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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665289/a-whole-body-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-model-for-colistin-and-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-rat
#1
Salim Bouchene, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet, Lena E Friberg, Patrice Gobin, Isabelle Lamarche, Nicolas Grégoire, Sven Björkman, Mats O Karlsson
Colistin is a polymyxin antibiotic used to treat patients infected with multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). The objective of this work was to develop a whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) model to predict tissue distribution of colistin in rat. The distribution of a drug in a tissue is commonly characterized by its tissue-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp . Colistin and its prodrug, colistin methanesulfonate (CMS) Kp priors were measured experimentally from rat tissue homogenates or predicted in silico...
April 17, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657925/biofilm-formation-in-nonmultidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-patients-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-isfahan-iran
#2
Farkhondeh Poursina, Shima Sepehrpour, Sina Mobasherizadeh
Background: Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, opportunistic human pathogen in which increasing antibiotic resistance is a great concern for continued human survival. Although biofilm formation is a mechanism that helps E. coli to survive in unfavorable conditions, according to the importance of biofilm formation in developing the antibiotic resistance here, we studied the relation between antibiotic resistance and in vitro qualitative rating method biofilm formation in E. coli isolated from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI)...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649549/bloodstream-infections-in-cancer-patients-risk-factors-associated-with-mortality
#3
Beda Islas-Muñoz, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Cynthia Ibanes-Gutiérrez, Alberto Villamar-Ramírez, Diana Vilar-Compte, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mortality in cancer patients with bloodstream infections (BSI), analyzing multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB). METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at a cancer referral center from August 2016 to July 2017, which included all BSI. RESULTS: 4,220 patients were tested with blood cultures; 496 were included. Mean age was 48 years...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649276/carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-german-university-medical-center-prevalence-clinical-implications-and-the-role-of-novel-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitor-combinations
#4
Juri Katchanov, Lucia Asar, Eva-Maria Klupp, Anna Both, Camilla Rothe, Christina König, Holger Rohde, Stefan Kluge, Florian P Maurer
OBJECTIVES: To determine the spectrum of infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) and the clinical impact of the newly available betalactam/betalactamase inhibitor combinations ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam in a German academic tertiary care center. METHODS: Retrospective analysis. RESULTS: Between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016, 119 individual patients (0.22% of all hospital admissions) were colonized or infected with carbapenem-resistant MDR-GNB...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648629/antibiotic-pressure-on-the-acquisition-and-loss-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#5
Patricia J Simner, Annukka A R Antar, Stephanie Hao, James Gurtowski, Pranita D Tamma, Clare Rock, Belita N A Opene, Tsigereda Tekle, Karen C Carroll, Michael C Schatz, Winston Timp
Objectives: In this study, we characterize a concurrent disseminated infection with a virulent hypermucoviscous (HMV) Klebsiella pneumoniae and an OXA-181-producing XDR K. pneumoniae from a patient with recent hospitalization in India. During exposure to meropenem therapy, the highly susceptible HMV K. pneumoniae became resistant to carbapenems, consistent with the acquisition of blaOXA-181. Methods: Twelve K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from the patient and the hospital room environment over a 3 month hospitalization...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642833/-management-and-treatment-difficulties-of-multi-drug-resistant-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-case
#6
Selda Hançerli Törün, Emine Manolya Acar, Ayper Somer, Gonca Erköse, Dilek Şatana, Zuhal Bayramoğlu, Emine Çalışkan, Zeki Kılıçaslan
Tuberculosis continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) infection that occurs in childhood is caused by adult MDR-TB agents which are in circulation and resistant to primary drugs. In this case report a 17-month-old child with MDR-TB who was cured after a 24-month therapy regimen was presented. Physical examination of a 17-month-old girl admitted to the hospital with the cause of recurrent pneumonia revealed a rubbery lymphadenopathy less than 2 cm in the right upper cervical region...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628916/multidrug-resistant-ctx-m-15-9-2-and-kpc-2-producing-enterobacter-hormaechei-and-enterobacter-asburiae-isolates-possessed-a-set-of-acquired-heavy-metal-tolerance-genes-including-a-chromosomal-sil-operon-for-acquired-silver-resistance
#7
Leonardo N Andrade, Thiago E S Siqueira, Roberto Martinez, Ana Lucia C Darini
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is concern in healthcare-associated infections. On the other hand, bacterial tolerance to other antimicrobials, like heavy metals, has been neglected and underestimated in hospital pathogens. Silver has long been used as an antimicrobial agent and it seems to be an important indicator of heavy metal tolerance. To explore this perspective, we searched for the presence of acquired silver resistance genes ( sil operon: silE, silS, silR, silC, silF, silB, silA , and silP ) and acquired extended-spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenem resistance genes ( bla CTX-M and bla KPC ) in Enterobacter cloacae Complex (EcC) ( n = 27) and Enterobacter aerogenes ( n = 8) isolated from inpatients at a general hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628698/drug-resistant-skeletal-tuberculosis-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-south-india
#8
J Arockiaraj, G S Balaji, V M Cherian, Jepegnanam T S, B P Thomas, Joy S Michael, P M Poonnoose
Back ground: Drug resistant tuberculosis is alarmingly on the rise especially in developing countries. Skeletal tuberculosis accounts up to 10% of all extra pulmonary tuberculosis. World Health Organisation (WHO) has not formulated guidelines for the management of Multi-drug resistant skeletal tuberculosis. Results: A retrospective analysis of patients treated for musculoskeletal tuberculosis was done, to study drug resistance patterns. The outcome was assessed both clinically and radiologically...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627985/strategic-approaches-to-overcome-resistance-against-gram-negative-pathogens-using-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-and-%C3%AE-lactam-enhancers-the-activity-of-three-novel-diazabicyclooctanes-wck-5153-zidebactam-wck-5107-and-wck-4234
#9
Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Nhu Q Nguyen, Michael R Jacobs, Christopher R Bethel, Melissa D Barnes, Vijay Kumar, Saralee Bajaksouzian, Susan D Rudin, Philip N Rather, Satish Bhavsar, Tadiparthi Ravikumar, Prasad K Deshpande, Vijay Patil, Ravindra Yeole, Sachin S Bhagwat, Mahesh V Patel, Focco van den Akker, Robert A Bonomo
Limited treatment options exist to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacteria possessing broad-spectrum β-lactamases. The design of novel β-lactamase inhibitors is of paramount importance. Here, three novel diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs), WCK 5153, zidebactam (WCK 5107), and WCK 4234 (compounds 1-3) were synthesized and biochemically characterized against clinically important bacteria. Compound 3 inhibited class A, C and D β-lactamases with unprecedented k2/K values against OXA carbapenemases...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624414/health-outcomes-from-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-infections-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Andrea Parisi, John A Crump, Kathryn Glass, Benjamin P Howden, Luis Furuya-Kanamori, Samantha Vilkins, Darren J Gray, Martyn D Kirk
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne enterocolitis worldwide. Antimicrobial use in food animals is the driving force for antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella particularly in high-income countries. Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections that are multidrug resistant (MDR) (nonsusceptible to ≥1 agent in ≥3 antimicrobial categories) may result in more severe health outcomes, although these effects have not been systematically examined. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine impacts of MDR NTS on disease outcomes in high-income settings...
April 6, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623717/-idiopathic-thrombocytopenia-refractery-to-therapy-of-cyclosporine-a-in-clinical-practice-case-report
#11
Lucia Schwarzová, Zdenko Pirník, Natália Štecová
Primary immune thrombocytopenia (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia without abnormalities in the erythroid and myeloid/lymphoid lineages. The incidence of ITP in adults is estimated at approximately 1.6-3.9 per 100 000 persons/year. The aim of this study was to analyze a case report of a patient with diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia (D69.3) resistant to cyclosporine A therapy as well as an evaluation of factors that could contribute to an inadequate response to cyclosporine A...
2018: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623139/rapd-pcr-profile-antibiotic-resistance-prevalence-of-arma-gene-and-detection-of-kpc-enzyme-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates
#12
Arezoo Saadatian Farivar, Jamileh Nowroozi, Gita Eslami, Azar Sabokbar
The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitals shows the limitation of recent antibiotics used for bacterial eradication. In this study, 81 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from three hospitals in Tehran. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed the highest rates of resistance to cefotaxim (85.5%) and ceftazidime (78.3%), and the lowest rates of resistance were detected for colistin (16.9%), streptomycin (16.8%), and chloroamphenicol (21.7%). Eleven different resistance patterns were observed...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619214/multiple-drug-resistance-and-biocide-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-environmental-isolates-from-hospital-and-household-settings
#13
Bothyna Ghanem, Randa Nayef Haddadin
Background: Antibiotic resistance of environmental Escherichia coli in hospitals could be increased due to extensive use of biocides resulting in serious infections. In this study, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of environmental isolates of E. coli from hospitals and household settings were evaluated and compared. In addition, the association between biocide minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and multiple drug resistance (MDR) was investigated. Methods: Environmental samples were collected from different homes and hospitals in Amman, Jordan...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618431/investigation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-prevailing-in-the-environment-of-khyber-teaching-hospital-peshawar-pakistan
#14
Farmanullah Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Jawad Ahmed, Han Sang Yoo, Shumaila Bashir
The hospital environment plays an important role in the spread of microorganisms, including multi drug resistant (MDR) strains. Patients can acquire Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which can reside in the clinical setup that are not cleaned and can spread through air droplets, bed clothing, and healthcare workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in the Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH). A total of 200 samples were collected from the floor, walls, air and inanimate objects in different wards of the KTH, during May 2012 to September 2012...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614973/in-vitro-antibacterial-activity-of-bioactive-glass-s53p4-on-multiresistant-pathogens-causing-osteomyelitis-and-prosthetic-joint-infection
#15
Mateus Trinconi Cunha, Maria Aparecida Murça, Stanley Nigro, Giselle Burlamaqui Klautau, Mauro José Costa Salles
BACKGROUND: Conventional local treatment for medullary osteomyelitis (OM) includes insertion of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. Nevertheless, PMMA may delivery irregular concentration of antibiotic to surrounding tissue. We aimed to compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bioactive Glass (BAG) S53P4, which is a compound showing local antibacterial activity, to that of antibiotic-loaded PMMA against multidrug resistant bacteria from OM isolates. METHODS: We studied convenience samples of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms obtained from patients presenting OM and prosthetic joint infection (PJI)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611447/investigational-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-infections-caused-by-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#16
Lindsay M Avery, David P Nicolau
Infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are associated with significant mortality and costs. New drugs in development to combat these difficult-to-treat infections primarily target carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii. Areas Covered: The authors summarize in vitro and in vivo efficacy studies, as well as available clinical trial findings, for new agents in development for treatment of infection caused by MDR-GNB...
April 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610196/fungicidal-potency-and-mechanisms-of-%C3%AE-defensins-against-multi-drug-resistant-candida-species
#17
Virginia Basso, Angie Garcia, Dat Q Tran, Justin B Schaal, Patti Tran, Diana Ngole, Younus Aqeel, Prasad Tongaonkar, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Systemic candidiasis is a growing health care concern becoming even more challenging due to the growing frequency of infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) Candida spp Thus there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches to candidiasis, including strategies bioinspired by insights into natural host defense against fungal pathogens. The antifungal properties of θ-defensins, macrocyclic peptides expressed in tissues of Old World monkeys, were investigated against a panel of drug sensitive and drug resistant clinical isolates of C...
April 2, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605650/evaluating-the-anti-biofilm-and-antibacterial-effects-of-juglans-regia-l-extracts-against-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#18
Samaneh Dolatabadi, Hediyeh Nesari Moghadam, Maasoumeh Mahdavi-Ourtakand
OBJECTIVE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen, can cause serious health problems and produces several virulence factors. The most important of these factors is biofilm. Many studies suggest administration of new generation of antibiotics, as P. aeruginosa biofilm has developed high resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains has resulted in screening biofilm inhibitors from natural products or modified from natural compounds. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the inhibitory effects (antibacterial and antibiofilm) of Juglans regia L...
March 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604431/prevalence-of-mutations-in-genes-associated-with-isoniazid-resistance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-retreated-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-a-meta-analysis
#19
Chitra Alagappan, Smita Sunil Shivekar, Usharani Brammacharry, Vidya Raj Cuppusamy Kapalamurthy, Anbazhagi Sakkaravarthy, Rathinasamy Subashkumar, Muthuraj Muthaiah
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of isoniazid mono resistance is high in India. We investigated the molecular epidemiological characteristics association with the isoniazid resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in codon katG315 and in the promoter region of the inhA gene. METHODS: Sputum specimens of smear-positive tuberculosis patients were subjected to Genotype MTBDRplus testing to identify katG and inhA mutations. Seventeen publications along with this current study assessed 14,100 genotypically resistant isolates for mutations in katG inclusive of codon position 315...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601253/the-current-status-challenges-and-future-developments-of-new-tuberculosis-vaccines
#20
Wenping Gong, Yan Liang, Xueqiong Wu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. TB results in more fatalities than multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV strain related coinfection. Vaccines play a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the only licensed preventive vaccine against TB, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is ineffective for prevention of pulmonary TB in adults. Therefore, it is very important to develop novel vaccines for TB prevention and control...
March 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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