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fiber and health

Michael A Powell, Javier O Garcia, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Jean M Vettel, Timothy Verstynen
The unique architecture of the human connectome is defined initially by genetics and subsequently sculpted over time with experience. Thus, similarities in predisposition and experience that lead to similarities in social, biological, and cognitive attributes should also be reflected in the local architecture of white matter fascicles. Here we employ a method known as local connectome fingerprinting that uses diffusion MRI to measure the fiber-wise characteristics of macroscopic white matter pathways throughout the brain...
2018: Network neuroscience
Mark J Utell, L Daniel Maxim
Refractory ceramic fibers (RCFs) are amorphous fibers that belong to a class of materials termed synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), also called man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs), which includes alkaline earth silicate wool, glass wool, rock (stone) wool, slag wool, and special-purpose glass fibers. RCFs are more durable and biopersistent than several other SVFs, although very much less biopersistent than either amosite or crocidolite asbestos. Chronic inhalation studies indicated that rats and hamsters exposed to RCF fibers developed fibrosis and tumors...
June 13, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Lissa Davis, Jooyeoun Jung, Ann Colonna, Aimee Hasenbeck, Virginia Gouw, Yanyun Zhao
Blueberry pomace (BP) and cranberry pomace (CP) are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolics. This study aimed to develop berry fruit pomace (FP)-fortified specialty mustard with elevated bioactive compounds and ascertain consumer acceptance of a new product. Wet BP and CP were ground and incorporated into Dijon-style mustard at concentrations of 15%, 20%, and 25% (w/w). Total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) were evaluated for samples obtained from both chemical extraction (CE) and simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Yufeng Zhang, Liyun Zhao, Dongmei Yu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the contribution of snacks to energy and nutrients among Chinese aged 6 and more in 2010-2012. METHODS: Using dietary data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012 to describe the intakes and percentages from sncaks of energy and nutrients. The 3-consecutive days-24-hour dietary recall and food weighting method were used to collect food, edible oil and condiment intake information. RESULTS: The average energy from snacks per capital per day of Chinese residents was 6...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Kassem Makki, Edward C Deehan, Jens Walter, Fredrik Bäckhed
Food is a primordial need for our survival and well-being. However, diet is not only essential to maintain human growth, reproduction, and health, but it also modulates and supports the symbiotic microbial communities that colonize the digestive tract-the gut microbiota. Type, quality, and origin of our food shape our gut microbes and affect their composition and function, impacting host-microbe interactions. In this review, we will focus on dietary fibers, which interact directly with gut microbes and lead to the production of key metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids, and discuss how dietary fiber impacts gut microbial ecology, host physiology, and health...
June 13, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Kaisa S Poutanen, Susana Fiszman, Cyril F M Marsaux, Saara P Pentikäinen, Robert E Steinert, David J Mela
Dietary fiber (DF) comprises a wide range of naturally occurring and modified materials with substantial variations in physical and chemical properties and potential physiologic effects. Although nutrition studies testing the effects of DF usually provide extensive detail on the physiologic responses, many still fail to adequately report the type and properties of the DF itself. This weakens the ability to directly replicate and compare studies and to establish structure-function relations. We outline the factors that affect DF functionality and provide 4 overarching recommendations for the characterization and reporting of DF preparations and DF-containing foods in nutrition research...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
S Tavaniello, G Maiorano, K Stadnicka, R Mucci, J Bogucka, M Bednarczyk
Elimination of antibiotic growth promoters from poultry production has encouraged intensive search for relevant alternatives. Prebiotics are proposed as efficient replacements to stimulate colonization/expansion of beneficial microflora in chickens. The aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge on the effect of prebiotic administration on slaughter performance and meat quality traits of broiler chickens by evaluating different routes of their delivery (in ovo vs. in-water vs. in ovo + in-water). At d 12 of incubation, 1,500 eggs (Ross 308) containing viable embryos were randomly allotted into 4 groups and injected in ovo with 0...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Khaoula El Kinany, Vanessa Garcia-Larsen, Mohamed Khalis, Meimouna Mint Sidi Deoula, Abdelilah Benslimane, Amran Ibrahim, Mohamed Chakib Benjelloun, Karima El Rhazi
BACKGROUND: To date, no culture-specific food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) are available in North Africa. The aim of this study was to adapt and examine the reproducibility and validity of an FFQ or use in the Moroccan population. METHODS: The European Global Asthma and Allergy Network (GA2 LEN) FFQ was used to assess its applicability in Morocco. The GA2 LEN FFQ is comprised of 32 food sections and 200 food items. Using scientific published literature, as well as local resources, we identified and added foods that were representative of the Moroccan diet...
June 12, 2018: Nutrition Journal
G S Zhang, Y F Liu
Plastic particle accumulation in arable soils is a growing contaminant of concern with unknown consequences for soil productivity and quality. This study aimed to investigate abundance and distribution of plastic particles among soil aggregate fractions in four cropped areas and an established riparian forest buffer zone at Dian Lake, southwestern China. Plastic particles (10-0.05 mm) from fifty soil samples were extracted and then sorted by size, counted, and categorized. Plastic particles were found in all soil samples...
June 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yongxing Guo, Wenlong Liu, Li Xiong, Yi Kuang, Heng Wu, Honghai Liu
This paper presents a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) displacement sensor with high abrasion resistance for displacement monitoring of a steel spring floating slab damping track. A wedge-shaped sliding block and an equal-strength beam form a conversion mechanism to transfer displacement to the deflection of the beam, and the deflection-induced strain is exerted on two FBGs. A special linear guide rail-slider and a precision rolling bearing have been adopted onto the conversion mechanism, which turned sliding friction into rolling friction and thus significantly reduced the friction during frequent alternating displacement measuring...
June 11, 2018: Sensors
Gretchen A Casazza, Ashley P Tovar, Christine E Richardson, Angela N Cortez, Brian A Davis
Endurance athletes use nutritional guidelines and supplements to improve exercise performance and recovery. However, use is not always based on scientific evidence of improved performance, which type of athlete would benefit most, or the optimal dose and timing of a particular supplement. Health professionals that give advice to athletes need to target their recommendations on the energy systems and muscle fiber types used for the athlete's sporting event, the goal of the training block, the time of the competitive season, and the characteristics and food preferences of the individual athlete...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Nawaf I Blaisi
Saudi Arabia's date palm industry generates date palm ash (DPA) from the thermal processing of palm oil fibers and shells. This waste material has potential to be used as partial replacement of cement in structural mortar. However, no studies to date have examined its pollution potential. DPA was used as a cement replacement in Portland cement mortar (PCM) using a 10% and 100% replacement rate and then compared to an ordinary PCM control sample. Total elemental analysis, the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and monolith leaching tests were conducted...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Byung Wan Jo, Jun Ho Jo, Rana Muhammad Asad Khan, Jung Hoon Kim, Yun Sung Lee
Structure Health Monitoring is a topic of great interest in port structures due to the ageing of structures and the limitations of evaluating structures. This paper presents a cloud computing-based stability evaluation platform for a pier type port structure using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors in a system consisting of a FBG strain sensor, FBG displacement gauge, FBG angle meter, gateway, and cloud computing-based web server. The sensors were installed on core components of the structure and measurements were taken to evaluate the structures...
May 23, 2018: Sensors
Soraia Carvalho Abreu, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Adriana Lopes da Silva, Debora Gonçalves Xisto, Tainá Batista de Oliveira, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Lígia Lins de Castro, Natália Recardo Amorim, Vanessa Martins, Luisa H A Silva, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Priscilla Christina Olsen, Daniel Jay Weiss, Marcelo Marcos Morales, Bruno Lourenço Diaz, Patricia Rieken Macêdo Rocco
Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodeling. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy mitigates lung inflammation in experimental allergic asthma; however, its ability to reduce airway remodeling is limited. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) potentiates the therapeutic properties of MSCs in experimental allergic asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jingjing Du, Linyuan Shen, Peiwen Zhang, Zhendong Tan, Xiao Cheng, Jia Luo, Xue Zhao, Qiong Yang, Hao Gu, An'an Jiang, Jideng Ma, Qianzi Tang, Long Jin, Surong Shuai, Mingzhou Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Lin Bai, Xuewei Li, Jinyong Wang, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
Increasing evidence indicates that muscular dysfunction or alterations in skeletal muscle fiber-type composition not only are involved in muscle metabolism and function but also can limit functional capacity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms regulating key events during skeletal myogenesis is necessary. Betaine is a naturally occurring component of commonly eaten foods. Here, we showed that 10 mM betaine supplementation in vitro significantly repressed myoblast proliferation and enhanced myoblast differentiation...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Muhammed Majeed, Shaheen Majeed, Kalyanam Nagabhushanam, Sivakumar Arumugam, Sankaran Natarajan, Kirankumar Beede, Furqan Ali
Health benefits of dietary fibers are currently being widely recognized. However, the assessment of dietary fiber as a prebiotic is essential and also important for the development of an improved synbiotic commercial preparation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of galactomannan extracted from fenugreek seeds as a prebiotic fiber and also its fermentation by the probiotic strain Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856. Nondigestibility by the gastric acid and pancreatic enzyme hydrolysis of galactomannan were determined using an in vitro model mimicking the in vivo conditions...
May 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Jingshi Shen, Xiaodong Zeng, Yuxiang Luo, Changqing Cao, Ting Wang
The Chinese space station is designed to carry out manned spaceflight, space science research, and so on. In serious applications, it is a common operation to inject gas into the hull, which can produce strain of the bulkhead. Accurate measurement of strain for the bulkhead is one of the key tasks in evaluating the health condition of the space station. This is the first work to perform strain detection for the Chinese space station bulkhead by using optical fiber Bragg grating. In the period of measurements, the resistance strain gauge is used as the strain standard...
June 5, 2018: Sensors
Xiaoli Zhou, Lina Du, Ronghua Shi, Zhidong Chen, Yiming Zhou, Zongjie Li
The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state...
June 6, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Jiezhong Chen, Luis Vitetta
The intestinal microbiota plays key roles in human health, and adverse dysbiosis shifts of the microbiota have been associated with chronic diseases, including large bowel cancer. High-fiber diets may reduce the risk for large bowel cancer in association with gut microbiota modulation and butyrate production. Butyrate can inhibit histone deacetylases and associated signaling pathways in cultured cancer cells, promoting cancer cell apoptosis. However, butyrate has prevented colon cancer through the regulation of immune homeostasis rather than histone deacetylases inhibition...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Guillaume Laffont, Romain Cotillard, Nicolas Roussel, Rudy Desmarchelier, Stéphane Rougeault
The harsh environment associated with the next generation of nuclear reactors is a great challenge facing all new sensing technologies to be deployed for on-line monitoring purposes and for the implantation of SHM methods. Sensors able to resist sustained periods at very high temperatures continuously as is the case within sodium-cooled fast reactors require specific developments and evaluations. Among the diversity of optical fiber sensing technologies, temperature resistant fiber Bragg gratings are increasingly being considered for the instrumentation of future nuclear power plants, especially for components exposed to high temperature and high radiation levels...
June 2, 2018: Sensors
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