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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691317/cholesterol-signaling-in-single-cells-lessons-from-star-and-sm-fish
#1
REVIEW
Colin R Jefcoate, Jinwoo Lee
Cholesterol is an important regulator of cell signaling, both through direct impacts on cell membranes and through oxy-metabolites that activate specific receptors (steroids, hydroxy-cholesterols, bile acids). Cholesterol moves slowly through and between cell membranes with the assistance of specific binding proteins and transfer processes. The prototype cholesterol regulator is the Steroidogenesis Acute Regulatory (STAR), which moves cholesterol into mitochondria, where steroid synthesis is initiated by cytochrome P450 11A1 in multiple endocrine cell types...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691238/structure-activity-relationships-of-the-main-bioactive-constituents-of-euodia-ruticarpa-on-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-and-bile-acid-homeostasis
#2
Youbo Zhang, Tingting Yan, Dongxue Sun, Cen Xie, Yiran Zheng, Lei Zhang, Tomoki Yagai, Kristopher W Krausz, William H Bisson, Xiuwei Yang, Frank J Gonzalez
Rutaecarpine (RUT), evodiamine (EOD) and dehydroevodiamine (DHED), are the three main bioactive indoloquinazoline alkaloids isolated from Euodia ruticarpa, a widely prescribed traditional Chinese medicine. Here, the structure-activity relationships of these analogues for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation were explored by use of Ahr-deficient (Ahr-/-) mice, primary hepatocyte cultures, luciferase reporter gene assays, in silico ligand docking studies and metabolomics. In vitro, both mRNA analysis of AHR target genes in mouse primary hepatocytes and luciferase reporter assays in hepatocarcinoma cell lines demonstrated that RUT, EOD and DHED significantly activated AHR, with an efficacy order of RUT > DHED > EOD...
April 24, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688711/high-fat-diets-alter-the-modulatory-effects-of-xenobiotics-on-cytochrome-p450-activities
#3
Natalie C Sadler, Bobbie-Jo M Webb-Robertson, Therese R Clauss, Joel G Pounds, Richard Corley, Aaron T Wright
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzymes metabolize critical endogenous chemicals and oxidize nearly all xenobiotics. Dysregulated P450 activities lead to altered capacity for drug metabolism and cellular stress. The effects of mixed exposures on P450 expression and activity are variable and elusive. A high-fat diet (HFD) is a common exposure that results in obesity and associated pathologies including hepatotoxicity. Herein, we report the effects of cigarette smoke on P450 activities of normal weight and HFD induced obese mice...
April 24, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688473/detection-of-gut-dysbiosis-due-to-reduced-clostridium-subcluster-xiva-using-the-fecal-or-serum-bile-acid-profile
#4
Masashi Murakami, Junichi Iwamoto, Akira Honda, Takeshi Tsuji, Makoto Tamamushi, Hajime Ueda, Tadakuni Monma, Naoki Konishi, Shoichiro Yara, Takeshi Hirayama, Teruo Miyazaki, Yoshifumi Saito, Tadashi Ikegami, Yasushi Matsuzaki
Background: Dysbiosis, especially a reduced Clostridium subcluster XIVa (XIVa), has been reported in several gastrointestinal diseases. Since XIVa is thought to be the main bacterial cluster that metabolizes bile acids (BAs) in the human intestine, we hypothesized that the BA profile in feces, and possibly in serum, could be a convenient biomarker for intestinal XIVa activity. Methods: First, blood and feces were collected from 26 healthy controls and 20 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, and the relationships among fecal microbiomes and fecal and serum BA compositions were studied...
April 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687897/in-vivo-bioavailability-of-polyphenols-from-grape-by-product-extracts-and-effect-on-lipemia-of-normocholesterolemic-wistar-rats
#5
Raul Olivero-David, Maria Belen Ruiz-Roso, Nicola Caporaso, Lourdes Perez-Olleros, Natalia De Las Heras, Vicente Lahera, Baltasar Ruiz-Roso
BACKGROUND: The direct use of phenolic extracts from grape by-products can be useful to formulate functional food to improve consumers' health. The use of phenolic extracts instead of pure polyphenols as an ingredient is relevant in this context. The current work studied the bioavailability and absorption of polyphenols from grape by-product extracts and their health effect on cholesterolemia, by adding the extract (GE) to Wistar rats diet (50 g/kg) in vivo. RESULTS: GE caused the appearance of (+)-catechin, myricetin and quercetic acid in plasma and liver...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687889/slc9-gene-family-function-expression-and-regulation
#6
Hua Xu, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
The Slc9 family of Na+ /H+ exchangers (NHEs) plays a critical role in electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+ in the mammalian intestine as well as other absorptive and secretory epithelia of digestive organs. These transport proteins contribute to the transepithelial Na+ and water absorption, intracellular pH and cellular volume regulation as well as the electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid volume homeostasis at the systemic level. They also influence the function of other membrane transport mechanisms, affect cellular proliferation and apoptosis as well as cell migration, adherence to the extracellular matrix, and tissue repair...
March 26, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687645/gut-microbes-and-health-a-focus-on-the-mechanisms-linking-microbes-obesity-and-related-disorders
#7
REVIEW
Marialetizia Rastelli, Claude Knauf, Patrice D Cani
The past decade has been characterized by tremendous progress in the field of the gut microbiota and its impact on host metabolism. Although numerous studies show a strong relationship between the composition of gut microbiota and specific metabolic disorders associated with obesity, the key mechanisms are still being studied. The present review focuses on specific complex pathways as well as key interactions. For instance, the nervous routes are explored by examining the enteric nervous system, the vagus nerve, and the brain, as well as the endocrine routes (i...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685090/the-critical-role-of-his48-in-mouse-cytosolic-sulfotransferase-sult2a8-for-the-7%C3%AE-hydroxyl-sulfation-of-bile-acids
#8
Takehiko Shimohira, Katsuhisa Kurogi, Ming-Cheh Liu, Masahito Suiko, Yoichi Sakakibara
Members of the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) SULT2A subfamily are known to be critically involved in the homeostasis of steroids and bile acids. SULT2A8, a 7α-hydroxyl bile acid-preferring mouse SULT, has been identified as the major enzyme responsible for the mouse-specific 7-O-sulfation of bile acids. Interestingly, SULT2A8 lacks a conservative catalytic His residue at position 99th. The catalytic mechanism underlying the SULT2A8-mediated 7-O-sulfation of bile acids thus remained unclear. In this study, we performed a mutational analysis in order to gain insight into this yet-unresolved issue...
April 24, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684468/bile-acid-regulation-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Qinwei Yu, Zhenzhou Jiang, Luyong Zhang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive fat deposition in the liver in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. Dysregulated bile acid (BA) metabolism is an important indicator in the pathology of NAFLD, which could progress into more severe forms of liver injury. Lipid metabolism, immune environment and intestinal bacteria are all affected by dysregulated BA metabolism directly, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Several drug candidates that target BA metabolism, either used alone or in combination with other agents, are currently under development for treatment of NAFLD...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683480/metabolism-of-hydrogen-gases-and-bile-acids-in-the-gut-microbiome
#10
REVIEW
Phillip B Hylemon, Spencer C Harris, Jason M Ridlon
The human gut microbiome refers to a highly diverse microbial ecosystem, which has a symbiotic relationship with the host. Molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are generated by fermentative metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems. H2 generation and oxidation coupled to CO2 reduction to methane or acetate help maintain the structure of the gut microbiome. Bile acids are synthesized by hepatocytes from cholesterol in the liver and are important regulators of host metabolism. In this Review, we discuss how gut bacteria metabolize hydrogen gases and bile acids in the intestinal tract and the consequences on host physiology...
April 23, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679334/metabolic-surgery-and-diabesity-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Lionel El Khoury, Elie Chouillard, Elias Chahine, Elias Saikaly, Tarek Debs, Radwan Kassir
Bariatric surgery is used to induce weight loss (baros = weight). Evidence has shown that bariatric surgery improves the comorbid conditions associated with obesity such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM. Hence, shifting towards using metabolic surgery instead of bariatric surgery is currently more appropriate in certain subset of patients. Endocrine changes resulting from operative manipulation of the gastrointestinal tract after metabolic surgery translate into metabolic benefits with respect to the comorbid conditions...
April 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678931/manipulation-of-the-gut-liver-axis-by-interruption-of-bile-acid-recirculation-an-option-for-the-treatment-of-sclerosing-cholangitis
#12
Daniel Jahn, Marco Marzioni, Andreas Geier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678738/autochthonous-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-pig-faeces-in-thailand-show-probiotic-properties-and-antibacterial-activity-against-enteric-pathogenic-bacteria
#13
Wandee Sirichokchatchawan, Puwiya Pupa, Prasert Praechansri, Nutthee Am-In, Somboon Tanasupawat, Piengchan Sonthayanon, Nuvee Prapasarakul
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play an important role in pig health and performance that arises from their beneficial impacts on the balance of gastrointestinal microbes, ability to fight enteric pathogens, and capacity to support the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and safety aspects of five previously isolated autochthonous LAB strains, (Lactobacillus plantarum 22F, 25F and 31F, Pediococcus acidilactici 72N and Pediococcus pentosaceus 77F) from pig faeces as potential probiotics for a pig feed supplement...
April 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678609/fat-nucleosome-role-of-lipids-on-chromatin
#14
REVIEW
Vinicius Fernandes, Kaian Teles, Camyla Ribeiro, Werner Treptow, Guilherme Santos
Structural changes in chromatin regulate gene expression and define phenotypic outcomes. Molecules that bind to the nucleosome, the complex of DNA and histone proteins, are key modulators of chromatin structure. Most recently, the formation of condensed chromatin regions based on phase-separation in the cell, a basic physical mechanism, was proposed. Increased understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between chromatin and lipids suggest that small lipid molecules, such as cholesterol and short-chain fatty acids, can regulate important nuclear functions...
April 17, 2018: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677620/hippocampal-fxr-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-depression-a-preliminary-study-based-on-lentiviral-gene-modulation
#15
Wei-Guan Chen, Jia-Xuan Zheng, Xi Xu, Yu-Ming Hu, Yu-Min Ma
As a well-known bile acid receptor, the role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the digestive system and cardiovascular system has been widely explored. However, there are very few studies involving FXR in the central nervous system. In this study, we explored the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of depression, a serious and worldwide neuropsychiatric disease. It was found that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) fully enhanced the protein and mRNA expressions of FXR in hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676719/vibrio-gangliei-sp-nov-a-novel-member-of-vibrionaceae-isolated-from-sawdust-in-a-pigpen
#16
Yu-Chen Meng, Hong-Can Liu, Yu-Guang Zhou, Man Cai, Yingqian Kang
A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive, facultatively anaerobic, and motile bacterium, designated strain SZDIS-1T , was isolated from pigpen sawdust bedding in Xiamen, Fujian Province, China. Cells grew at 10-50 °C, pH 6.0-9.0, up to 12 % (w/v) NaCl, resisted vibriostatic agent O/129 and were negative for gelatin and alginate hydrolysis. No growth on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis, this strain should be assigned to the genus Vibrio, with the closest relatives being Vibrio aphrogenes CA-1004T (97...
April 20, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675448/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-activation-by-pharmacologic-inhibition-of-the-organic-solute-transporter-%C3%AE-%C3%AE
#17
Sandra M W van de Wiel, D Rudi de Waart, Ronald P J Oude Elferink, Stan F J van de Graaf
Background & Aims: The organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ) mainly facilitates transport of bile acids across the basolateral membrane of ileal enterocytes. Therefore, inhibition of OSTα-OSTβ might have similar beneficial metabolic effects as intestine-specific agonists of the major nuclear receptor for bile acids, the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, no OSTα-OSTβ inhibitors have yet been identified. Methods: Here, we developed a screen to identify specific inhibitors of OSTα-OSTβ using a genetically encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-bile acid sensor that enables rapid visualization of bile acid efflux in living cells...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675044/effects-of-bile-acids-and-nisin-on-the-production-of-enterotoxin-by-clostridium-perfringens-in-a-nutrient-rich-medium
#18
Miseon Park, Fatemeh Rafii
Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673211/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-type-2-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-new-insights-into-old-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Igor Alexander Harsch, Peter Christopher Konturek
The investigation of the human microbiome is the most rapidly expanding field in biomedicine. Early studies were undertaken to better understand the role of microbiota in carbohydrate digestion and utilization. These processes include polysaccharide degradation, glycan transport, glycolysis, and short-chain fatty acid production. Recent research has demonstrated that the intricate axis between gut microbiota and the host metabolism is much more complex. Gut microbiota—depending on their composition—have disease-promoting effects but can also possess protective properties...
April 17, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672888/a-novel-fibroblast-growth-factor-15-dependent-and-bile-acid-independent-promotion-of-liver-regeneration-in-mice
#20
Bo Kong, Runbin Sun, Mingxing Huang, Monica D Chow, Xiao-Bo Zhong, Wen Xie, Yi-Horng Lee, Grace L Guo
The role of intestine-derived factors in promoting liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PHx) are not entirely known, but bile acids (BAs) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15) that is highly expressed in the mouse ileum could promote hepatocyte proliferation. Fgf15 strongly suppresses the synthesis of BAs and emerging evidence indicates that Fgf15 is important for liver regeneration. The mechanisms by which Fgf15 promotes liver regeneration are unclear, but Fgf15 may do so indirectly by reducing BA levels and/or directly by promoting cell proliferation...
April 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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