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Liver injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231326/expression-of-glyoxalase-i-is-reduced-in-cirrhotic-livers-a-possible-mechanism-in-the-development-of-cirrhosis
#1
Marcus Hollenbach, Antje Thonig, Sabine Pohl, Cristina Ripoll, Maurice Michel, Alexander Zipprich
BACKGROUND: High concentrations of methylglyoxal (MGO) cause cytotoxiticy via formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and inflammation. MGO is detoxificated enzymatically by glyoxalase-I (Glo-I). The aim of this study was to analyze the role of Glo-I during the development of cirrhosis. METHODS: In primary hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (pHSC) and sinusoidal endothelial cells (pLSEC) from rats with early (CCl4 8wk) and advanced cirrhosis (CCl4 12wk) expression and activity of Glo-I were determined and compared to control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230758/quantitative-determination-of-stilbenoids-and-dihydroisocoumarins-in-shorea-roxburghii-and-evaluation-of-their-hepatoprotective-activity
#2
Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Saowanee Chaipech, Yusuke Kunikata, Ryohei Yagi, Yutana Pongpiriyadacha, Osamu Muraoka, Toshio Morikawa
A simultaneous quantitative analytical method for 13 stilbenoids including (-)-hopeaphenol (1), (+)-isohopeaphenol (2), hemsleyanol D (3), (-)-ampelopsin H (4), vaticanols A (5), E (6), and G (7), (+)-α-viniferin (8), pauciflorol A (9), hopeafuran (10), (-)-balanocarpol (11), (-)-ampelopsin A (12), and trans-resveratrol 10-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (13), and two dihydroisocoumarins, phayomphenols A₁ (14) and A₂ (15) in the extract of Shorea roxburghii (dipterocarpaceae) was developed. According to the established protocol, distributions of these 15 polyphenols (1-15) in the bark and wood parts of S...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230738/clinical-implications-of-20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic-acid-in-the-kidney-liver-lung-and-brain-an-emerging-therapeutic-target
#3
REVIEW
Osama H Elshenawy, Sherif M Shoieb, Anwar Mohamed, Ayman O S El-Kadi
Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) is an important pathway for the formation of eicosanoids. The ω-hydroxylation of AA generates significant levels of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in various tissues. In the current review, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in the kidney, liver, lung, and brain during physiological and pathophysiological states. Moreover, we discussed the role of 20-HETE in tumor formation, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In the kidney, 20-HETE is involved in modulation of preglomerular vascular tone and tubular ion transport...
February 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230641/peritransplant-energy-changes-and-their-correlation-to-outcome-after-human-liver-transplantation
#4
Bote G Bruinsma, James H Avruch, Gautham V Sridharan, Pepijn D Weeder, Marie Louise Jacobs, Kerry Crisalli, Beth Amundsen, Robert J Porte, James F Markmann, Korkut Uygun, Heidi Yeh
BACKGROUND: The ongoing shortage of donor livers for transplantation and the increased use of marginal livers necessitate the development of accurate pretransplant tests of viability. Considering the importance energy status during transplantation, we aimed to correlate peritransplant energy cofactors to posttransplant outcome and subsequently model this in an ex vivo setting. METHODS: Sequential biopsies were taken from 19 donor livers postpreservation, as well as 30 min after portal venous (PVR) and hepatic arterial reperfusion (HAR) and analyzed by LC-MS for energetic cofactors (ATP/ADP/AMP, NADH/NAD, NADPH/NADP, FAD, GSSG/GSH)...
February 23, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230279/folate-protects-hepatocytes-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-mice-from-apoptosis-via-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-activated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#5
Anning Yang, Yue Sun, Caiyan Mao, Songhao Yang, Min Huang, Mei Deng, Ning Ding, Xiaoling Yang, Minghao Zhang, Shaoju Jin, Yideng Jiang, Ying Huang
Folate deficiency is a known risk factor for liver injury; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we employed a high homocysteine-induced liver injury model of Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-) ) mice fed high-methionine diet and found that high homocysteine induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and liver cell apoptosis by downregulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression; observations that were attenuated with supplementation of dietary folate...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229921/protective-effect-of-a-polysaccharide-from-anoectochilus-roxburghii-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-acute-liver-injury-in-mice
#6
Biyu Zeng, Minghua Su, Qingxi Chen, Qiang Chang, Wei Wang, Huihua Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. is traditionally used for the treatment of various types of chronic and acute hepatitis in China. Considering that Anoectochilus roxburghii polysaccharide (ARPT) is the main constituent of Anoectochilus roxburghii, the present study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of ARPT and its possible mechanism in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hepatoprotective activity of ARPT (150, 300 and 500 mg/kg) were investigated on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229293/age-related-hearing-loss-and-dementia-a-10-year-national-population-based-study
#7
Peijen Su, Chih-Chao Hsu, Hung-Ching Lin, Wei-Shin Huang, Tsung-Lin Yang, Wei-Ting Hsu, Cheng-Li Lin, Chung-Yi Hsu, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Yi-Chao Hsu
Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is postulated to affect dementia. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between ARHL and the prevalence, and 10-year incidence of dementia in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We selected patients diagnosed with ARHL from the NHIRD. A comparison cohort comprising of patients without ARHL was frequency-matched by age, sex, and co-morbidities, and the occurrence of dementia was evaluated in both cohorts. The ARHL cohort consisted of 4108 patients with ARHL and the control cohort consisted of 4013 frequency-matched patients without ARHL...
February 22, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228158/flaxseed-oil-ameliorates-alcoholic-liver-disease-via-anti-inflammation-and-modulating-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#8
Xiaoxia Zhang, Hao Wang, Peipei Yin, Hang Fan, Liwei Sun, Yujun Liu
BACKGROUND: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) represents a chronic wide-spectrum of liver injury caused by consistently excessive alcohol intake. Few satisfactory advances have been made in management of ALD. Thus, novel and more practical treatment options are urgently needed. Flaxseed oil (FO) is rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, the impact of dietary FO on chronic alcohol consumption remains unknown. METHODS: In this study, we assessed possible effects of dietary FO on attenuation of ALD and associated mechanisms in mice...
February 22, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228060/resuscitation-with-lyophilized-plasma-is-safe-and-improves-neurologic-recovery-in-a-long-term-survival-model-of-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-brain-injury-hemorrhagic-shock-and-polytrauma
#9
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Ihab Halaweish, Kiril Chtraklin, Peter J Bruhn, Hassan Eidy, Monica Rasmussen, Yongqing Li, Ashok Srinivasan, Hasan B Alam
We have previously shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and lyophilized plasma decrease brain lesion size and improve neurologic recovery in a swine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). In this study, we examine whether these findings can be validated in a clinically relevant model of severe TBI, HS, and polytrauma. Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to TBI (controlled cortical impact), hemorrhage (40% volume), grade III liver and splenic injuries, rib fracture, and rectus abdominis crush...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227988/liver-segmentation-using-location-and-intensity-probabilistic-atlases
#10
Negar Farzaneh, Shadrokh Samavi, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, David Paul Fessell, Kevin R Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Negar Farzaneh, Shadrokh Samavi, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, David Paul Fessell, Kevin R Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Kevin R Ward, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Shadrokh Samavi, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, Kayvan Najarian, David Paul Fessell, Negar Farzaneh
In a variety of injuries and illnesses, internal organs in the abdominal and pelvic regions, in particular liver, may be compromised. In the current practice, CT scans of liver are visually inspected to investigate the integrity of the organ. However, the size and complexity of the CT images limits the reliability of visual inspection to accurately assess the health of liver. Computer-aided image analysis can create fast and quantitative assessment of liver from the CT, in particular in the environments where access to skilled radiologists may be limited...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225807/increased-liver-specific-proteins-in-circulating-extracellular-vesicles-as-potential-biomarkers-for-drug-and-alcohol-induced-liver-injury
#11
Young-Eun Cho, Eun-Ju Im, Pyong-Gon Moon, Esteban Mezey, Byoung-Joon Song, Moon-Chang Baek
Drug- and alcohol-induced liver injury are a leading cause of liver failure and transplantation. Emerging evidence suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a source of biomarkers because they contain unique proteins reflecting the identity and tissue-specific origin of the EV proteins. This study aimed to determine whether potentially hepatotoxic agents, such as acetaminophen (APAP) and binge alcohol, can increase the amounts of circulating EVs and evaluate liver-specific EV proteins as potential biomarkers for liver injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225291/-a-contribution-to-the-differential-diagnostics-of-sclerosing-cholangitides
#12
Martin Blaho, Petr Dítě, Martina Bojková, Martin Rydlo, Tomáš Kupka, Pavel Svoboda, Pavel Klvaňa, Arnošt Martínek
Sclerosing cholangitides represent a group of chronic biliary obstructive diseases which include primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), IgG4 associated sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). The manifestations of the diseases are similar, but their asymptomatic course is also frequent. IgG4-SC belongs to the group of IgG4 associated diseases and it is the most frequently related to type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. Diagnosing of IgG4-SC is based on typical histopathological images, shape changes revealed by diagnostic imaging, serological tests, concurrent impairment of other organs and response to therapy, where IgG4-SC responds well to treatment with corticoids, whereas the only possibility for the remaining units is endoscopic intervention or liver transplantation...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224373/drug-induced-liver-injury-in-the-setting-of-glycogenic-hepatopathy
#13
Valmiki Maharaj, Matthew Fitz, Xianzdong Ding
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is an underdiagnosed complication of uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It appears as an acute relapsing hepatitis with reversible transaminase elevations secondary to excessive hepatic glycogen accumulation. Patients are often asymptomatic but can present with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination shows hepatomegaly without splenomegaly. GH is diagnosed by biopsy as it is clinically indistinguishable from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a more common cause of hepatic dysfunction in diabetics...
February 21, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223727/remote-ischemic-perconditioning-prevents-liver-transplantation-induced-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-role-of-ros-rns-and-enos
#14
Ning He, Jun-Jun Jia, Jian-Hui Li, Yan-Fei Zhou, Bing-Yi Lin, Yi-Fan Peng, Jun-Jie Chen, Tian-Chi Chen, Rong-Liang Tong, Li Jiang, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng
AIM: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of the protective role of remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) in rat liver transplantation. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) or RIPerC. After 3 h reperfusion, blood samples were taken for measurement of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine (Cr) and creatinine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB). The liver lobes were harvested for the following measurements: reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and total nitric oxide (NO)...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223040/red-blood-cell-exchange-as-an-approach-for-treating-a-case-of-severe-tacrolimus-overexposure
#15
Valentina Spallanzani, Lucia Bindi, Irene Bianco, Arianna Precisi, Paolo DeSimone, Alessandro Mazzoni, Gianni Biancofiore
Immunosuppressive medication dosing errors are not unfrequent and may present a number of challenges to transplant clinicians. Tacrolimus (TAC) is a widely used immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic index and potential severe side effects, including neurotoxicity and kidney injury. We herein report a case of 60-year-old woman who underwent deceased-donor liver transplantation at our center and due to inadvertent TAC overexposure was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit because of severe neurologic impairment, kidney injury and arterial hypotension...
February 2, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222646/effectiveness-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-and-serum-liver-enzyme-measurement-in-detection-and-classification-of-blunt-liver-trauma
#16
Da-Wei Zhao, Meng Tian, Le-Tian Zhang, Tao Li, Jie Bi, Jia-Ying He, Ying-Ying Zhang
Objective This study was performed to identify the correlation between contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) as well as the correlation between serum liver enzyme concentrations and CE-MDCT in classification of the severity of blunt hepatic trauma using CE-MDCT as a reference standard. Materials and methods A blunt liver trauma model was created using 20 rabbits, and CE-MDCT, CEUS, and serum liver enzyme assays were performed. A radiologist and an ultrasound physician independently evaluated the degree of liver trauma...
February 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222401/combination-of-sitagliptin-and-silymarin-ameliorates-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-rats
#17
Samia Salem Sokar, Magda El-Sayed El-Sayad, Mai El-Sayed Ghoneim, Abdelhadi Mohamed Shebl
Liver fibrosis is a common pathological condition that occurs in most conditions associated with chronic liver injury. Silymarin is a herbal product widely used for its hepatoprotective effect. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-I), is clinically used as an oral antidiabetic agent. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Sitagliptin, Silymarin, and their combination on established liver fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) rat model. Male albino rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl4 three times a week for 7 weeks, as well as daily oral treatments of Sitagliptin (100mg/kg) or Silymarin (100mg/kg) or their combination during the 7 weeks of intoxication...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221265/acute-liver-failure-during-deferasirox-chelation-a-toxicity-worth-considering
#18
Nathan Menaker, Katharine Halligan, Natasha Shur, John Paige, Matthew Hickling, Anne Nepo, Lauren Weintraub
This case report details a unique case of acute, reversible liver failure in a 12-year-old male with sickle cell anemia on chronic transfusion protocol and deferasirox chelation. There is substantial literature documenting deferasirox-induced renal injury, including Fanconi syndrome, but less documentation of hepatic toxicity and few reports of hepatic failure. The case highlights the importance of close monitoring of ferritin, bilirubin, and transaminases for patients on deferasirox.
February 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220587/the-relationship-between-different-dimensions-of-alcohol-use-and-the-burden-of-disease-an-update
#19
REVIEW
Jürgen Rehm, Gerhard E Gmel, Gerrit Gmel, Omer S M Hasan, Sameer Imtiaz, Svetlana Popova, Charlotte Probst, Michael Roerecke, Robin Room, Andriy V Samokhvalov, Kevin D Shield, Paul A Shuper
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use is a major contributor to injuries, mortality and the burden of disease. This review updates knowledge on risk relations between dimensions of alcohol use and health outcomes to be used in global and national Comparative Risk Assessments (CRAs). METHODS: Systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses on alcohol consumption and health outcomes attributable to alcohol use. For dimensions of exposure: volume of alcohol use, blood alcohol concentration and patterns of drinking, in particular heavy drinking occasions were studied...
February 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220501/chronic-alcohol-feeding-potentiates-hormone-induced-calcium-signalling-in-hepatocytes
#20
Paula J Bartlett, Anil Noronha Antony, Amit Agarwal, Mauricette Hilly, Victoria L Prince, Laurent Combettes, Jan B Hoek, Lawrence D Gaspers
"Adaptive" responses of the liver to chronic alcohol consumption may underlie the development of cell and tissue injury. Alcohol administration can perturb multiple signalling pathways including phosphoinositide-dependent cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) increases, which can adversely affect mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels, reactive oxygen species production and energy metabolism. Our data indicate that chronic alcohol feeding induces a leftward shift in the dose-response for Ca(2+) -mobilizing hormones resulting in more sustained and prolonged [Ca(2+) ]i increases in both cultured hepatocytes and hepatocytes within the intact perfused liver...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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