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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241300/prevalence-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-rectal-flora-in-patients-undergoing-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-needle-biopsy-a-prospective-multicenter-study
#1
Ho Seok Chung, Eu Chang Hwang, Ho Song Yu, Seung Il Jung, Sun Ju Lee, Dong Hoon Lim, Won Jin Cho, Hyun Sop Choe, Seung-Ju Lee, Sung Woon Park
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant rectal flora in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy and to identify the high-risk groups. METHODS: From January 2015 to March 2016, rectal swabs of 557 men who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate needle biopsy were obtained from five institutions. Clinical variables, including demographics, rectal swab culture results and infectious complications, were evaluated...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241213/antibiotics-induced-obesity-a-mitochondrial-perspective
#2
Melisa J Andrade, Chinchu Jayaprakash, Smitha Bhat, Nikolaos Evangelatos, Angela Brand, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy
Antibiotics are the first line of treatment against infections and have contributed immensely to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, extensive use of antibiotics has led to alterations of the gut microbiome, predisposition to various diseases and most importantly, increase in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which poses a major threat to global public health. Another major issue faced worldwide due to unregulated use of antibiotics in children as well as in adults is the influence of metabolism and body weight homeostasis, leading to obesity...
December 15, 2017: Public Health Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241184/peritonitis-in-children-on-chronic-peritoneal-dialysis-the-experience-of-a-large-national-pediatric-cohort
#3
Daniela Ponce, Thyago Proença de Moraes, Roberto Pecoits-Filho, Ana Elizabeth Figueiredo, Pasqual Barretti
BACKGROUND: We performed this study to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, microbiology, treatment, and outcome of peritonitis in pediatric Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients at a nationwide prospective study. METHODOLOGY: Patients younger than 18 years recruited in the BRAZPD II study from 2004 to 2011, who presented their first peritonitis episode, were included in the study. RESULTS: We found 125 first episodes of peritonitis in 491 children PD patients (0...
December 14, 2017: Blood Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241163/diagnosis-and-management-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-an-international-survey-of-neonatologists-and-pediatric-surgeons
#4
Mélanie Valpacos, Delphine Arni, Amy Keir, Ann Aspirot, James C H Wilde, Spencer Beasley, Daniele De Luca, Riccardo E Pfister, Oliver Karam
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious complication of prematurity. Currently, there is limited evidence to guide investigation and treatment strategies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the parameters used to diagnose or exclude NEC, and to identify differences between neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. METHODS: A scenario-based survey was sent to neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. RESULTS: 173 physicians from 26 countries completed the survey (55% neonatologists and 45% pediatric surgeons)...
December 15, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241121/nanotitania-crystals-induced-efficient-photocatalytic-color-degradation-antimicrobial-and-larvicidal-activity
#5
Jinu Udayabhanu, Vaitheeswari Kannan, Manish Tiwari, Geetha Natesan, Benelli Giovanni, Venkatachalam Perumal
Textile industries release tonnes of harmful toxic dyes into the environment, causing severe effects on living organisms, including humans. Mosquitoes vectors spread important diseases which cause millions of human deaths worldwide. To control mosquitoes a number of synthetic mosquitocidal agents have been employed but all these pesticides pose harmful effects to human health and non-target species and also led to resistance development in treated vectors. Microbial strains are also developing resistance to the available antibiotics, this currently represents a major public health challenge...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241102/utility-of-hepatobiliary-scintigraphy-for-recurrent-reflux-cholangitis-following-choledochojejunostomy-a-case-report
#6
Masateru Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tahara, Michinori Hamaoka, Seiichi Shimizu, Shintaro Kuroda, Masahiro Ohira, Kentaro Ide, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Hideki Ohdan
INTRODUCTION: Reflux cholangitis is a frequent complication of Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 68-year-old male underwent left lobectomy of the liver, bile duct resection and choledochojejunostomy for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma located in Segment 2 of the liver, 40mm in diameter with a lymph node metastasis 5 years ago. He had frequent recurrences of postoperative reflux cholangitis and hepatic abscesses and was treated with antibiotics each time...
December 9, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240873/preliminary-results-of-the-use-of-a-stabilized-hypochlorous-acid-solution-in-the-management-of-ralstonia-pickettii-biofilm-on-silicone-breast-implants
#7
C Tod Brindle, Steve Porter, Kiran Bijlani, Sridhar Arumugam, Rowena Matias, Ron Najafi, Jack Fisher
Background: Ralstonia Pickettii biofilms are associated with pocket infections following breast implant surgeries. Biofilm protects bacteria most topically applied antimicrobial irrigations. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of four antimicrobial solutions on the planktonic form and established biofilm of Ralstonia Pickettii grown on 3 different types of silicone breast implants. Methods: Time kill assays at clinical concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone iodine, triple-antibiotic solution, and a 0...
December 12, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240826/pamr-a-new-marr-like-regulator-affecting-prophages-and-metabolic-genes-expression-in-bacillus-subtilis
#8
Alba De San Eustaquio-Campillo, Charlène Cornilleau, Cyprien Guérin, Rut Carballido-López, Arnaud Chastanet
B. subtilis adapts to changing environments by reprogramming its genetic expression through a variety of transcriptional regulators from the global transition state regulators that allow a complete resetting of the cell genetic expression, to stress specific regulators controlling only a limited number of key genes required for optimal adaptation. Among them, MarR-type transcriptional regulators are known to respond to a variety of stresses including antibiotics or oxidative stress, and to control catabolic or virulence gene expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240815/evolution-guided-adaptation-of-an-adenylation-domain-substrate-specificity-to-an-unusual-amino-acid
#9
Simon Vobruba, Stanislav Kadlcik, Radek Gazak, Jiri Janata
Adenylation domains CcbC and LmbC control the specific incorporation of amino acid precursors in the biosynthesis of lincosamide antibiotics celesticetin and lincomycin. Both proteins originate from a common L-proline-specific ancestor, but LmbC was evolutionary adapted to use an unusual substrate, (2S,4R)-4-propyl-proline (PPL). Using site-directed mutagenesis of the LmbC substrate binding pocket and an ATP-[32P]PPi exchange assay, three residues, G308, A207 and L246, were identified as crucial for the PPL activation, presumably forming together a channel of a proper size, shape and hydrophobicity to accommodate the propyl side chain of PPL...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#10
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240687/decreasing-inappropriate-use-of-antibiotics-in-primary-care-in-four-countries-in-south-america-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Inés Urbiztondo, Lars Bjerrum, Lidia Caballero, Miguel Angel Suarez, Monica Olinisky, Gloria Córdoba
High antibiotic prescribing and antimicrobial resistance in patients attending primary care have been reported in South America. Very few interventions targeting general practitioners (GPs) to decrease inappropriate antibiotic prescribing have been investigated in this region. This study assessed the effectiveness of online feedback on reducing antibiotic prescribing in patients with suspected respiratory tract infections (RTIs) attending primary care. The aim was to reduce antibiotic prescribing in patients with acute bronchitis and acute otitis media...
December 14, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240671/microwave-enhanced-photolysis-of-norfloxacin-kinetics-matrix-effects-and-degradation-pathways
#12
Wenchao Liao, Virender K Sharma, Su Xu, Qingsong Li, Lei Wang
Degradation of norfloxacin (NOR) was studied using a combination of microwave and UV irradiation methods (MW/UV process). Remarkable synergistic effect was found between MW and UV light. The removal rate with the MW/UV process was much faster than that with UV light irradiation only. Degradation of NOR followed second-order kinetics and ~72% of NOR could be removed in the first 5 min of MW/UV reaction. Influence of inorganic ions (cations (K⁺, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) and anions (Cl-, SO₄2-, NO₃-, CO₃2-)), humic acid (HA) and surfactants (cation, anion, and non-ionic) on the degradation of NOR by the MW/UV process was investigated...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240639/absorbable-antibiotic-beads-prophylaxis-in-immediate-breast-reconstruction
#13
Denise M Kenna, Busayo Irojah, Kimber Lee Mudge, Kendra Eveler
BACKGROUND: Breast reconstruction with tissue expander is the most common mode of reconstruction following mastectomy. Infection necessitating tissue expander removal is a significant complication leading to patient distress as well as increased health care costs. METHODS: Over 3 years, 127 breast reconstructions with tissue expanders were performed by a single surgeon. Fifty-nine of these reconstructions were performed using a standardized protocol in which patients washed with chlorhexidine several days prior to surgery and received intravenous antibiotics preoperatively...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240638/antibiotic-prophylaxis-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-the-reality-of-its-efficacy
#14
Kavitha Ranganathan, Erika D Sears, Lin Zhong, Ting-Ting Chung, Kevin C Chung, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Adeyiza O Momoh, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: Numerous techniques are used to prevent infection after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is commonly prescribed to decrease the risk of reconstructive failure, despite conflicting evidence regarding its effectiveness. We sought to determine whether PAP decreases the risk of infection-related explantation in the setting of immediate prosthesis-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: Using Truven MarketScan databases, we identified all patients who underwent immediate implant reconstruction between 1/2010-6/2014 with at least 6 months of follow-up...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240296/bacteriophage-effectively-kills-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-clinical-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#15
Guimin Zhang, Yin Zhao, Sathish Paramasivan, Katharina Richter, Sandra Morales, Peter-John Wormald, Sarah Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Bacteriophage (phage) therapy has been proposed as an alternative to antibiotics. Phages have been shown to kill antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains; however, it is unknown whether stress-induced antibiotic tolerance affects S. aureus susceptibility to phages. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of 2 phages currently in clinical development, against antibiotic-resistant and induced antibiotic-tolerant clinical S. aureus isolates. METHODS: Antibiotic tolerant S...
December 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239831/factors-associated-with-in-hospital-mortality-among-critically-ill-surgical-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#16
Andrew S Jarrell, Rachel M Kruer, Loredana Diana Berescu, Peter J Pronovost, Julie B Trivedi
PURPOSE: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infection increases risk of mortality, other complications, and costs. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality among critically ill surgical patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case-control study included critically ill surgical patients from 2011 to 2014 who had a carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), MDR P. aeruginosa, or MDR Acinetobacter spp...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239797/autologous-breast-reconstruction-using-the-immediately-lipofilled-extended-latissimus-dorsi-flap
#17
N Johns, N Fairbairn, M Trail, A Ewing, L Yong, C Raine, J M Dixon
BACKGROUND: The latissimus dorsi flap is a popular choice for autologous breast reconstruction. To dramatically improve volume, we report our experience of using the immediately lipofilled extended latissimus dorsi (ELD) flap and show it as a valid option for autologous breast reconstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing the procedure between December 2013 and June 2016 were included. Demographic, clinical and operative factors were analysed, together with in-hospital morbidity and duration of postoperative hospital stay...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239678/the-effect-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-for-acute-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-after-hysterosalpingography-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Hao-Ming Li, Fung-Chang Sung, Shang-Chieh Li, Ying-Kai Huang, Yu Chang, Chi-Chang Chang, S Joseph Huang, Cheng-Li Lin, Chia-Hung Kao
AIMS: The concern about acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) after hysterosalpingography (HSG) has been raised since 1980. However, the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis in women undergoing HSG. METHODS: Women undergoing HSG between 2000 and 2012 were screened from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for eligibility. The prophylactic cohort included patients using any antibiotics of 1st-generation cephalosporins, doxycycline, clindamycin, and metronidazole, within seven days before HSG (N = 3257)...
December 14, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239493/mortality-in-patients-with-community-onset-pneumonia-at-low-risk-of-drug-resistant-pathogens-impact-of-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-combination-therapy
#19
Junya Okumura, Yuichiro Shindo, Kunihiko Takahashi, Masahiro Sano, Yasuteru Sugino, Tetsuya Yagi, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Hideo Saka, Shigeyuki Matsui, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-resistant pathogen (DRP) risk stratification is important for choosing a treatment strategy for community-onset pneumonia. Evidence for benefits of non-antipseudomonal β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy (BLM) on mortality is limited in patients at low DRP risk. Risk factors for mortality remain to be clarified. METHODS: Post hoc analysis using a prospective multicentre study cohort of community-onset pneumonia was performed to assess 30-day differences in mortality between non-antipseudomonal β-lactam monotherapy (BL) and BLM groups...
December 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239266/epidemiology-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis-in-patients-with-liver-failure-clinical-presentation-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#20
Xuan Zhang, Meifang Yang, Jianhua Hu, Hong Zhao, Lanjuan Li
Objective Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a severe and often lethal infection. The possible risk factors, clinical presentation, and treatment of patients with simultaneous liver failure and IPA have received little attention in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of IPA in patients with liver failure in an effort to reduce patient mortality. Methods The patients with liver failure (including acute liver failure , sub-acute liver failure , acute-on-chronic liver failure and chronic liver failure) were recruited from 2011 to 2016...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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