or WBRT. METHODS: In this single institutional retrospective review, we detail the outcomes of patients diagnosed with metastatic brain tumors from an adenocarcinoma gastrointestinal primary...
February 28, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242812/crispr-knockout-of-the-hur-gene-causes-a-xenograft-lethal-phenotype
#20
Shruti Lal, Edwin C Cheung, Mahsa Zarei, Ranjan Preet, Saswati N Chand, Nicole C Mambelli-Lisboa, Carmella Romeo, Matthew C Stout, Eric Londin, Austin Goetz, Cinthya Y Lowder, Avinoam Nevler, Charles J Yeo, Paul M Campbell, Jordan M Winter, Dan A Dixon, Jonathan R Brody
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the U.S., while colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer. The RNA binding protein HuR (ELAVL1), supports a pro-oncogenic network in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells through enhanced HuR expression. Using a publically available database, HuR expression levels were determined to be increased in primary PDA and CRC tumor cohorts as compared to normal pancreas and colon tissues, respectively. CRISPR/Cas9 technology was successfully used to delete the HuR gene in both PDA (MIA PaCa-2 and Hs 766T) and CRC (HCT116) cell lines...
February 27, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
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