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schizophrenia cognition

Ping Zhang, Yanli Li, Fengmei Fan, Chiang-Shan R Li, Xingguang Luo, Fude Yang, Yin Yao, Yunlong Tan
We explored resting-state brain activity and its potential links to clinical parameters in schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) using fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations(fALFF). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 32 schizophrenic patients with TD (TD group), 31 without TD (NTD group), and 32 healthy controls (HC group). Clinical parameters including psychopathological symptoms, severity of TD, and cognitive function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Neuroscience
Soichiro Nakahara, Sarah Medland, Jessica A Turner, Vince D Calhoun, Kelvin O Lim, Bryon A Mueller, Juan R Bustillo, Daniel S O'Leary, Jatin G Vaidya, Sarah McEwen, James Voyvodic, Aysenil Belger, Daniel H Mathalon, Judith M Ford, Guia Guffanti, Fabio Macciardi, Steven G Potkin, Theo G M van Erp
This study assessed genetic contributions to six cognitive domains, identified by the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery as relevant for schizophrenia, cognition-enhancing, clinical trials. Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores showed significant negative correlations with each cognitive domain. Genome-wide association analyses identified loci associated with attention/vigilance (rs830786 within HNF4G), verbal memory (rs67017972 near NDUFS4), and reasoning/problem solving (rs76872642 within HDAC9)...
June 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Maite Barrios, Juana Gómez-Benito, Oscar Pino, Emilio Rojo, Georgina Guilera
Using the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a frame of reference, this study identifies the most common problems of functioning and the environmental factors that are experienced by patients with schizophrenia. An empirical cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted. Data were collected using a case record form, rated by health professionals, that contained 133 ICF categories and which also gathered clinical and sociodemographic information. A total of 127 patients with schizophrenia participated...
June 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anja Vaskinn, Stein Andersson, Tiril Østefjells, Ole A Andreassen, Kjetil Sundet
BACKGROUND: Theory of mind (ToM) can be divided into cognitive and affective ToM, and a distinction can be made between overmentalizing and undermentalizing errors. Research has shown that ToM in schizophrenia is associated with non-social and social cognition, and with clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate cognitive and clinical predictors of different ToM processes. METHODS: Ninety-one individuals with schizophrenia participated. ToM was measured with the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) yielding six scores (total ToM, cognitive ToM, affective ToM, overmentalizing errors, undermentalizing errors and no mentalizing errors)...
June 5, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Daniel Alcalá-López, Kai Vogeley, Ferdinand Binkofski, Danilo Bzdok
During the past decade, novel approaches to study social interaction have expanded and questioned long-standing knowledge about how humans understand each other. We aim to portray and reconcile the key psychological processes and neural mechanisms underlying navigation of the social environment. Theoretical accounts mostly revolved around either abstract inferences or embodied simulations, whereas experimental studies mostly focused on theory of mind or mentalizing, empathy, and action imitation. The tension between theories of and experiments on social cognition is systematically revisited to foster new theoretical and empirical studies in the fields...
May 14, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Mihai Avram, Felix Brandl, Josef Bäuml, Christian Sorg
Schizophrenia is characterized by hypoconnectivity or decreased intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between prefrontal-limbic cortices and thalamic nuclei, as well as hyperconnectivity or increased iFC between primary-sensorimotor cortices and thalamic nuclei. However, cortico-thalamic iFC overlaps with larger, structurally defined cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC) circuits. If such an overlap is relevant for intrinsic hypo-/hyperconnectivity, it suggests (i) that patterns of cortico-subcortical hypo-/hyperconnectivity extend consistently from thalamus to basal ganglia nuclei; and (ii) such consistent hypo-/hyperconnectivity might link distinctively but consonant with different symptom dimensions, namely cognitive and psychotic impairments...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
P Rocca, S Galderisi, A Rossi, A Bertolino, P Rucci, D Gibertoni, C Montemagni, S Bellino, E Aguglia, M Amore, A Bellomo, M Biondi, B Carpiniello, A Cuomo, E D'Ambrosio, L dell'Osso, P Girardi, C Marchesi, P Monteleone, C Montemitro, L Oldani, F Pacitti, R Roncone, A Siracusano, E Tenconi, A Vita, P Zeppegno, L Steardo, A Vignapiano, M Maj
BACKGROUND: A general consensus has not yet been reached regarding the role of disorganization symptoms in real-world functioning in schizophrenia. METHODS: We used structural equations modeling (SEM) to analyze the direct and indirect associations between disorganization and real-world functioning assessed through the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale (SLOF) in 880 subjects with schizophrenia. RESULTS: We found that: 1) conceptual disorganization was directly and strongly connected with SLOF daily activities; difficulty in abstract thinking was associated with moderate strength to all SLOF domains, and poor attention was connected with SLOF work skills; 2) grandiosity was only related with poor work skills, and delusions were associated with poor functioning in all SLOF domains; interpersonal relationships were weakly indirectly influenced by hallucinatory behavior, delusions and unusual thought contents through the mediation of social cognition (SC); 3) among the negative symptoms, avolition had only direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF activities; anhedonia had direct links with SLOF work skills and SLOF interpersonal and indirect link with SLOF work skills through functional capacity (FC); asociality with SLOF interpersonal; blunted affect had direct links with SLOF activities and indirect links with SLOF interpersonal relationships mediated by SC...
June 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Herbert Y Meltzer, Min Young Sim, Adam Anderson, Christopher Cannistraci, Karu Jayathilake, Daniel Barrett Share, Myung Lee
INTRODUCTION: Psychotic spectrum disorder (PSD) links the syndromes of bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, and schizophrenia, often viewed as unique disorders. AIMS: Application of the PSD concept to a single patient rather than across groups of patients and demonstration of a remarkable remission of schizophrenia phenotype with recovery of gray matter in specific brain regions. RESULTS: We report a woman who experienced discrete, nonoverlapping periods of each of the above syndromes, in the order noted, over a 30-year period, followed by abrupt ending of psychosis and full remission lasting at least 7 years...
July 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Felipe D Pacheco, Mauricio L DA Silva, Graziela Batista, Witória Santos, Adalberto A DE Castro, Lara Canever, Alexandra I Zugno
Clozapine is an antipsychotic that produces serious withdrawal effects in schizophrenic patients. Olfactory deficits are well known as part of negative symptoms, but it is not known whether antipsychotic use and/or withdrawal are implicated. Then, we tested clozapine withdrawal in association with two widely used schizophrenia models: Neonatal immune challenge by Polycitidilic-polyinosinic acid (polyI:C) and ketamine. PolyI:C (or saline) was injected subcutaneously in neonatal period, dose of 5 mg/kg from 2 to 6 Post Natal Days, and ketamine or saline at the dose 25mg/kg intraperitoneally (i...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Sudeep Karki, Prodeep Paudel, Celeste Sele, Alexander V Shkumatov, Tommi Kajander
Synaptic adhesion molecules play a crucial role in the regulation of synapse development and maintenance. Recently, several families of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain-containing neuronal adhesion molecules have been characterised, including netrin-G ligands, LRRTMs and the synaptic adhesion-like molecule (SALM) family proteins. Most of these are expressed at the excitatory glutamatergic synapses, and dysfunctions of these genes are genetically linked with cognitive disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia...
June 12, 2018: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Young-Cho Kim, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Considerable evidence has shown that prefrontal neurons expressing D1-type dopamine receptors (D1DRs) are critical for working memory, flexibility, and timing. This line of work predicts that frontal neurons expressing D1DRs mediate cognitive processing. During timing tasks, one form this cognitive processing might take is time-dependent ramping activity-monotonic changes in firing rate over time. Thus, we hypothesized the prefrontal D1DR+ neurons would strongly exhibit time-dependent ramping during interval timing...
June 12, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Radka Graf, Jami L Longo, Zoë A Hughes
Deficits in hippocampal-mediated pattern separation are one aspect of cognitive function affected in schizophrenia (SZ) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). To develop novel therapies, it is beneficial to explore this specific aspect of cognition preclinically. The location discrimination reversal (LDR) task is a hippocampal-dependent operant paradigm that evaluates spatial learning and cognitive flexibility using touchscreens. Here we assessed baseline performance as well as multimodal disease-relevant manipulations in mice...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Kiyokazu Atake, Tomoyuki Nakamura, Nobuhisa Ueda, Hikaru Hori, Asuka Katsuki, Reiji Yoshimura
Background: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia can result in considerable difficulty in performing functions of daily life or social rehabilitation. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is related to various factors, such as the psychotic severity, aging, medication, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). To date, however, no studies investigating the impact of these factors on cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia patients have been performed. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify those factors that influence the cognitive functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Harumasa Takano
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to assess various brain functions, including cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, and neurotransmission, in the living human brain. In particular, neurotransmission mediated by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, has been extensively examined using PET probes, which specifically bind to the monoamine receptors and transporters. This useful tool has revealed the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, and the mechanisms of action of psychotropic drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jiangling Jiang, Qingwei Li, Jianhua Sheng, Fuzhong Yang, Xinyi Cao, Tianhong Zhang, Yuping Jia, Jijun Wang, Chunbo Li
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a potential alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), but there is currently a lack of reports about MST in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Our objective was to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of add-on MST in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Eight patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in a case series study to receive 10 sessions of add-on MST over 4 weeks. The MST was administrated using 25 Hz at 100% output with a titration duration ranging from 4 to 20 s by 4 s...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Agnieszka Nikiforuk
Impaired cognitive functioning is recognized as an integral feature of schizophrenia. These deficits have emerged not only as an important predictor of clinical and social outcomes but also as a target for schizophrenia therapeutics. Several cognitive functions have been identified as being commonly deficient in schizophrenia patients, including attention, working memory, reasoning and problem solving, visual learning and memory or social cognition. The selected neuropsychological tests measuring these specific domains were included in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and in the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Lei Wu, Arvind Caprihan, Juan Bustillo, Andrew Mayer, Vince Calhoun
Independent component analysis (ICA) and seed-based analyses are widely used techniques for studying intrinsic neuronal activity in task-based or resting scans. In this work, we show there is a direct link between the two, and show that there are some important differences between the two approaches in terms of what information they capture. We developed an enhanced connectivity-matrix independent component analysis (cmICA) for calculating whole brain voxel maps of functional connectivity, which reduces the computational complexity of voxel-based connectivity analysis on performing many temporal correlations...
June 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Akiko Sumitomo, Hiroshi Yukitake, Kazuko Hirai, Kouta Horike, Keisho Ueta, Youjin Chung, Eiji Warabi, Toru Yanagawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Shuh Narumiya, Tomoo Hirano, Minae Niwa, Etienne Sibille, Takatoshi Hikida, Takeshi Sakurai, Koko Ishizuka, Akira Sawa, Toshifumi Tomoda
Autophagy plays an essential role in intracellular degradation and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in all cells, including neurons. Although a recent study reported a copy number variation of Ulk2, a gene essential for initiating autophagy, associated with a case of schizophrenia (SZ), it remains to be studied whether Ulk2 dysfunction could underlie the pathophysiology of the disease. Here we show that Ulk2 heterozygous (Ulk2+/-) mice have upregulated expression of sequestosome-1/p62, an autophagy-associated stress response protein, predominantly in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and exhibit behavioral deficits associated with the PFC functions, including attenuated sensorimotor gating and impaired cognition...
June 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Natalia Chechko, Edna C Cieslik, Veronika I Müller, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat, Birgit Derntl, Lydia Kogler, André Aleman, Renaud Jardri, Iris E Sommer, Oliver Gruber, Simon B Eickhoff
In schizophrenia (SCZ), dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior) based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC) profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Tina Gupta, Nicholas J Kelley, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating condition that affects approximately 1% of the population. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia typically exhibit positive (e.g., hallucinations) and negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) and impairments in cognitive function. Given the limitations of antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy in fully treating psychosis symptomatology, there has been increasing interest in other interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, that is safe, cost-effective, and widely accessible...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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