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Coconut oil AND ketones

Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio
Recently, medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) containing a large fraction of lauric acid (LA) (C12)-about 30%-have been introduced commercially for use in salad oils and in cooking applications. As compared to the long-chain fatty acids found in other cooking oils, the medium-chain fats in MCTs are far less likely to be stored in adipose tissue, do not give rise to 'ectopic fat' metabolites that promote insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be less likely to activate macrophages. When ingested, medium-chain fatty acids are rapidly oxidised in hepatic mitochondria; the resulting glut of acetyl-coenzyme A drives ketone body production and also provokes a thermogenic response...
2016: Open Heart
Yudai Nonaka, Tetsuo Takagi, Makoto Inai, Shuhei Nishimura, Shogo Urashima, Kazumitsu Honda, Toshiaki Aoyama, Shin Terada
Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Yun Gao, Yi Yang, Zhanbin Qin, Yi Sun
Coconut is a high-quality agricultural product of the Asia-Pacific region. In this paper, coconut shell which mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin was used as a raw material for coconut shell oil from coconut shell pyrolysis. The influence of the pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on coconut oil yield was investigated, and the effect of heating rate on coconut oil components was discussed. Experimental results show that the maximum oil yield of 75.74 wt% (including water) were obtained under the conditions that the final pyrolysis temperature 575 °C, heating rate 20 °C/min, coconut shell diameter about 5 mm...
2016: SpringerPlus
Julian R Silverman, George John
To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0...
December 9, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mark F McCarty, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe
Ketogenic diets are markedly neuroprotective, but the basis of this effect is still poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that ketone bodies increase neuronal levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), possibly owing to succinate-mediated inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase activity. Moreover, there is reason to suspect that ketones can activate Sirt1 in neurons, in part by increasing cytoplasmic and nuclear levels of Sirt1's obligate cofactor NAD(+). Another recent study has observed reduced activity of mTORC1 in the hippocampus of rats fed a ketogenic diet - an effect plausibly attributable to Sirt1 activation...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
W M A D B Fernando, Ian J Martins, K G Goozee, Charles S Brennan, V Jayasena, R N Martins
Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is cultivated to provide a large number of products, although it is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognised historically as containing high levels of saturated fat; however, closer scrutiny suggests that coconut should be regarded more favourably. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolised by the liver, and can be converted to ketones...
July 14, 2015: British Journal of Nutrition
Tarciana M Almeida, Mozart D Bispo, Anne R T Cardoso, Marcelo V Migliorini, Tiago Schena, Maria Cecilia V de Campos, Maria Elisabete Machado, Jorge A López, Laiza C Krause, Elina B Caramão
This work studied fast pyrolysis as a way to use the residual fiber obtained from the shells of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. var. Dwarf, from Aracaju, northeastern Brazil). The bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis and the aqueous phase (formed during the pyrolysis) were characterized by GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOF-MS. Many oxygenated compounds such as phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were identified in the extracts obtained in both phases, with a high predominance of phenolic compounds, mainly alkylphenols. Eighty-one compounds were identified in the bio-oil and 42 in the aqueous phase using GC/qMS, and 95 and 68 in the same samples were identified by GC×GC/TOF-MS...
July 17, 2013: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
H Fujikawa, A Ibe, T Wauke, S Morozumi, H Mori
Natural flavor was accidentally produced from rice cake products in Japan. A non-stick oil had been sprayed on the products during the production process. It was found that a Penicillium corylophilum strain, a contaminant of the oil, produced the flavor from the oil. The ingredients of the flavor were four volatile substances, 2-heptanone, 2-nonanone, 2-heptanol, and 2-nonanol. Challenge tests with the mould strain in a rice cake system were performed under various conditions. The volatile substances were produced in the largest amounts at 25 degrees C, followed by 20 or 30 degrees C then 10 degrees C...
February 2001: Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan
S M Innis, P Quinlan, D Diersen-Schade
Human milk contains a large proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) with > 70% esterified to the center sn-2 position of the milk triglyceride. Infant formulas often use 8:0 + 10:0 [medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)] or 12:0 + 14:0 (coconut oil) as the saturated fat. The effect of formula saturated fatty acid composition; 8:0 + 10:0, 12:0 + 14:0, or 16:0 from palm oil or synthesized triglyceride containing predominantly sn-2 16:0 on plasma lipids and fatty acids was studied in piglets. Although the formulas contained similar 18:1 and 18:2n-6, plasma lipid percentages of 18:1 and 18:2n-6 were higher in piglets fed the formula with MCT or coconut oil rather than the formulas with 16:0, or sow milk...
March 1993: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J P Perret, N Guiffray, P Mottaz
In the young rabbit, immunoreactive serum insulin (IRI) significantly rises during the first 5 min after suckling and then 20-60 min later, at which time the maximum level is reached. Blood glucose levels remain stable, blood ketone bodies increase 2.7 times and the liver glycogen levels decrease. Replacement of maternal milk by an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl, 2% lactose or 3.5% glycerol does not induce any change in IRI. IRI significantly rises if solutions of bovine milk proteins or skimmed rabbit's milk are administered...
1983: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
R R Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 4, 1965: Chemistry & Industry
G W Meijer, A C Beynen
Dietary saturated fatty acids, when compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids, increase plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, possibly because saturated fatty acids are preferentially converted into triglycerides. Carnitine is known to stimulate the oxidation of fatty acids and the formation of ketone bodies, and thus divert fatty acids from the pathway of esterification and triglyceride synthesis. In rats fed semipurified diets, we tested the hypothesis that carnitine counteracts the increase in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides seen after the feeding of saturated fatty acids...
June 1988: Zeitschrift Für Ernährungswissenschaft
S Bergseth, E N Christiansen, J Bremer
Groups of rats were fed diets containing 25% fish oil (FO), 25% soybean oil, 25% partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO), 25% partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO), 25% partially hydrogenated coconut oil or 0.3% clofibrate for 3 wk. After the animals were fasted for 24 hr, hepatocytes were isolated and ketogenesis from added palmitate, linoleate cis and trans, arachidonate and docosahexaenoate was measured. Ketogenesis after oil feeding was significantly stimulated (two- to threefold) only in cells from the PHFO- and PHSO-fed rats...
August 1986: Lipids
L L Bellush, N Rowland
Streptozotocin-diabetic male rats were hyperphagic relative to nondiabetic controls when offered only high carbohydrate (CHO) laboratory chow. Diabetics and controls ate about the same amount of high fat diets made from 67% w/w chow and 33% either coconut oil (saturated) or safflower oil (unsaturated). However, when offered a simultaneous choice of high fat diets and chow, nondiabetics and low dose (35 mg/kg) streptozotocin-diabetics showed a preference for the high fat diet: in contrast the high dose (65 mg/kg) streptozotocin diabetics developed a preference for chow...
September 1985: Physiology & Behavior
S J Young, R Renner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1977: Journal of Nutrition
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