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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446811/nosocomial-infections-current-situation-in-a-resuscitation-unit
#1
Ahlem Trifi, Sami Abdellatif, Mouna Oueslati, Meriem Zribi, Foued Daly, Rochdi Nasri, Rahma Mannai, Chadlia Fandri, Salah Ben Lakhal
BACKGROUND: The nosocomial infection (NI) is defined as an infection that is not present or incubating on admission in establishment of care. It can be caused by the patient's germs, care personnel or hospital environment. Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are particularly common in intensive care units that lead to a serious infections and increase morbidity, mortality and cost of care. PURPOSE: To identify the epidemiological characteristics of NI, the predisposing factors, the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of isolated bacteria and the impact on morbidity and mortality...
March 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#2
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444761/chronic-infection-sustained-by-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-high-risk-clone-producing-the-vim-1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-a-cystic-fibrosis-patient-after-lung-transplantation
#3
Simona Pollini, Claudia Mugnaioli, Daniela Dolce, Silvia Campana, Anna Silvia Neri, Giovanni Taccetti, Gian Maria Rossolini
BACKGROUND: The significance of chronic lung infection by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) transplanted patients remains controversial, and the available information is overall limited. Here we describe the case of a chronic infection, sustained by a metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa strain, in a CF patient following lung transplantation. METHODS: Twelve P. aeruginosa isolates collected from a CF patient over a 15-years follow-up period after lung transplantation were analysed for their antibiotic susceptibility profile, MBL production and clonal relatedness...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444242/in-vitro-activity-of-zoliflodacin-etx0914-against-macrolide-resistant-fluoroquinolone-resistant-and-antimicrobial-susceptible-mycoplasma-genitalium-strains
#4
A C Damião Gouveia, M Unemo, J S Jensen
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is estimated to be the second most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe. It is of increasing public health concern due to the rapid development of resistance to different antimicrobial classes, including the preferred first- and second-line treatments azithromycin and moxifloxacin. Thus, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, especially for the treatment of MDR strains. Methods: The in vitro activity of the new spiropyrimidinetrione zoliflodacin against 47 M...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441052/harnessing-the-mtor-pathway-for-tuberculosis-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Pooja Singh, Selvakumar Subbian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the leading killer infectious diseases of humans. At present, the standard therapeutic regimen to treat TB comprised of multiple antibiotics administered for a minimum of six months. Although these drugs are useful in controlling TB burden globally, they have not eliminated the disease. In addition, the lengthy duration of treatment with multiple drugs contributes to patient non-compliance that can result in the development of drug resistant strains (MDR and XDR) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of TB...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432657/clinical-profile-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-bacterial-isolates-and-factors-associated-with-complications-in-culture-proven-typhoid-patients-admitted-to-an-urban-hospital-in-bangladesh
#6
Halima Khatun, Shoeb Bin Islam, Nurun Nahar Naila, Syed Aminul Islam, Baitun Nahar, Md Nur Haque Alam, Tahmeed Ahmed
OBJECTIVES: Typhoid fever is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in typhoid endemic countries like Bangladesh. However, data on the clinical and microbiological profile as well as factors associated with complications of typhoid in Bangladesh are scarce. We intended to characterize the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven typhoid fever and to identify factors associated with complications. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective analysis of clinical data from 431 patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever admitted to Dhaka hospital of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between January 2010 and December 2014...
February 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429556/infection-with-gram-negative-bacteria-among-children-in-a-tertiary-pediatric-hospital-in-egypt
#7
John Rene Labib, Sally K Ibrahim, Marwa Rashad Salem, Meray Rene L Youssef, Basant Meligy
BACKGROUND: Patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) are susceptible to infections with gram-negative bacteria (GNB). METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 2 PICUs at Cairo University Hospitals to determine the incidence and outcome of GNB infections over 1 year. Variables of interest included age, gender, isolated organism, susceptibility to antibiotics, and final outcome. RESULTS: During the study period, 1420 patients were admitted to the PICU; of these, 291 developed GNB infections...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428226/intravenous-plus-inhaled-versus-intravenous-colistin-monotherapy-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether IV plus inhaled combination (IV/INHCC) compared to IV monotherapy (IVCM) was associated with patient outcomes and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with lower respiratory tract infections due to MDR/XDR Gram-negative bacteria and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IV/INHCC versus IVCM...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427501/infections-complicating-cirrhosis
#9
REVIEW
Salvatore Piano, Alessandra Brocca, Sara Mareso, Paolo Angeli
Patients with cirrhosis have a high risk of bacterial infections. Bacterial infections induce systemic inflammation that may lead to organ failure and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) resulting in a high risk of short term mortality. The early diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections is essential to improve the patient's prognosis. However, in recent years, the spread of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has reduced the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics such as third generation cephalosporins...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426676/predicting-resistant-etiology-in-hospitalized-patients-with-blood-cultures-positive-for-gram-negative-bacilli
#10
Marco Falcone, Giusy Tiseo, Francesco Dentali, Micaela La Regina, Emanuela Foglia, Maurizia Gambacorta, Elisabetta Garagiola, Giorgio Bonardi, Pierangelo Clerici, Fabrizio Colombo, Alessio Farcomeni, Ercole Concia, Salvatore Corrao, Mauro Campanini, Antonino Mazzone
OBJECTIVE: To develop a risk-scoring tool to predict multidrug-resistant (MDR) etiology in patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). METHODS: A prospective multicenter study analyzed patients with BSI hospitalized in 31 Internal Medicine wards in Italy from March 2012 to December 2012. Patients with BSI caused by MDR-GNB (non-susceptible to at least one agent in three antimicrobial categories) were compared to those with BSI due to susceptible GNB...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423995/gold-nanoclusters-for-targeting-mrsa-in-vivo
#11
Yangzhouyun Xie, Yong Liu, Junchuan Yang, Yuan Liu, Fupin Hu, Kui Zhu, Xingyu Jiang
Widespread multidrug resistance caused by the abuse of antibiotics calls for novel strategies and materials. Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) are scarcely explored for combating multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in vivo. We herein synthesize a novel class of AuNCs, namely quaternary ammonia (QA)-capped AuNCs (QA-AuNCs), as potent antibiotics selectively targeting MDR Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in vivo. QA-AuNCs kill bacteria via a combined physicochemical mechanism, and show excellent therapeutic effect on both the skin infection model and the bacteremia model induced by MRSA...
February 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422058/an-evaluation-of-e-coli-in-urinary-tract-infection-in-emergency-department-at-kamc-in-riyadh-saudi-arabia-retrospective-study
#12
Menyfah Q Alanazi, Fulwah Y Alqahtani, Fadilah S Aleanizy
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTIS) is a common infectious disease in which level of antimicrobial resistance are alarming worldwide. Therefore, this study aims to describe the prevalence and the resistance pattern of the main bacteria responsible for UTIS Escherichia coli (E. coli). METHODS: Retrospective chart review for patients admitted to emergency department and diagnosed with UTIS at KAMC, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January to March 2008 was performed...
February 9, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415212/a-mathematical-model-based-analysis-of-the-time-kill-kinetics-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#13
Sherwin K B Sy, Luning Zhuang, Huiming Xia, Marie-Eve Beaudoin, Virna J Schuck, Wright W Nichols, Hartmut Derendorf
Objectives: To characterize quantitatively the effect of avibactam in potentiating ceftazidime against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa by developing a mathematical model to describe the bacterial response to constant concentration time-kill information and validating it using both constant and time-varying concentration-effect data from in vitro and in vivo infection systems. Methods: The time course of the bacterial population dynamics in the presence of static concentrations of ceftazidime and avibactam was modelled using a two-state pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model, consisting of active and resting states, to account for bactericidal activities, bacteria-mediated ceftazidime degradation and inhibition of degradation by avibactam...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414607/frequency-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-integron-gene-cassettes-in-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-giant-pandas-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-in-china
#14
Wencheng Zou, Caiwu Li, Xin Yang, Yongxiang Wang, Guangyang Cheng, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Yanpeng Chen, Run Cai, Qianru Huang, Lan Feng, Hongning Wang, Desheng Li, Guiquan Zhang, Yanxi Chen, Zhizhong Zhang, Heming Zhang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is considered as a common opportunistic pathogen, which causes seriously intestinal infections to giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and other animals. The aim of this investigation was to characterize the antimicrobial resistance and integron gene cassettes in E. coli isolated from the faeces of giant pandas in China. A total of 89 E. coli were isolated, after diagnosis of isolates and genomes were extracted. All the isolates were screened for the presence of related drug-resistance genes and integron gene cassettes through the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411661/novel-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#15
James M Kidd, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Introduction Hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) are among the most prevalent infections in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit. Importantly, the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative (GN) bacteria as the bacteriologic cause of HABP/VABP is increasing. These include MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and carbapenem resistant Enterobactericeae (CRE). Few antibiotics are currently available when such MDR Gram-negatives are encountered and older agents such as polymyxin B, colistin (polymyxin E), and tigecycline have typically performed poorly in HABP/VABP...
February 7, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410657/multiple-food-animal-borne-route-in-transmission-of-antibiotic-resistant-salmonella-newport-to-humans
#16
Hang Pan, Narayan Paudyal, Xiaoliang Li, Weihuan Fang, Min Yue
Characterization of transmission routes of Salmonella among various food-animal reservoirs and their antibiogram is crucial for appropriate intervention and medical treatment. Here, we analyzed 3728 Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport) isolates collected from various food-animals, retail meats and humans in the United States between 1996 and 2015, based on their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward 27 antibiotics. Random Forest and Hierarchical Clustering statistic was used to group the isolates according to their MICs...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410368/surveillance-of-tigecycline-activity-tested-against-clinical-isolates-from-a-global-north-america-europe-latin-america-and-asia-pacific-collection-2016
#17
Michael A Pfaller, Michael D Huband, Jennifer Streit, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader
Tigecycline and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution method against 33,348 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively in 2016 from medical centers in Asia-Pacific (3,443 isolates), Europe (13,530 isolates), Latin America (3,327 isolates), and United States (13,048 isolates). Among 7,098 Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested, >99.9% were inhibited by ≤0.5 mg/L of tigecycline (MIC50/90, 0.06/0.12 mg/L), including >99.9% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and 100.0% of methicillin-susceptible S...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409447/microbial-contaminants-isolated-from-items-and-work-surfaces-in-the-post-operative-ward-at-kawolo-general-hospital-uganda
#18
Ivan Sserwadda, Mathew Lukenge, Bashir Mwambi, Gerald Mboowa, Apollo Walusimbi, Farouk Segujja
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are a major setback in the healthcare delivery system especially in developing countries due to the limited resources. The roles played by medical care equipment and work surfaces in the transmission of such organisms have inevitably contributed to the elevated mortality, morbidity and antibiotic resistances. METHODS: A total 138 samples were collected during the study from Kawolo general hospital. Swab samples were collected from various work surfaces and fomites which consisted of; beds, sink taps, infusion stands, switches, work tables and scissors...
February 6, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407236/drug-resistance-profile-and-molecular-characterization-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-es%C3%AE-l-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-wound-infections-essential-oils-and-their-potential-for-utilization
#19
Wagih A El-Shouny, Sameh S Ali, Jianzhong Sun, Sara M Samy, Asmaa Ali
OBJECTIVES: Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESβL) enzyme had the ability for antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and its multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, has been increasingly reported as a major clinical concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to (i) characterize ESβL-producing MDR P. aeruginosa isolated from burn wound infections phenotypically and molecularly, (ii) evaluate the antibacterial activity of some essential oils (EOs) against selected ESβL-producing drug resistant P...
February 3, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405898/efficacy-and-safety-of-tigecycline-monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hospital-acquired-pneumonia-hap-a-meta-analysis-of-cohort-studies
#20
Xiang-Rong Bai, Jia-Ming Liu, De-Chun Jiang, Su-Ying Yan
The broad spectrum antibiotic tigecycline shows promising efficacy against many multiple drug resistant (MDR) pathogens. However, its clinical efficacy in the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is unclear. Several studies have reported on the treatment failures of tigecycline monotherapy, suggesting that it may not be sufficient to control severe infections. Combination therapy has become an option to treat MDR bacterial infections. We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Elsevier and the Web of Knowledge databases up to 29 February 2017 to identify relevant published studies...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
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