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three dimensional morphology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080029/one-step-fabrication-of-3d-nano-hierarchical-ni-nanomace-array-to-sinter-with-ag-nps-and-the-interfacial-analysis
#1
Wei Zhou, Zhen Zheng, Chunqing Wang, Zhongtao Wang, Rong An
Three-dimensional (3D) nano-hierarchical Ni nanomace (Ni NM) array was fabricated on copper substrate by only one step with electroplating method, the unique structure was covered with Au film (Ni/Au NM) without changing its morphology and in the following step, it was sintered with silver nanoparticle (Ag NP) paste. The structure of Ni NM array and its surface morphology were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The sintered interface was investigated by SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to analyze the sintering mechanism...
January 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078425/odorant-receptors-and-antennal-lobe-morphology-offer-a-new-approach-to-understanding-olfaction-in-the-asian-longhorned-beetle
#2
Robert F Mitchell, Loyal P Hall, Peter F Reagel, Duane D McKenna, Thomas C Baker, John G Hildebrand
The Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motchulsky) is an exotic forest pest that has repeatedly invaded North America and Europe from Asia, and has the potential to kill millions of trees and cause billions of dollars in damage. Traps baited with an attractive mixture of volatile organic compounds from hosts have been of limited success in monitoring invasion sites. We propose that lures might be improved through studying the olfactory system of adult beetles, especially the gene family of odorant receptors (ORs) and the structure of the antennal lobes of the brain...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078333/topography-guided-buckling-of-swollen-polymer-bilayer-films-into-three-dimensional-structures
#3
Joonwoo Jeong, Yigil Cho, Su Yeon Lee, Xingting Gong, Randall D Kamien, Shu Yang, A G Yodh
Thin films that exhibit spatially heterogeneous swelling often buckle into the third dimension to minimize stress. These effects, in turn, offer a promising strategy to fabricate complex three-dimensional structures from two-dimensional sheets. Here we employ surface topography as a new means to guide buckling of swollen polymer bilayer films and thereby control the morphology of resulting three-dimensional objects. Topographic patterns are created on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films selectively coated with a thin layer of non-swelling parylene on different sides of the patterned films...
January 12, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077771/the-correlated-evolution-of-antipredator-defences-and-brain-size-in-mammals
#4
Theodore Stankowich, Ashly N Romero
Mammals that possess elaborate antipredator defences such as body armour, spines and quills are usually well protected, intermediate in size, primarily insectivorous and live in simple open environments. The benefits of such defences seem clear and may relax selection on maintaining cognitive abilities that aid in vigilance and predator recognition, and their bearers may accrue extensive production and maintenance costs. Here, in this comparative phylogenetic analysis of measurements of encephalization quotient and morphological defence scores of 647 mammal species representing nearly every order, we found that as lineages evolve stronger defences, they suffer a correlated reduction in encephalization...
January 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076902/decellularized-extracellular-matrix-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-promotes-endothelial-differentiation-of-stem-cells-from-exfoliated-deciduous-teeth
#5
Ting Gong, Boon Chin Heng, Jianguang Xu, Shaoyue Zhu, Changyong Yuan, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chengfei Zhang
Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells (ECs) for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069513/structure-and-mechanical-implications-of-the-pectoral-fin-skeleton-in-the-longnose-skate-chondrichthyes-batoidea
#6
Wei Huang, Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp, Jae-Young Jung, Philip A Hastings, Vlado A Lubarda, Joanna McKittrick
Animal propulsion systems are believed to show high energy and mechanical efficiency in assisting movement compared to artificial designs. As an example, batoid fishes have very light cartilaginous skeletons that facilitate their elegant swimming via enlarged wing-like pectoral fins. The aim of this work is to illustrate the hierarchical structure of the pectoral fin of a representative batoid, the Longnose Skate (Raja rhina), and explain the mechanical implications of its structural design. At the macro level, the pectoral fins are comprised of radially oriented fin rays, formed by staggered mineralized skeletal elements stacked end-to-end...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068057/topological-control-of-extracellular-matrix-growth-a-native-like-model-for-cell-morphodynamics-studies
#7
David Caballero, Josep Samitier
The interaction of cells with their natural environment influences a large variety of cellular phenomena, including cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The complex extracellular matrix network has challenged the attempts to replicate in vitro the heterogeneity of the cell environment and has threatened, in general, the relevance of in vitro studies. In this work, we describe a new and extremely versatile approach to generate native-like extracellular matrices with controlled morphologies for the in vitro study of cellular processes...
January 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065586/estimation-of-central-venous-pressure-using-the-ratio-of-short-to-long-diameter-from-cross-sectional-images-of-the-inferior-vena-cava
#8
Yoshihiro Seo, Noriko Iida, Masayoshi Yamamoto, Tomoko Machino-Ohtsuka, Tomoko Ishizu, Kazutaka Aonuma
BACKGROUND: Long-axis images of the inferior vena cava (IVC) have limitations as surrogates for IVC morphology in grading central venous pressure (CVP) by two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE), because of the various cross-sectional morphologies and the translational motion of the IVC induced by sniffing. On the basis of the relationship between venous pressure and compliance, it was hypothesized that the cross-sectional morphology of the IVC, which was obtained using three-dimensional echocardiography, might estimate CVP more accurately compared with standard grading by 2DE...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065381/the-contribution-of-3d-quantitative-meniscal-and-cartilage-measures-to-variation-in-normal-radiographic-joint-space-width-data-from-the-osteoarthritis-initiative-healthy-reference-cohort
#9
Melanie Roth, Wolfgang Wirth, Katja Emmanuel, Adam G Culvenor, Felix Eckstein
OBJECTIVE: To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. METHODS: The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0±7.6; BMI 24.4±3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images...
February 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063755/-congenital-heart-disease-recent-technical-advances-in-three-dimensional-echocardiography
#10
Clement Karsenty, Khaled Hadeed, Philippe Acar
The recent technical advances allow the use in practice of three-dimensional echocardiography in children especially through the new high frequency matrix probe. It is difficult or even impossible to hold breathing during children' acquisition so to avoid motion full volume artifact, one beat and live 3D modes are suitable. 3D echocardiography is more accurate than 2D to assess the size, location, and relationship with surrounding structures of atrial and ventricular septal defects and thus helps in the therapeutic decision...
January 4, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062411/mapping-morphological-shape-as-a-high-dimensional-functional-curve
#11
Guifang Fu, Mian Huang, Wenhao Bo, Han Hao, Rongling Wu
Detecting how genes regulate biological shape has become a multidisciplinary research interest because of its wide application in many disciplines. Despite its fundamental importance, the challenges of accurately extracting information from an image, statistically modeling the high-dimensional shape and meticulously locating shape quantitative trait loci (QTL) affect the progress of this research. In this article, we propose a novel integrated framework that incorporates shape analysis, statistical curve modeling and genetic mapping to detect significant QTLs regulating variation of biological shape traits...
January 6, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061849/do-size-shape-and-alignment-parameters-of-the-femoral-condyle-affect-the-trochlear-groove-tracking-a-morphometric-study-based-on-3d-computed-tomography-models-in-chinese-people
#12
Zhe Du, Shichang Chen, Mengning Yan, Bing Yue, Yiming Zeng, You Wang
BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to investigate whether geometrical features (size, shape, or alignment parameters) of the femoral condyle affect the morphology of the trochlear groove. METHODS: Computed tomography models of 195 femurs (97 and 98 knees from male and female subjects, respectively) were reconstructed into three-dimensional models and categorised into four types of trochlear groove morphology based on the position of the turning point in relation to the mechanical axis (types 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°)...
January 6, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060533/morphological-distribution-of-the-anterior-inferior-iliac-spine-in-patients-with-and-without-hip-impingement
#13
George C Balazs, Benjamin C Williams, Christopher M Knaus, Daniel I Brooks, Jonathan F Dickens, Michael P McCabe, Terrence D Anderson
BACKGROUND: Subspinous impingement of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) on the femoral head-neck junction is increasingly recognized as a source of hip impingement. A classification system of AIIS morphology has previously been proposed that correlates with reduced hip motion and may predispose patients to subspinous hip impingement. PURPOSE: To examine the morphological distribution of AIIS types in patients with and without diagnosed hip impingement and correlate AIIS morphology to intraoperative findings at the time of surgery...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059341/high-speed-three-dimensional-tomographic-laser-induced-incandescence-imaging-of-soot-volume-fraction-in-turbulent-flames
#14
Terrence R Meyer, Benjamin R Halls, Naibo Jiang, Mikhail N Slipchenko, Sukesh Roy, James R Gord
High-speed, laser-based tomographic imaging of the three-dimensional time evolution of soot volume fraction in turbulent jet diffusion flames is demonstrated to be feasible at rates of 10 kHz or higher. The fundamental output of a burst-mode Nd:YAG laser with 1 J/pulse is utilized for volumetric impulsive heating of soot particles with a laser fluence of 0.1 J/cm<sup>2</sup>, enabling signal-to-noise ratios of ~100:1 in images of the resulting incandescence. The three-dimensional morphology of the soot distribution is captured with a spatial resolution of <1...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059271/lossless-and-lossy-compression-of-quantitative-phase-images-of-red-blood-cells-obtained-by-digital-holographic-imaging
#15
Keyvan Jaferzadeh, Samaneh Gholami, Inkyu Moon
In this paper, we evaluate lossless and lossy compression techniques to compress quantitative phase images of red blood cells (RBCs) obtained by an off-axis digital holographic microscopy (DHM). The RBC phase images are numerically reconstructed from their digital holograms and are stored in 16-bit unsigned integer format. In the case of lossless compression, predictive coding of JPEG lossless (JPEG-LS), JPEG2000, and JP3D are evaluated, and compression ratio (CR) and complexity (compression time) are compared against each other...
December 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056713/three-dimensional-printed-bone-scaffolds-the-role-of-nano-micro-hydroxyapatite-particles-on-the-adhesion-and-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#16
Marco Domingos, Antonio Gloria, Jorge Coelho, Paulo Bartolo, Joaquim Ciurana
Bone tissue engineering is strongly dependent on the use of three-dimensional scaffolds that can act as templates to accommodate cells and support tissue ingrowth. Despite its wide application in tissue engineering research, polycaprolactone presents a very limited ability to induce adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic cell differentiation. To overcome some of these limitations, different calcium phosphates, such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, have been employed with relative success. This work investigates the influence of nano-hydroxyapatite and micro-hydroxyapatite (nHA and mHA, respectively) particles on the in vitro biomechanical performance of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite scaffolds...
December 1, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054317/test-retest-reliability-of-brain-morphology-estimates
#17
Christopher R Madan, Elizabeth A Kensinger
Metrics of brain morphology are increasingly being used to examine inter-individual differences, making it important to evaluate the reliability of these structural measures. Here we used two open-access datasets to assess the intersession reliability of three cortical measures (thickness, gyrification, and fractal dimensionality) and two subcortical measures (volume and fractal dimensionality). Reliability was generally good, particularly with the gyrification and fractal dimensionality measures. One dataset used a sequence previously optimized for brain morphology analyses and had particularly high reliability...
January 5, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053600/alginate-embedded-huh-7-cells-increase-mmp-9-and-reduce-ocln-expression-in-vitro
#18
Virginia Andrea Angiolini, Carolina Uribe Cruz, Mónica Luján López, Laura Simon, Ursula Matte
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer, ranking third in cancer-associated deaths. An important cause of cancer patients' mortality is metastasis. At the start of metastasis progression, there is an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, characterized by matrix degradation, junction reductions and vessels formation. HuH-7 is a cell line used in research as an in vitro model for hepatocellular carcinoma. It is known that two-dimensional growth reflects tumor characteristics poorly...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045146/synthesis-driven-structure-dependent-optical-behavior-in-phase-tunable-nayf4-yb-er-based-motifs-and-associated-heterostructures
#19
Haiqing Liu, Jinkyu Han, Coray McBean, Crystal S Lewis, Prahlad Kumar Routh, Mircea Cotlet, Stanislaus S Wong
Understanding the key parameters necessary for generating uniform Er,Yb co-activated NaYF4 possessing various selected phases (i.e. cubic or hexagonal) represents an important chemical strategy towards tailoring optical behavior in these systems. Herein, we report on a straightforward hydrothermal synthesis in which the separate effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, and precursor stoichiometry in the absence of any surfactant were independently investigated. Interestingly, the presence and the concentration of NH4OH appear to be the most critical determinants of the phase and morphology...
January 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045135/densely-packed-aluminum-silver-nanohelices-as-an-ultra-thin-perfect-light-absorber
#20
Yi-Jun Jen, Yu-Jie Huang, Wei-Chih Liu, Yueh Weng Lin
Metals have been formed into nanostructures to absorb light with high efficiency through surface plasmon resonances. An ultra-thin plasmonic structure that exhibits strong absorption over wide ranges of wavelengths and angles of incidence is sought. In this work, a nearly perfect plasmonic nanostructure is fabricated using glancing angle deposition. The difference between the morphologies of obliquely deposited aluminum and silver nanohelices is exploited to form a novel three-dimensional structure, which is an aluminum-silver nanohelix array on a pattern-free substrate...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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