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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041211/through-the-coating-femtosecond-laser-inscription-of-very-short-fiber-bragg-gratings-for-acoustic-and-high-temperature-sensing-applications
#1
Cyril Hnatovsky, Dan Grobnic, Stephen J Mihailov
Very short Type I and Type II Bragg gratings, on the order of 100 µm in length, are written through the protective polyimide coating of high NA and standard single mode silica optical fibers with infrared femtosecond pulses and a phase mask. By exploiting the transverse walk-off of apertured diffracted beams produced by the phase mask and a slit placed proximate the mask, complex grating structures are fabricated and characterized. These gratings are suitable for structural health monitoring based on acoustic measurements or localized high-temperature measurements...
October 16, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041139/crack-detection-in-riveted-lap-joints-using-fiber-laser-acoustic-emission-sensors
#2
G A Cranch, L Johnson, M Algren, S Heerschap, G A Miller, T S Marunda, R L Holtz
Fiber laser ultrasonic sensors are demonstrated to be capable of measuring acoustic emission generated by cracks in aluminum panels. A single laser sensor is integrated into a riveted lap joint, which is subject to accelerated fatigue. Acoustic emission generated by crack formation in the panel in addition to other acoustic events due to fretting within the joint are clearly resolved by the laser sensor. Localization of an acoustic emission event is demonstrated with a multiplexed array of three laser sensors...
August 7, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037595/cellular-characterization-of-optical-coherence-tomography-and-outer-retinal-bands-using-specific-immunohistochemistry-markers-and-clinical-implications
#3
Nicolás Cuenca, Isabel Ortuño-Lizarán, Isabel Pinilla
PURPOSE: Optical coherence tomography has been a technological breakthrough in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of many ocular diseases, especially retinal and neuro-ophthalmologic pathologic conditions. Until now, several controversies have arisen over the specific cell types that the bands observed in the OCT represent, especially over the 4 outer retinal bands. DESIGN: To correlate the 4 outer hyperreflective bands observed in the OCT with the histologic structures using human retinal sections and immunocytochemistry at the fovea level...
October 13, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036010/the-reasoning-beyond-the-potential-use-of-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-and-other-specified-diets-in-children-with-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Ron Shaoul, Stephanie Brown, Andrew S Day
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is steadily on the rise in Western as well as in developing countries paralleling the increase of westernized diets, characterized by high protein and fat as well as excessive sugar intake, with less vegetables and fiber. Furthermore, nutrition is involved in several aspects of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ranging from disease etiology to induction and maintenance of remission of disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) has been shown to induce remission, including in patients with isolated colonic disease, and leads to mucosal healing in Crohn disease (CD)...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034148/does-a-grill-menu-redesign-influence-sales-nutrients-purchased-and-consumer-acceptance-in-a-worksite-cafeteria
#5
Maya K Vadiveloo, Vasanti S Malik, Donna Spiegelman, Walter C Willett, Josiemer Mattei
Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012-2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030303/electrospun-formulations-of-bevacizumab-for-sustained-release-in-the-eye
#6
Ukrit Angkawinitwong, Sahar Awwad, Peng T Khaw, Steve Brocchini, Gareth R Williams
Medicines based on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralising antibodies such as bevacizumab have revolutionized the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD), a common blinding disease, and have great potential in preventing scarring after surgery or accelerating the healing of corneal injuries. However, at present, frequent invasive injections are required to deliver these antibodies. Such administration is uncomfortable for patients and expensive for health service providers. Much effort is thus focused on developing dosage forms that can be administered less frequently...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024888/synthetic-plant-glycans
#7
REVIEW
Fabian Pfrengle
For more than a century the primary carbon source for the production of fuels, chemicals and many materials has been fossil resources. Recently, plant polysaccharides from non-food biomass have emerged as a promising renewable alternative that may displace a significant fraction of petroleum-derived products. As a food source, plant polysaccharides can provide beneficial effects on the human immune system in the form of dietary fiber. Despite the strong impact of plant glycans on society and human health, their chemical synthesis remains largely unexplored compared to the synthesis of mammalian and bacterial glycans...
October 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024045/association-between-dietary-fiber-intake-and-bone-loss-in-the-framingham-offspring-study
#8
Zhaoli Dai, Yuqing Zhang, Na Lu, David T Felson, Douglas P Kiel, Shivani Sahni
Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between genders. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter and lumbar spine (L2-4) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food frequency questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022752/nutritional-characteristics-of-the-diets-of-child-and-adolescent-cancer-survivors
#9
Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira, Priscila Dos Santos Maia-Lemos, Luciana Pellegrini Pisani
PURPOSE: Diseases associated with prior treatment, such as obesity, have been described in cancer survivors. Recent studies have shown that current estimates of overweight do not differ from that in the general population, suggesting the influence of environmental factors, such as dietary intake. In this context, there is increasing interest in the examination of health behaviors that may modify and reduce the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of dietary intake among child cancer survivors living in a developing country...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021915/optical-coherence-tomography-findings-in-methanol-toxicity
#10
Kendra A Klein, Alexis K Warren, Caroline R Baumal, Thomas R Hedges
BACKGROUND: Methanol toxicity poses a significant public health problem in developing countries, and in Southeast Asia, where the most common source of poisoning is via adulterated liquor in local drinks. Methanol toxicity can have devastating visual consequences and retinal specialists should be aware of the features of this toxic optic neuropathy. The authors report a case of severe systemic methanol toxicity and relatively mild optic neuropathy demonstrating unique retinal changes on optical coherence tomography (OCT)...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020628/molecular-mechanism-by-which-prominent-human-gut-bacteroidetes-utilize-mixed-linkage-beta-glucans-major-health-promoting-cereal-polysaccharides
#11
Kazune Tamura, Glyn R Hemsworth, Guillaume Déjean, Theresa E Rogers, Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Namrata Jain, Gideon J Davies, Eric C Martens, Harry Brumer
Microbial utilization of complex polysaccharides is a major driving force in shaping the composition of the human gut microbiota. There is a growing appreciation that finely tuned polysaccharide utilization loci enable ubiquitous gut Bacteroidetes to thrive on the plethora of complex polysaccharides that constitute "dietary fiber." Mixed-linkage β(1,3)/β(1,4)-glucans (MLGs) are a key family of plant cell wall polysaccharides with recognized health benefits but whose mechanism of utilization has remained unclear...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993009/fenugreek-galactomannan-and-citrus-pectin-improve-several-parameters-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-and-modulate-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#12
Miriam G Shtriker, Michal Hahn, Elise Taieb, Abraham Nyska, Uzi Moallem, Oren Tirosh, Zecharia Madar
OBJECTIVE: Galactomannans derived from fenugreek confer known health benefits; however, there is little information regarding health benefits of citrus pectin (CP) and its association with gut microbiome metabolites. The aim of this study was to examine links between galactomannan and CP consumption, microbiota development, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Male C57 BL/6 J mice ages 7 to 8 wk were fed ad libitum with a normal diet or one supplemented with 15% of either galactomannan or CP...
August 3, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987039/reduction-in-pain-after-use-of-bioceramic-undershirt-for-patients-with-fibromyalgia
#13
(no author information available yet)
Context • The treatment of pain in fibromyalgia (FM) has centered on pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological treatment. The nondrug treatments for FM include the effects of far infrared radiation (FIR). Currently, FIR-emitting heat lamps and garments made of filaments (fibers) impregnated with FIR-emitting nanoparticles are being used to deliver thermal radiation effects. Objective • The study intended to determine the benefits of a fabric coated with bioceramics for reducing pain in women with FM. Design • The research team designed a randomized, controlled pilot study...
September 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984377/age-and-sex-related-effects-in-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-properties-a-comparison-of-voxelwise-and-tractography-methods
#14
Naomi J Goodrich-Hunsaker, Tracy J Abildskov, Garrett Black, Erin D Bigler, Daniel M Cohen, Leslie K Mihalov, Barbara A Bangert, H Gerry Taylor, Keith O Yeates
Although there are several techniques to analyze diffusion-weighted imaging, any technique must be sufficiently sensitive to detect clinical abnormalities. This is especially critical in disorders like mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), where pathology is likely to be subtle. mTBI represents a major public health concern, especially for youth under 15 years of age. However, the developmental period from birth to 18 years is also a time of tremendous brain changes. Therefore, it is important to establish the degree of age- and sex-related differences...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982124/prevalence-of-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-defects-the-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2012
#15
Kyeong Ik Na, Jin Wook Jeoung, Won June Lee, Young Kook Kim, Chan Yun Kim, Ki Ho Park
PURPOSE: To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of retinal nerve fiber layer defects (RNFLDs) in a Korean population. METHODS: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a population-based study using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey. We performed a review of 2008-2012 data from the KNHANES. Two masked ophthalmologists evaluated fundus photography to detect RNFLDs. All participants underwent ocular and systemic evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979240/effect-of-functional-oligosaccharides-and-ordinary-dietary-fiber-on-intestinal-microbiota-diversity
#16
Weiwei Cheng, Jing Lu, Boxing Li, Weishi Lin, Zheng Zhang, Xiao Wei, Chengming Sun, Mingguo Chi, Wei Bi, Bingjun Yang, Aimin Jiang, Jing Yuan
Functional oligosaccharides, known as prebiotics, and ordinary dietary fiber have important roles in modulating the structure of intestinal microbiota. To investigate their effects on the intestinal microecosystem, three kinds of diets containing different prebiotics were used to feed mice for 3 weeks, as follows: GI (galacto-oligosaccharides and inulin), PF (polydextrose and insoluble dietary fiber from bran), and a GI/PF mixture (GI and PF, 1:1), 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolic analysis of mice feces were then conducted...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978672/magnesium-intake-quality-of-carbohydrates-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-results-from-three-u-s-cohorts
#17
Adela Hruby, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Nicola M McKeown, Frank B Hu
OBJECTIVE: Magnesium intake is inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in many observational studies, but few have assessed this association in the context of the carbohydrate quality of the diet. We hypothesized that higher magnesium intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, especially in the context of a poor-carbohydrate-quality diet characterized by low cereal fiber or high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1984-2012, n = 69,176), NHS2 (1991-2013, n = 91,471), and the Health Professionals' Follow-Up Study (1986-2012, n = 42,096), dietary intake was assessed from food frequency questionnaires every 4 years...
October 4, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978343/dietary-food-patterns-and-glucose-insulin-homeostasis-a-cross-sectional-study-involving-24-182-adult-americans
#18
Mohsen Mazidi, Andre Pascal Kengne, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Peter P Toth, Kausik K Ray, Maciej Banach
AIM: To investigate the association of major dietary patterns with glucose and insulin homeostasis parameters in a large American sample. The association between dietary patterns (DP) derived via principal components analysis (PCA), with glucose/insulin homeostasis parameters was assessed. The likelihood of insulin resistance (IR) across the DPs quarters was also explored. METHOD: The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants during 2005-2012 were included if they underwent measurement of dietary intake as well as glucose and insulin homeostasis parameters...
October 4, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974806/functional-crackers-incorporation-of-the-dietary-fibers-extracted-from-citrus-seeds
#19
Emin Yilmaz, Elif Karaman
Dietary fibers extracted from defatted press meals of orange and grapefruit seeds were used in the production of crackers and the crackers were evaluated for physicochemical, textural, sensory properties, and bioactive compounds. The unexplored fibers (grapes seeds and orange seeds) and wheat fiber were added at 2.9% levels. The effects of incorporation of different fibers on composition and consumer acceptability were evaluated. The textural stability during storage was also monitored. Although there were no significant differences for proximate compositions; fiber contents, antioxidant capacities, and phenolics compositions were significantly higher in the crackers containing orange seeds fiber...
September 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974486/combined-dietary-nitrate-and-exercise-intervention-in-peripheral-artery-disease-protocol-rationale-and-design
#20
Mary N Woessner, Mitch D VanBruggen, Carl F Pieper, Erin K O'Reilly, William E Kraus, Jason D Allen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is caused by atherosclerotic occlusions in the legs. It affects approximately 8-12 million people in the United States alone, one-third of whom suffer from intermittent claudication (IC), defined as ischemic leg pain that occurs with walking and improves with rest. Patients with IC suffer a markedly impaired quality of life and a high perception of disability. Improving pain-free walking time is a primary goal of rehabilitation in this population...
October 3, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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