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mdr infection

Marta Bodro, Joana Ferrer, María José Ricart, Gemma Sanclemente, Laura Linares, Carlos Cervera, Federic Cofan, Pedro Ventura, Miguel Ángel Lopez-Boado, Francesc Marco, Josep Fuster, Juan Carlos García-Valdecasas, Asunción Moreno
We aimed to determine the epidemiology, risk factors, and impact of bacterial infection on pancreatic function after pancreas transplantation. Data for pancreas transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed between 2000 and 2014 for at least one year. We collected and analysed post-transplant data for bacterial infection, morbidity, and mortality. During the study period, 312 pancreas transplants were performed. In total, 509 episodes of bacterial infection were diagnosed in 191 patients (61%). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms were present in 173 of the 513 isolated microorganisms (33%)...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Sean M Stainton, Kamilia Abdelraouf, Luke Utley, Michael J Pucci, Troy Lister, David P Nicolau
SPR741 is a novel agent with structural similarity to polymyxins, capable of potentiating the activity of various classes of antibiotics. Previously published studies indicated that although Enterobacteriacae isolates had minimal susceptibilities to azithromycin (AZM), the in vitro antimicrobial activity of AZM against Enterobacteriacae was enhanced when combined with SPR741. The current study evaluated the in vivo activity of human-simulated regimens (HSR) of AZM equivalent to clinical doses of 500 mg IV q24h and SPR741 400 mg q8h IV (1h infusion) alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriacae...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Gregory G Stone, Paul Newell, Leanne B Gasink, Helen Broadhurst, Angela Wardman, Katrina Yates, Zhangjing Chen, Jie Song, Joseph W Chow
Objectives: This analysis evaluated the clinical activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates pooled from the adult Phase III clinical trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: Baseline isolates from five Phase III randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime/avibactam versus predominantly carbapenem comparators in patients with cIAI (RECLAIM 1 and 2; NCT01499290 and RECLAIM 3; NCT01726023), cUTI (RECAPTURE 1 and 2; NCT01595438 and NCT01599806), NP including VAP (REPROVE; NCT01808092) and cIAI or cUTI caused by ceftazidime-non-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (REPRISE; NCT01644643) were tested for MDR status and susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and carbapenem-based comparators using CLSI broth microdilution methodology...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Xiangjun Liu, Yang Wang, Lanqing Cui, Yun Li, Feng Xue, Jian Liu, Liyuan Wang, Yingbo Shen, Yuan Lv
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of clinical mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of mcr-1-positive E. coli and mcr-1-negative E. coli in China. Methods: A total of 6264 clinical E. coli (n = 3854) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2410) were collected from hospitalized patients from 18 to 20 hospitals as part of the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Trial (CARST) between January 2007 and June 2016...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Eric R Ocheretyaner, Tae Eun Park
The resistance to current antimicrobial agents, including fluoroquinolones, has continued to grow among various pathogens indicating a need for new antimicrobials to combat multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms. In June 2017, delafloxacin received approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in adults caused by designated susceptible bacteria. Areas covered: This review describes the pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, product information, efficacy, and safety of delafloxacin...
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Durairajan Rubini, Sanaulla Farisa Banu, B Narayanan Vedahari, Durai Ramyadevi, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Paramasivam Nithyanand
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRSA that promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species...
June 13, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Marina R Pulido, Verónica González-Galán, Felipe Fernández Cuenca, Álvaro Pascual, José Garnacho-Montero, Massimo Antonelli, George Dimopoulos, José A Lepe, Michael J McConnell, José Miguel Cisneros
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the BioFire FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID) Panel to rapidly detect pathogens producing late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a severe infection often produced by Gram negative bacteria. These microorganisms are frequently multidrug resistant (MDR) and typically require broad spectrum empiric treatment. METHODS: In this study, in the context of an international multicenter clinical trial (Magic Bullet), respiratory samples were collected at the time of suspicion of VAP from 165 patients in 32 participating hospitals in Spain, Greece and Italy...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Reza Akbari, Mojdeh Hakemi Vala, Ali Hashemi, Hossein Aghazadeh, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are major challenges for antimicrobial chemotherapy of bacterial infections. In this critical condition, cationic antimicrobial peptides are 'novel' promising candidate antibiotics to overcome the issue. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism of new melittin-derived peptides (i.e., MDP1 and MDP2) against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MDP1 was designed with deletion of three amino acid residues, i...
June 15, 2018: Amino Acids
Maryam Meskini, Davoud Esmaeili
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of MDR and XDR strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and increased resistance to infection in burn patients recommend the issue of infection control. In this research, we study ZOUSH herbal ointment for gene silencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. METHODS: The herbal ZOUSH ointment was formulated by alcoholic extracts of plants Satureja khuzestaniea, Zataria multiflora, Mentha Mozaffariani Jamzad, honey, and polyurethane. The MIC and disk diffusion tests were examined by single, binary, tertiary and five compounds...
June 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Matteo Bassetti, Alessandro Russo, Alessia Carnelutti, Alessandro La Rosa, Elda Righi
Introduction Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are burdened by high mortality rates. The development of new compounds to face the global threat of resistance is urgently needed. Combination regimens including "old" high-dose antimicrobials are currently limited by the risk of toxicity, resistance selection, and reduced efficacy. Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America call to develop 10 new antibacterials by 2020, new molecules are currently under development or have become available for use in clinical practice...
June 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Christopher L Hager, Emily L Larkin, Lisa A Long, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
Background: Multiple cases of Candida auris infection have been reported with high mortality rates owing to its MDR nature. Rezafungin (previously CD101) is a novel echinocandin with enhanced stability and pharmacokinetics that achieves high plasma drug exposure and allows for once weekly dose administration. Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy of rezafungin in the treatment of disseminated C. auris infection using a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Methods: Mice were immunosuppressed 3 days prior to infection and 1 day post-infection...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Zhiyong Zong, Samuel Fenn, Christopher Connor, Yu Feng, Alan McNally
Objectives: The increase in infections as a result of MDR strains of Escherichia coli is a global health crisis. The emergence of globally disseminated lineages of E. coli carrying ESBL genes has been well characterized. An increase in strains producing carbapenemase enzymes and mobile colistin resistance is now being reported, but to date there is little genomic characterization of such strains. Methods: Routine screening of patients within an ICU of West China Hospital identified a number of E...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Andras Farkas, Joseph Sassine, Joseph P Mathew, Christine Stavropoulos, Ron Stern, George Mckinley
Objectives: There is growing evidence that patients with community-onset pneumonia and recent healthcare exposure are not at equally high risk of infection with MDR organisms. An individualized approach is necessary with regard to risk assessment and choice of antibiotics. Methods: We reviewed the records of 102 patients admitted for community-onset pneumonia, before and after the implementation of a revised risk assessment programme for MDR organisms using the drug resistance in pneumonia (DRIP) score...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Andrew P-A Karalewitz, Samuel I Miller
Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram negative organism that is a cause of hospital acquired multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. A. baumannii has a unique cell surface compared to many other Gram-negative pathogens in that it can live without LPS and it has a high content of cardiolipin in the outer membrane. Therefore, to better understand the cell envelope and mechanisms of A. baumannii MDR, we screened a transposon library for mutants with defective permeability barrier function, as defined as a deficiency in the ability to exclude the phosphatase chromogenic substrate, 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (XP)...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Magdalena Nüesch-Inderbinen, Nicole Cernela, Daniel Wüthrich, Adrian Egli, Roger Stephan
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O80:H2 is an uncommon hybrid pathotype that has recently emerged in France. We analysed 18 STEC O80:H2 isolated from humans in Switzerland during 2010-2017. All isolates carried stx2a or stx2d, the rare eae variant eae-ξ and at least seven virulence genes associated with pS88, a plasmid that is found in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identified additional chromosomal extraintestinal virulence genes encoding for type 1 fimbria (fimA, fimC and fimH), aerobactin (iuc/iutA) and afimbrial adhesins (afaA/C/D/E-VIII)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Aidin Jahanshahi, Habib Zeighami, Fakhri Haghi
OBJECTIVES: Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and emergence of vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) have led to great concern in healthcare settings worldwide. METHODS: A total of 100 S. aureus clinical isolates from hospitalized patients were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of resistance (mecA, vanA, and vanB) and virulence (hlaA, fnbpA, cna, clfA, tsst-1, eta, and spa) encoding genes, and molecular typing based on polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of spa gene...
June 8, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Yuxiang Zhang, Ping Huang, Dong Wang, Jincan Chen, Wenzhen Liu, Ping Hu, Mingdong Huang, Xueyuan Chen, Zhuo Chen
An alarming worldwide increase in microbial resistance to traditional drugs and classical pharmacophores has spurred the search for new antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has recently emerged as an effective modality for the selective destruction of bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms. However, some of the factors, including the aggregation of the hydrophobic photosensitizer (PS) in aqueous media and the inefficient biodistribution of PS limit its expansion to clinical conditions...
June 8, 2018: Nanoscale
Yichen Ding, Ye Htut Zwe, Seow Fong Chin, Gurjeet S Kohli, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Michael Givskov, Jorgen Schlundt, Stephan C Schuster, Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Liang Yang
Background: Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Saintpaul ( S . Saintpaul) is an important gut pathogen which causes salmonellosis worldwide. Although intestinal salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, it can be life-threatening in children, the elderlies and immunocompromised patients. Appropriate antibiotic treatment is therefore required for these patients. However, the efficacy of many antibiotics on S. enterica infections has been greatly compromised due to spreading of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids, which poses serious threats on public health and needs to be closely monitored...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Denise Kühnert, Mireia Coscolla, Daniela Brites, David Stucki, John Metcalfe, Lukas Fenner, Sebastien Gagneux, Tanja Stadler
The fast evolution of pathogenic viruses has allowed for the development of phylodynamic approaches that extract information about the epidemiological characteristics of viral genomes. Thanks to advances in whole genome sequencing, they can be applied to slowly evolving bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we investigate and compare the epidemiological dynamics underlying two M. tuberculosis outbreaks using phylodynamic methods. Specifically, we (i) test if the outbreak data sets contain enough genetic variation to estimate short-term evolutionary rates and (ii) reconstruct epidemiological parameters such as the effective reproduction number...
May 22, 2018: Epidemics
Abigail L Reens, Amy L Crooks, Chih-Chia Su, Toni A Nagy, David L Reens, Jessica D Podoll, Madeline E Edwards, Edward W Yu, Corrella S Detweiler
Bacterial efflux pumps transport small molecules from the cytoplasm or periplasm outside the cell. Efflux pump activity is typically increased in multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens; chemicals that inhibit efflux pumps may have potential for antibiotic development. Using an in-cell screen, we identified three efflux pump modulators (EPMs) from a drug diversity library. The screening platform uses macrophages infected with the human Gram-negative pathogen Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) to identify small molecules that prevent bacterial replication or survival within the host environment...
June 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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