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antibiotic use

Michael Moore, Nanci Dobson, Wes Cetnarowski
INTRODUCTION: The application of 0.1% polyhexanide-betaine gel and irrigating solution was used in place of saline during standard of care wound treatment for 70 chronic wounds of various etiologies. Our goal in this study sample was to investigate the number of days to wound closure, change in absolute wound size, and antimicrobial initiation from baseline visit, following application of polyhexanide-betaine in standard of care wound treatment. Results suggested a benefit of Prontosan® (Polyhexanide-betaine, B...
October 26, 2016: Surgical Technology International
Mustafa Ceylan, Umit M Kocyigit, Necibe Canan Usta, Belma Gürbüzlü, Yusuf Temel, Saleh H Alwasel, İlhami Gülçin
Benzothiazepine compounds have a wide range of applications such as antibacterial, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antihypertensives, antibiotics, antifungal, hypnotic, enzyme inhibitors, antitumor, anticancer and anti-HIV agents. In this study, the synthesis of novel tetralone-based benzothiazepine derivatives (1-16) and their in vitro antibacterial activity and human carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes I and II (hCA I and II) inhibitory effects were investigated. Both isoenzymes were purified by sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-sulfanilamide affinity chromatography from fresh human red blood cells...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Alessandra Gasior, Giulia Brisighelli, Karen Diefenbach, Victoria Alison Lane, Carlos Reck, Richard J Wood, Marc Levitt
Introduction Functional constipation is a common problem in children. It usually can be managed with laxatives but a small subset of patients develop intolerable cramps and need to be temporarily treated with enemas. The senior author has previously reported: 1) open sigmoid resection as a surgical option, but this did not sufficiently reduce the laxative need, then 2) a transanal approach (with resection of rectosigmoid), but this led to a high rate of soiling due to extensive stretching of the anal canal and loss of the rectal reservoir...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Anne Argenta, Latha Satish, Phillip Gallo, Fang Liu, Sandeep Kathju
OBJECTIVE: To determine if local prophylactic application of probiotic bacteria to burn wounds will prevent death in a mouse model of burn wound sepsis. BACKGROUND: Infection remains the most common complication after burn injury and can result in sepsis and death, despite the use of topical and systemic antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a frequently implicated pathogen. Local application of probiotics directly to burn wounds is an attractive novel intervention that avoids the pitfalls of standard antibiotic therapies...
2016: PloS One
Meijun Song, Hongcheng Wu, Shibo Wu, Ting Ge, Guoan Wang, Yingyan Zhou, Shimo Sheng, Jingbo Jiang
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and its clinical management remains challenge. Here, we repurposed antibiotic levofloxacin for lung cancer treatment. We show that levofloxacin is effectively against a panel of lung cancer cell lines via inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis, regardless of cellular origin and genetic pattern, in in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft lung tumor model. Mechanistically, levofloxacin inhibits activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I and III, leading to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduction of ATP production...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
L Hepburn, D J Hijnen, B R Sellman, T Mustelin, M A Sleeman, R D May, I Strickland
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex, chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting more than 10% of UK children and is a major cause of occupation-related disability. A subset of patients, particularly those with severe AD, are persistently colonised with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and exacerbation of disease is commonly associated with this bacterium by virtue of increased inflammation and allergic sensitisation, aggravated by skin barrier defects. Understanding the complex biology of S. aureus is an important factor when developing new drugs to combat infection...
October 25, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Ratilal Lalloo, Geetesh Solanki, Khabiso Ramphoma, Neil G Myburgh
AIM: In the present study, we assessed the patterns and types of antibiotics prescribed following tooth extractions, and the alignment of these practices with the evidence available. METHODS: The study used health insurance claim data from South African dental practitioners for 2013, analyzing the antibiotic prescribing patterns around tooth extractions, separately for four event types: exposed (simple) tooth extractions in: (a) healthy patients and (b) patients with chronic conditions; and impacted tooth extractions in (c) healthy patients and (d) patients with a chronic condition...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Hyung Suk Chung, Jeong-Heui Choi, A M Abd El-Aty, Young-Jun Lee, Han Sol Lee, Sangdon Kim, Hee-Jung Jung, Tae-Woo Kang, Ho-Chul Shin, Jae-Han Shim
A simultaneous determination method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed to detect and quantify the presence of seven multiclass veterinary antibiotics (13 compounds in total) in surface water samples, which included the effluents of livestock wastewater and sewage treatment plants, as well as the reservoir drainage areas from dense animal farms. The pH of all water samples was adjusted to 2 or 6 before solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Christopher Selleck, James A Larrabee, Jeffrey Harmer, Luke W Guddat, Nataša Mitić, Waleed Helweh, David L Ollis, Whitney R Craig, David L Tierney, Marcelo Monteiro Pedroso, Gerhard Schenk
Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a major threat to global health care. This is largely due to the fact that many pathogens have developed strategies to acquire resistance to antibiotics. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) have evolved to inactivate most of the commonly used β-lactam antibiotics. AIM-1 is one of only a few MBLs from the B3 subgroup that is encoded on a mobile genetic element in a major human pathogen. Here, its mechanism of action was characterised with a combination of spectroscopic and kinetic techniques and compared to that of other MBLs...
October 25, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Fang Hua, Huixu Xie, Helen V Worthington, Susan Furness, Qi Zhang, Chunjie Li
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs)...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Madhu Sudhan Ravindran, Markus R Wenk
This chapter provides a step-by-step protocol using activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) as a chemical-proteomic tool to survey the antibiotic properties of a small molecule. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism behind the bactericidal activity of tetrahydrolipstatin (THL). ABPP relies on small molecule probes that target the active site of specific enzymes in complex proteomes. These probes in turn are equipped with a reporter tag that allows capturing, visualization, enrichment, identification, and quantification of its targets either in vitro or in situ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joanna Krysiak, Stephan A Sieber
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and virulence is of great importance from both an academic and clinical perspective, especially in view of an alarming increase in bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics and antibacterial agents. Use of small molecules to dissect the basis of these dynamic processes is a very attractive approach due to their ability for rapid spatiotemporal control of specific biochemical functions. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), employing small molecule probes to interrogate enzyme activities in complex proteomes, has emerged as a powerful tool to study bacterial pathogenesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Lan Thi Phi, Ngoc Kim Phan
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in angiogenesis. However, they exist in limited numbers in the human body. This study was aimed to produce EPCs, for autologous transplantation, using direct reprogramming of skin fibroblasts under GMP-compliant conditions. Fibroblasts were collected and cultured from the skin in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 5% activated platelet-rich plasma and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution. They were then transfected with mRNA ETV2 and incubated in culture medium under hypoxia (5% oxygen) for 14 d...
October 24, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Cornelia Otto, Bertrand Hirl, Stefan Schweitzer, Sabine Gleich
BACKGROUND: On 4 August 2011 a modification of the infection protection act became law, meaning that antibiotic consumption surveillance and evaluation of data on the local resistance situation became obligatory for hospitals. Four years after the modification of the infection protection act became law, the Munich public health department aimed to evaluate the state of implementation of antibiotic consumption surveillance in Munich hospitals and to ascertain which antibiotic stewardship (ABS) structures have already been established...
October 24, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Michalis Koullouros, Nadir Khan, Emad H Aly
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) continues to be a challenge in colorectal surgery. Over the years, various modalities have been used in an attempt to reduce SSI risk in elective colorectal surgery, which include mechanical bowel preparation before surgery, oral antibiotics and intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis at induction of surgery. Even though IV antibiotics have become standard practice, there has been a debate on the exact role of oral antibiotics. AIM: The primary aim was to identify the role of oral antibiotics in reduction of SSI in elective colorectal surgery...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
F Sörgel, R Höhl, R Glaser, C Stelzer, M Munz, M Vormittag, M Kinzig, J Bulitta, C Landersdorfer, A Junger, M Christ, M Wilhelm, U Holzgrabe
Optimized dosage regimens of antibiotics have remained obscure since their introduction. During the last two decades pharmacokinetic(PK)-pharmacodynamic(PD) relationships, originally established in animal experiments, have been increasingly used in patients. The action of betalactams is believed to be governed by the time the plasma concentration is above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Aminoglycosides act as planned when the peak concentration is a multiple of the MIC and vancomycin seems to work best when the area under the plasma vs...
October 24, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Arun Kamal, Raja Bhaskara Kanakeshwar, Ashok Shyam, Dheenadayalan Jayaramaraju, Devendra Agraharam, Ramesh Perumal, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: Open fractures are challenging injuries and there is a lot of variation in practice preferences which may reflect the wide variations in outcome in different units across the world. A survey was done amongst the international community of SICOT membership to document the practice preferences and variations. METHODS: An online questionnaire containing 23 questions which were sub-divided into three sections covering the various aspects of open injury management was sent by email to orthopaedic trauma surgeons across the world...
October 24, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Christina Gaarslev, Melissa Yee, Georgi Chan, Stephanie Fletcher-Lartey, Rabia Khan
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a public health challenge supplemented by inappropriate prescribing, especially for an upper respiratory tract infection in primary care. Patient/carer expectations have been identified as one of the main drivers for inappropriate antibiotics prescribing by primary care physicians. The aim of this study was to understand who is more likely to expect an antibiotic for an upper respiratory tract infection from their doctor and the reasons underlying it...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Daniel J Livorsi, Michihiko Goto, Margaret Carrel, Makoto M Jones, Jennifer McDanel, Rajeshwari Nair, Bruce Alexander, Brice Beck, Kelly K Richardson, Eli N Perencevich
OBJECTIVES: We sought to define regional variations in fluoroquinolone non-susceptibility (FQ-NS) among bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli across the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients managed at 136 VHA hospitals who had a blood culture positive for E.coli between 2003 and 2013. Hospitals were classified based on US Census Divisions, and regional variations in FQ-NS were analyzed...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Francesca Tocchioni, Chiara Tani, Laura Bartolini, Maria Moriondo, Francesco Nieddu, Patrizia Pecile, Chiara Azzari, Antonio Messineo, Marco Ghionzoli
Bacterial growth of peritoneal fluid specimens obtained during surgical procedures for acute appendicitis may be useful to optimize further antibiotic therapy in complicated cases. DNA amplification represents a fast technique to detect microbial sequences. We aimed to compare the potential of DNA amplification versus traditional bacterial growth culture highlighting advantages and drawbacks in a surgical setting. Peritoneal fluid specimens were collected during surgery from 36 children who underwent appendectomy between May and December 2012...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Reports
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