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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730708/evaluation-of-the-hypocholesterolemic-effect-and-prebiotic-activity-of-a-lentil-lens-culinaris-medik-extract
#1
Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Cinzia Cecchini, Pilar Vila Donat, Giovanni Caprioli, Carlo Cifani, Maria Magdalena Coman, Alberto Cresci, Dennis Fiorini, Massimo Ricciutelli, Stefania Silvi, Sauro Vittori, Gianni Sagratini
SCOPE: the aim of our work was to produce a hydroalcoholic extract of lentils and to examine: a) the hypocholesterolemic action in an animal model, by studying the plasma cholesterol level and the concentration of bile acids in the faeces; b) the potential prebiotic effect, by conducting an in vitro culture fermentation experiment and assessing the level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the faeces of rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lentil extract (LE) was obtained by extracting lentils with a solution of H2 0/EtOH (70/30 v/v) for 3 h, and the content of main nutrients was determined...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729823/administration-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-early-brain-injury-via-akt-pathway-activation
#2
Dongdong Sun, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Yan Chai, Yueshan Fan, Mengchen Yang, Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongpei Yin, Shuai Zhou, Xin Chen, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729691/lowered-fasting-chenodeoxycholic-acid-correlated-with-the-decrease-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-19-in-chinese-subjects-with-impaired-fasting-glucose
#3
Jing Zhang, Huating Li, Hu Zhou, Li Fang, Jingjing Xu, Han Yan, Shuqin Chen, Qianqian Song, Yinan Zhang, Aimin Xu, Qichen Fang, Yang Ye, Weiping Jia
The gut-derived hormone Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) could regulate glucose metabolism and is induced by bile acids (BAs) through activating Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 was found to decrease in subjects with isolated-impaired fasting glucose (I-IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the reason for the change of FGF19 in subjects with different glucometabolic status remained unclear. Here we measured six BAs including chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, their glycine conjugates and FGF19 levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated-impaired glucose tolerance, I-IFG, combined glucose intolerance (CGI) and T2DM subjects...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728746/linking-sex-differences-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-bile-acid-signaling-gut-microbiota-and-high-fat-diet
#4
John Y L Chiang
This commentary highlights the article by Jena et al that studied the complex interplay between diet, bile acids, sex, and dysbiosis in hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
August 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727078/flaxseed-meal-and-oat-hulls-supplementation-modulates-growth-performance-blood-lipids-intestinal-fermentation-bile-acids-and-neutral-sterols-in-growing-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diets
#5
S P Ndou, E Kiarie, S J Thandapilly, M C Walsh, N Ames, C M Nyachoti
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fat, serum lipids, and concentrations of VFA, bile acids (BA), and neutral sterols (NS) in digesta and feces in growing pigs. Forty-eight Genesus [(Duroc boar × Yorkshire-Landrace sows] barrows (25.0 ± 0.32 kg initial BW) were housed in pairs. Pigs were assigned to 1 of the 3 corn-soybean meal-based diets-a basal corn-soybean meal-containing diet (control), a flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM), or an oat hulls-containing diet (OH)-in a completely randomized design...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727063/effect-of-dietary-fiber-and-diet-particle-size-on-nutrient-digestibility-and-gastrointestinal-secretory-function-in-growing-pigs
#6
M Saqui-Salces, Z Luo, P E Urriola, B J Kerr, G C Shurson
Reduction of diet particle size (PS) increases feed efficiency due to an increase in the apparent total tract (ATTD) of GE. However, other effects of PS on the gut secretory function are not known. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of diet composition (DC) and PS on nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal hormones, total bile acids (TBA), total cholesterol and glucose concentrations in plasma of finishing pigs ( = 8/diet). Pigs were fed finely (374 ± 29 µm) or coarsely (631 ± 35 µm) ground corn-soybean meal (CSB), CSB + 35% corn dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), and CSB with 21% soybean hulls (SBH) diets for 49 d...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725183/bile-acid-mediated-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-2-signaling-promotes-neuroinflammation-during-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-mice
#7
Matthew McMillin, Gabriel Frampton, Stephanie Grant, Shamyal Khan, Juan Diocares, Anca Petrescu, Amy Wyatt, Jessica Kain, Brandi Jefferson, Sharon DeMorrow
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication that occurs due to deteriorating hepatic function and this syndrome influences patient quality of life, clinical management strategies and survival. During acute liver failure, circulating bile acids increase due to a disruption of the enterohepatic circulation. We previously identified that bile acid-mediated signaling occurs in the brain during HE and contributes to cognitive impairment. However, the influences of bile acids and their downstream signaling pathways on HE-induced neuroinflammation have not been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725001/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-elicited-effects-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-alterations-in-biosynthesis-enterohepatic-circulation-and-microbial-metabolism
#8
Kelly A Fader, Rance Nault, Chen Zhang, Kazuyoshi Kumagai, Jack R Harkema, Timothy R Zacharewski
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental contaminant which elicits hepatotoxicity through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Male C57BL/6 mice orally gavaged with TCDD (0.01-30 µg/kg) every 4 days for 28 days exhibited bile duct proliferation and pericholangitis. Mass spectrometry analysis detected a 4.6-fold increase in total hepatic bile acid levels, despite the coordinated repression of genes involved in cholesterol and primary bile acid biosynthesis including Cyp7a1...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720125/profiling-of-the-perturbed-metabolomic-state-of-mouse-spleen-during-acute-and-chronic-toxoplasmosis
#9
Xiao-Qing Chen, Chun-Xue Zhou, Hany M Elsheikha, Shuai He, Gui-Xue Hu, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, a common opportunistic protozoan, is a leading cause of illness and mortality among immunosuppressed individuals and during congenital infections. Current therapeutic strategies for toxoplasmosis are not fully effective at curtailing disease progression in these cases. Given the parasite ability to influence host immunity and metabolism, understanding of the metabolic alterations in the host's immune organs during T. gondii infection may enhance the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that define the pathophysiology of T...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719764/surgical-anatomy-does-not-affect-the-progression-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-neonatal-piglets
#10
Celeste M Lavallee, Pamela R Wizzard, Marihan Lansing, Donna F Vine, Patrick N Nation, Jason Y Yap, Benjamin P Willing, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) causes significant morbidity in neonates with short bowel syndrome (SBS) dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN). Resected ileum, with loss of the ileocecal valve (ICV), is the most common anatomy in SBS, yet its impact on IFALD has not been adequately studied. METHODS: Neonatal piglets were randomized to 75% intestinal resection with jejunocolic anastomosis (JC, n = 12), 75% resection with jejunoileal anastomosis and intact ICV (JI, n = 13), PN-fed sham (sham, n = 14), or sow-fed control (SF, n = 8)...
July 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719350/characterization-of-candidate-probionts-isolated-from-human-breast-milk
#11
S Khalkhali, N Mojgani
This study was designed to isolate and identify the potential probionts present in 32 healthy mothers' breast milk. Microbial culture media and 16SrRNA sequencing were used to isolate and identify the bacteria and all isolates were analyzed for their antagonistic potential, resistance to acidic pH, bile salts and survival under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The colonization potential was further assessed based on adherence to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell lines. The breast milk samples harbored significant numbers of Gram positive and catalase negative (85%) bacteria...
May 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717106/a-carcinogenicity-study-of-diphenylarsinic-acid-in-f344-rats-in-drinking-water-for-104-weeks
#12
Takashi Yamaguchi, Min Gi, Masaki Fujioka, Kenichiro Doi, Takahiro Okuno, Anna Kakehashi, Hideki Wanibuchi
Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a neurotoxic organic arsenical used as a chemical warfare agent, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. We previously demonstrated that DPAA promotes diethylnitrosamine-induced liver carcinogenesis in a medium-term rat liver bioassay. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential carcinogenicity of DPAA, including investigation of whether the bile duct hyperplasia in the liver that was observed in a previous 52 week rat chronic study develops into a tumor, when administered to rats in their drinking water for 104 weeks...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717103/metabolomics-of-an-in-vitro-liver-model-containing-primary-hepatocytes-assembling-around-an-endothelial-cell-network-comparative-study-on-the-metabolic-stability-and-the-effect-of-acetaminophen-treatment
#13
Yu Toyoda, Kasumi Kashikura, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa
Recently, a novel culture system consisting of primary hepatocytes structured over a network of endothelial cells on the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) gel has been reported. This in vitro liver model on the EHS gel (IVLEHS) has been shown to maintain the expression of hepatic genes and their functional activity. Moreover, the IVLEHS was more sensitive to xenobiotics than hepatocyte monocultures, suggesting the potential utility of this culture system for compound hepatotoxicity screening. However, the effect of this three-dimensional structure formation on the cellular metabolic profile of hepatocytes in the IVLEHS is not well understood...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716705/pathobiology-of-biliary-epithelia
#14
REVIEW
Angela C Cheung, Maria J Lorenzo Pisarello, Nicholas F LaRusso
Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. They serve predominantly to mediate the content of luminal biliary fluid, which is controlled via numerous signaling pathways influenced by endogenous (e.g., bile acids, nucleotides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and exogenous (microbes/microbial products, drugs etc.) molecules. When injured, cholangiocytes undergo apoptosis/lysis, repair and proliferation. They also become senescent, a form of cell cycle arrest, which may prevent propagation of injury and/or malignant transformation...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715174/tunable-upper-critical-solution-temperatures-for-acrylamide-copolymers-with-bile-acid-pendants
#15
Yongguang Jia, Qixuan Yu, Zhiyuan Ma, Meng Zhang, Julian X X Zhu
Acrylamide derivatives of bile acids are chosen as a hydrophobic comonomer to copolymerize with acrylamide via reversible addition and fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization to afford a series of copolymers of P(AAm-co-CAA). These copolymers exhibit a sharp and reversible insoluble-soluble transition in water upon heating to a mixing temperature (Tmix) related to the upper critical solution temperature (UCST). Tmix of these copolymers can be conveniently tuned to a practical temperature range, around 37 °C for biomedical applications...
July 17, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714273/%C3%AE-catenin-regulation-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-and-bile-acid-metabolism-during-murine-cholestasis
#16
Michael D Thompson, Akshata Moghe, Pamela Cornuet, Rebecca Marino, Jianmin Tian, Pengcheng Wang, Xiaochao Ma, Marc Abrams, Joseph Locker, Satdarshan P S Monga, Kari Nejak-Bowen
Cholestatic liver diseases result from impaired bile flow and are characterized by inflammation, atypical ductular proliferation (ADP), and fibrosis. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a role in bile duct development, yet its role in cholestatic injury remains indeterminate. Liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to cholestatic injury via bile duct ligation or short-term exposure to 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) diet. Intriguingly, KO exhibit a dramatic protection from liver injury, fibrosis, and ADP, which coincided with significantly decreased total hepatic bile acids (BA)...
July 17, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714069/discriminant-biomarkers-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-associated-to-h1n1-influenza-identified-by-metabolomics-hplc-qtof-ms-ms-platform
#17
Alessia Ferrarini, Laura Righetti, Ma Paz Martínez, Mariano Fernández, Annalaura Mastrangelo, Juan P Horcajada, Antoni Betbesé, Andrés Esteban, Jordi Ordóñez, Joaquín de Gea, Jesús Ruiz Cabello, Federica Pellati, José A Lorente, Nicolás Nin, Francisco J Rupérez
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) is a serious complication of influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Its pathogenesis is unknown, and biomarkers are lacking. Untargeted metabolomics allows the analysis of the whole metabolome in a biological compartment, identifying patterns associated with specific conditions. We hypothesized that LC-MS could help identify discriminant metabolites able to define the metabolic alterations occurring in patients with influenza A (H1N1) virus infection that developed ARDS...
July 17, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712691/biliary-bile-acids-in-hepatobiliary-injury-what-is-the-link
#18
REVIEW
Peter Fickert, Martin Wagner
The main trigger for liver injury in acquired cholestatic liver disease remains unclear. However, the accumulation of bile acids (BAs) undoubtedly plays a role. Recent progress in deciphering the pathomechanisms of inborn cholestatic liver diseases, decoding mechanisms of BA-induced cell death, and generating modern BA-derived drugs has improved the understanding of the regulation of BA synthesis and transport. Now is the appropriate time to reassess current knowledge about the specific role of BAs in hepatobiliary injury...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712023/selection-of-potential-probiotic-lactobacillus-with-inhibitory-activity-against-salmonella-and-fecal-coliform-bacteria
#19
Mattika Abhisingha, Jureeporn Dumnil, Chetsadaporn Pitaksutheepong
Three hundred and sixty presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pregnant sows, newborn, suckling, and weaned piglets were preliminarily screened for anti-Salmonella activity. Fifty-eight isolates consisting of Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 32), Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 10), Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 8), Lactobacillus johnsonii (n = 5), and Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 3) were selected and further characterized for probiotic properties including production of antimicrobial substances, acid and bile tolerance, and cell adherence to Caco-2 cells...
July 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711947/repression-of-intestinal-transporters-and-fxr-fgf15-signaling-explains-bile-acids-dysregulation-in-experimental-colitis-associated-colon-cancer
#20
Lijuan Cao, Yuan Che, Tuo Meng, Shanshan Deng, Jun Zhang, Min Zhao, Wanfeng Xu, Dandan Wang, Zhichen Pu, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
Bile acids (BAs) are important endogenous signaling molecules that play vital roles in the pathological development of various diseases including colitis-associated cancer (CAC). BAs were previously found dysregulated under conditions of CAC; however, the exact patterns and underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. Based on the development of a method for comprehensive analysis of BAs, this study aims to elucidate the dysregulation patterns and involved mechanisms in a typical CAC model induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
June 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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