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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911379/rapid-acquisition-of-3d-images-using-high-resolution-episcopic-microscopy
#1
Haochuan Zhang, JunGang Huang, Xin Liu, Ping Zhu, Zhongrong Li, Xue Li
High-resolution episcopic microscopic (HREM) technology enables rapid acquisition of high-resolution digital volumetric and three-dimensional (3D) morphometric data. Here, we describe the detailed protocol to image the entire mouse embryo. The protocol consists of four major sections: sample preparation, embedding, image acquisition and finally, 3D visualization. The technology requires specimens to be stained with a fluorescent dye, which can be problematic for large or dense specimens. To overcome this limitation, we have improved the existing protocol to enhance tissue penetration of the dye by pretreating the specimen with a solution containing urea and sodium dodecyl sulfate...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906482/three-dimensional-super-branched-pdcu-nanoarchitectures-exposed-on-controlled-crystal-facets
#2
Muhammad Iqbal, Cuiling Li, Jung Ho Kim, Saad M Alshehri, Tsuruo Nakayama, Yusuke Yamauchi
Despite the great success of controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystals with various sizes and morphologies, an efficient one-pot approach to preparing well-organized three-dimensional (3D) structures with unique facets exposed remains a great challenge. Herein, we report a unique 3D nanoarchitecture for PdCu alloy, created by a simple chemical reduction method, in which nanosized octahedral PdCu nanocrystals are directly assembled into 3D super-branched structures. Detailed investigations of its electrocatalytic performance demonstrate that the as-prepared facet-controlled PdCu super-branched nanostructures possess higher activity towards the formic acid oxidation reaction in comparison to the commercially available Pd black catalyst...
December 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906393/geometric-control-of-active-collective-motion
#3
Maxime Theillard, Roberto Alonso-Matilla, David Saintillan
Recent experimental studies have shown that confinement can profoundly affect self-organization in semi-dilute active suspensions, leading to striking features such as the formation of steady and spontaneous vortices in circular domains and the emergence of unidirectional pumping motions in periodic racetrack geometries. Motivated by these findings, we analyze the two-dimensional dynamics in confined suspensions of active self-propelled swimmers using a mean-field kinetic theory where conservation equations for the particle configurations are coupled to the forced Navier-Stokes equations for the self-generated fluid flow...
December 1, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903406/morphology-of-the-posteromedial-fragment-in-pertrochanteric-fractures-a-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-analysis
#4
Gaurav Sharma, Kiran Kumar Gn, Kavin Khatri, Ravijot Singh, Shivanand Gamanagatti, Vijay Sharma
BACKGROUND: In this study we describe the morphology of the posteromedial fragment in pertrochanteric fractures using 3D CT scans and answer two questions 1) Do differences exist between the 3D CT appearances of posteromedial fragments and the depictions made in the AO classification 2) Does the posteromedial fragment affect stability in pertrochanteric fractures, in terms of fracture collapse? METHODS: Preoperative CT scans of eight 31-A1 and fifty 31-A2 fractures were analysed...
November 17, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902397/vesivirus-2117-capsids-more-closely-resemble-sapovirus-and-lagovirus-particles-than-other-known-vesivirus-structures
#5
Michaela Conley, Edward Emmott, Richard Orton, David Taylor, Daniel Carneiro, Kazuyoshi Murata, Ian Goodfellow, Grant Hansman, David Bhella
Vesivirus 2117 is an adventitious agent that in 2009, was identified as a contaminant of CHO cells propagated in bioreactors at a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant belonging to Genzyme. The consequent interruption in supply of Fabrazyme and Cerezyme (drugs used to treat Fabry and Gaucher disease respectively), caused significant economic losses. Vesivirus 2117 is a member of the Caliciviridae; a family of small icosahedral viruses encoding a positive sense RNA genome. We have used cryo-electron microscopy and three dimensional image reconstruction to calculate a structure of vesivirus 2117 virus like particles as well as feline calicivirus and a chimeric sapovirus...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900714/is-there-asymmetry-between-the-concave-and-convex-pedicles-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-ct-investigation
#6
Colin M Davis, Caroline A Grant, Mark J Pearcy, Geoffrey N Askin, Robert D Labrom, Maree T Izatt, Clayton J Adam, J Paige Little
BACKGROUND: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional deformity of the spine characterized by deformities in the sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Spinal fusion using pedicle screw instrumentation is a widely used method for surgical correction in severe (coronal deformity, Cobb angle > 45°) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves. Understanding the anatomic difference in the pedicles of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is essential to reduce the risk of neurovascular or visceral injury through pedicle screw misplacement...
November 29, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900330/structural-comparison-between-the-right-and-left-atrial-appendages-using-multidetector-computed-tomography
#7
Koichi Shinoda, Shogo Hayashi, Daisuke Fukuoka, Ryo Torii, Tsuneo Watanabe, Takashi Nakano
The three-dimensional (3D) structures of the right atrial appendage (RAA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) were compared to clarify why thrombus formation less frequently occurs in RAA than in LAA. Morphological differences between RAA and LAA of 34 formalin-preserved cadaver hearts were investigated. Molds of RAA and LAA specimens were made and the neck areas, volumes of the atrial appendages (AA), and amount of pectinate muscles (PMs) were analyzed using multidetector computed tomography. In RAA, most PMs were connected to one another and formed a "dendritic" appearance and the inner surface area was smaller than in LAA...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897167/ecm-proteins-in-a-microporous-scaffold-influence-hepatocyte-morphology-function-and-gene-expression
#8
Yan Wang, Myung Hee Kim, Hitomi Shirahama, Jae Ho Lee, Soon Seng Ng, Jeffrey S Glenn, Nam-Joon Cho
It is well known that a three-dimensional (3D) culture environment and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins facilitate hepatocyte viability and maintenance of the liver-specific phenotype in vitro. However, it is not clear whether specific ECM components such as collagen or fibronectin differentially regulate such processes, especially in 3D scaffolds. In this study, a series of ECM-functionalized inverted colloidal crystal (ICC) microporous scaffolds were fabricated and their influence on Huh-7...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895821/implanting-1-1b4-human-%C3%AE-cell-pseudoislets-improves-glycaemic-control-in-diabetic-severe-combined-immune-deficient-mice
#9
Alastair D Green, Srividya Vasu, Neville H McClenaghan, Peter R Flatt
AIM: To investigate the potential of implanting pseudoislets formed from human insulin-releasing β-cell lines as an alternative to islet transplantation. METHODS: In this study, the anti-diabetic potential of novel human insulin releasing 1.1B4 β-cells was evaluated by implanting the cells, either as free cell suspensions, or as three-dimensional pseudoislets, into the subscapular region of severe combined immune deficient mice rendered diabetic by single high-dose administration of streptozotocin...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894827/prehensile-and-non-prehensile-tails-among-syngnathid-fishes-what-s-the-difference
#10
Céline Neutens, Bart de Dobbelaer, Peter Claes, Dominique Adriaens
All syngnathid fishes are characterized by a tail with a vertebral column that is surrounded by dermal Plates - four per vertebra. Seahorses and pipehorses have prehensile tails, a unique characteristic among teleosts that allows them to grasp and hold onto substrates. Pipefishes, in contrast, possess a more rigid tail. Previous research (Neutens et al., 2014) showed a wide range of variation within the skeletal morphology of different members in the syngnathid family. The goal of this study is to explore whether the diversity in the three-dimensional (3D) shape of different tail types reflects grasping performance, and to what degree grasping tails occupy a different and more constrained diversity...
November 18, 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893632/the-evolution-of-photography-and-three-dimensional-imaging-in-plastic-surgery
#11
Jason M Weissler, Carrie S Stern, Jillian Schreiber, Bardia Amirlak, Oren M Tepper
Throughout history, the technological advancements of conventional clinical photography in plastic surgery have refined not only the plastic surgeon's armamentarium, but have invigorated the profession through technology. The technology of the once traditional two-dimensional photograph has since been revolutionized and refashioned to incorporate novel applications, which have since become the standard in clinical photography.Contrary to traditional standardized two-dimensional photographs, three-dimensional photography provides the surgeon with an invaluable volumetric and morphological analysis by demonstrating true surface dimensions both pre and postoperatively...
November 21, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890319/diachronic-changes-in-size-and-shape-of-human-proximal-tibia-in-central-europe-during-the-latest-1200-years
#12
H Brzobohatá, V Krajíček, Z Horák, P Sedlak, J Velemínská
During the past twelve centuries, the stature of Central European inhabitants has increased significantly with corresponding changes in the size of lower limb bones. The aim of our study was to determine whether these changes have occurred strictly in relation to size or if the shape of skeletal structures has been altered simultaneously. Diachronic size and shape changes in the proximal part of tibia in a Central European population (Czech Republic) were studied using geometric morphometrics (principal components analysis, Hotelling's test, linear discriminant analysis)...
October 13, 2016: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889665/a-three-dimensional-spheroidal-cancer-model-based-on-peg-fibrinogen-hydrogel-microspheres
#13
Shantanu Pradhan, Jacob M Clary, Dror Seliktar, Elizabeth A Lipke
Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cancer models offer an attractive approach towards the investigation of tumorigenic phenomena and other cancer studies by providing dimensional context and higher degree of physiological relevance than that offered by conventional two-dimensional (2D) models. The multicellular tumor spheroid model, formed by cell aggregation, is considered to be the "gold standard" for 3D cancer models, due to its ease and simplicity of use. Although better than 2D models, tumor spheroids are unable to replicate key features of the native tumor microenvironment, particularly due to a lack of surrounding extracellular matrix components and heterogeneity in shape, size and aggregate forming tendencies...
November 1, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887818/three-dimensional-morphology-of-the-left-ventricular-outflow-tract-impact-on-grading-aortic-stenosis-severity
#14
Luis Caballero, Daniel Saura, María José Oliva-Sandoval, Josefa González-Carrillo, María Dolores Espinosa, Miguel García-Navarro, Mariano Valdés, Patrizio Lancellotti, Gonzalo de la Morena
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) measurement is a critical step in the quantification of aortic valve area. The assumption of a circular morphology of the LVOT may induce some errors. The aim of this study was to assess the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the LVOT and its impact on grading aortic stenosis severity. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with aortic stenosis were studied retrospectively. LVOT dimensions were measured using 3D transesophageal echocardiography at three levels: at the hinge points (HP) of the aortic valve and at 4 and 8 mm proximal to the annular plane...
November 22, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886664/degradation-behaviors-of-geometric-cues-and-mechanical-properties-in-a-3d-scaffold-for-tendon-repair
#15
Yang Wu, Yoke San Wong, Jerry Ying Hsi Fuh
A three-dimensional (3D) scaffold fabricated via electrohydrodynamic jet printing (E-jetting) and thermally uniaxial stretching, has been developed for tendon tissue regeneration in our previous study. In this study, more in-depth biological test showed that the aligned cell morphology guided by the anisotropic geometries of the 3D tendon scaffolds, leading to up-regulated tendious gene expression including collagen type I, decorin, tenascin-C and biglycan, as compared to the electrospun scaffolds. Given the importance of geometric cues to the biological function of the scaffolds, the degradation behaviors of the 3D scaffolds were investigated...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886552/three-dimensional-electrospun-pcl-pla-blend-nanofibrous-scaffolds-with-significantly-improved-stem-cells-osteogenic-differentiation-and-cranial-bone-formation
#16
Qingqing Yao, Jaqueline G L Cosme, Tao Xu, Jacob M Miszuk, Paulo H S Picciani, Hao Fong, Hongli Sun
Nanofibrous scaffolds that are morphologically/structurally similar to natural ECM are highly interested for tissue engineering; however, the electrospinning technique has the difficulty in directly producing clinically relevant 3D nanofibrous scaffolds with desired structural properties. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative technique of thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA) recently. The aim of this work was to prepare (via the TISA technique) and evaluate 3D electrospun PCL/PLA blend (mass ratio: 4/1) nanofibrous scaffolds having high porosity of ∼95...
November 15, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885641/apophyseal-ossification-of-the-iliac-crest-in-forensic-age-estimation-computed-tomography-standards-for-modern-australian-subadults
#17
Nicolene Lottering, Clair L Alston-Knox, Donna M MacGregor, Maree T Izatt, Caroline A Grant, Clayton J Adam, Laura S Gregory
This study contrasts the ontogeny of the iliac crest apophysis using conventional radiography and multislice computed tomography (MSCT), providing probabilistic information for age estimation of modern Australian subadults. Retrospective abdominopelvic MSCT data acquired from 524 Australian individuals aged 7-25 and surveillance radiographs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients included in the Paediatric Spine Research Group Progression Study (n = 531) were assessed. Ossification scoring of pseudo-radiographs and three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered reconstructions using Risser (1958) quantitative descriptors indicate discrepancies in age estimates, stage allocation, and conflicting morphological progression...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881211/analytical-multimode-scanning-and-transmission-electron-imaging-and-tomography-of-multiscale-structural-architectures-of-sulfur-copolymer-based-composite-cathodes-for-next-generation-high-energy-density-li-s-batteries
#18
Vladimir P Oleshko, Andrew A Herzing, Christopher L Soles, Jared J Griebel, Woo J Chung, Adam G Simmonds, Jeffrey Pyun
Poly[sulfur-random-(1,3-diisopropenylbenzene)] copolymers synthesized via inverse vulcanization represent an emerging class of electrochemically active polymers recently used in cathodes for Li-S batteries, capable of realizing enhanced capacity retention (1,005 mAh/g at 100 cycles) and lifetimes of over 500 cycles. The composite cathodes are organized in complex hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) architectures, which contain several components and are challenging to understand and characterize using any single technique...
November 24, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878942/morphological-evolution-of-the-mammalian-jaw-adductor-complex
#19
Stephan Lautenschlager, Pamela Gill, Zhe-Xi Luo, Michael J Fagan, Emily J Rayfield
The evolution of the mammalian jaw during the transition from non-mammalian synapsids to crown mammals is a key event in vertebrate history and characterised by the gradual reduction of its individual bones into a single element and the concomitant transformation of the jaw joint and its incorporation into the middle ear complex. This osteological transformation is accompanied by a rearrangement and modification of the jaw adductor musculature, which is thought to have allowed the evolution of a more-efficient masticatory system in comparison to the plesiomorphic synapsid condition...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878850/analysis-of-morphological-changes-after-facial-massage-by-a-novel-approach-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography
#20
H Nishimura, I Okuda, N Kunizawa, T Inoue, Y Nakajima, S Amano
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Photograph-based visual scoring has been used for evaluation of facial morphological changes. Here, we describe a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) method for objective analysis of facial and intra-facial (subcutaneous) changes. The effects of facial massage were examined using both methods. METHODS: Subjects were 12 healthy female volunteers without facial scars or deformation (age 30-54 years, mean 39.4 years). Photograph-based scoring of massage-induced morphological changes was done at the nasolabial folds, upper, lower and lateral cheeks and lower eyelids...
November 22, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
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