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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445858/the-impact-of-minor-blood-transfusion-on-the-outcome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#1
Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Marco Zanobini, Francesco Onorati, Debora Brascia, Giovanni Mariscalco, Ilaria Franzese, Vito G Ruggieri, Karl Bounader, Andrea Perrotti, Francesco Musumeci, Giuseppe Santarpino, Daniele Maselli, Saverio Nardella, Helmut Gulbins, Riccardo Gherli, Antonino S Rubino, Carmelo Mignosa, Marisa De Feo, Giuseppe Gatti, Francesco Santini, Antonio Salsano, Magnus Dalén, Matteo Saccocci, Daniel Reichart, Giuseppe Faggian, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini, Fausto Biancari
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of minor perioperative bleeding requiring transfusion of 1-2 red blood cell (RBC) units on the outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Sixteen cardiac surgical centers contributed to the prospective European CABG registry (E-CABG). 1014 patients receiving 1-2 RBC units during or after isolated CABG were compared to 2264 patients not receiving RBCs. RESULTS: In 827 propensity score matched pairs, transfusion of 1-2 RBC units did not affect the risk of in-hospital/30-day death (p=0...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445786/metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-by-bioisosteric-replacement-preparation-activity-and-binding
#2
Susann Skagseth, Sundus Akhter, Marianne H Paulsen, Zeeshan Muhammad, Silje Lauksund, Ørjan Samuelsen, Hanna-Kirsti S Leiros, Annette Bayer
Bacterial resistance is compromising the use of β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems. The main resistance mechanism against β-lactams is hydrolysis of the β-lactam ring mediated by serine- or metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Although several inhibitors of MBLs have been reported, none has been developed into a clinically useful inhibitor. Mercaptocarboxylic acids are among the most prominent scaffolds reported as MBL inhibitors. In this study, the carboxylate group of mercaptocarboxylic acids was replaced with bioisosteric groups like phosphonate esters, phosphonic acids and NH-tetrazoles...
April 14, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445776/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-samples-from-patients-receiving-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#3
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445757/action-of-antimicrobial-peptides-on-bacterial-and-lipid-membranes-a-direct-comparison
#4
Joseph E Faust, Pei-Yin Yang, Huey W Huang
The bacterial membrane represents an attractive target for the design of new antibiotics to combat widespread bacterial resistance. Understanding how antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and other membrane-active agents attack membranes could facilitate the design of new, effective antimicrobials. Despite intense study of AMPs on model membranes, we do not know how well the mechanism of attack translates to real biological membranes. To that end, we have characterized the attack of AMPs on Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membranes and directly compared this action to model membranes...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445264/incremental-cost-of-nosocomial-bacteremia-according-to-the-focus-of-infection-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-of-the-causative-microorganism-in-a-university-hospital
#5
Marta Riu, Pietro Chiarello, Roser Terradas, Maria Sala, Enric Garcia-Alzorriz, Xavier Castells, Santiago Grau, Francesc Cots
To estimate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia according to the causative focus and classified by the antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganism.Patients admitted to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona from 2005 to 2012 were included. We analyzed the total hospital costs of patients with nosocomial bacteremia caused by microorganisms with a high prevalence and, often, with multidrug-resistance. A control group was defined by selecting patients without bacteremia in the same diagnosis-related group.Our hospital has a cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to estimate per-patient costs...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445208/toxic-keratoconjunctivitis
#6
Grace L Paley, Anthony J Lubniewski, James J Reidy, Asim V Farooq
Toxic keratoconjunctivitis (TK) is an underrecognized complication of ophthalmic drug use and various environmental or occupational exposures. A detailed history and clinical examination are important to identify the offending agent(s). Common drug-related causes of TK include preservatives in ophthalmic medications, topical antimicrobials, and topical anesthetics. Alternatives to benzalkonium chloride as well as preservative-free formulations should be considered in patients requiring long-term topical medication...
April 25, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445079/multiple-antimicrobial-resistance-and-novel-point-mutation-in-fluoroquinolone-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-mangalore-india
#7
Santhosh Kogaluru Shivakumaraswamy, Deekshit Vijaya Kumar, Venugopal Moleyuru Nagarajappa, Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar
Fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria is usually associated with mutations in the topoisomerase regions. We report a novel point mutation in fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains. E. coli isolated from the environment in and around Mangalore, India, were examined for their antimicrobial resistance profile to 12 antibiotics and for the antibiotic resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 67 E. coli isolated, 24 (35.8%) were sensitive to all antibiotics and 43 (64.2%) showed resistance to at least one of the 12 antibiotics used in the study...
April 26, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445072/an-approach-to-the-core-of-lactonamycin
#8
Philip J Parsons, Daniel R Jones, Lee J Walsh, Lewis A T Allen, Ada Onwubiko, Lewis Preece, Johnathan Board, Andrew J P White
A cascade reaction has been developed for the synthesis of lactonamycin. In this paper, we demonstrate that a transition-metal-free thermal ene-diyne cyclization can be used for the construction of the entire core of the antibiotic lactonamycin and anticancer agent lactonamycin Z.
April 26, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444977/efficacy-of-postoperative-prophylactic-antibiotics-in-reducing-permanent-pacemaker-infections
#9
Wen-Huang Lee, Ting-Chun Huang, Li-Jen Lin, Po-Tseng Lee, Chih-Chan Lin, Cheng-Han Lee, Ting-Hsing Chao, Yi-Heng Li, Ju-Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite limited evidence, postoperative prophylactic antibiotics are often used in the setting of permanent pacemaker implantation or replacement. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of postoperative antibiotics. HYPOTHESIS: Postoperative prophylactic antibiotics may be not clinically useful. METHODS: We recruited 367 consecutive patients undergoing permanent pacemaker implantation or generator replacement at a tertiary referral center...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444620/environmental-pollution-with-antimicrobial-agents-from-bulk-drug-manufacturing-industries-in-hyderabad-south-india-is-associated-with-dissemination-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-pathogens
#10
Christoph Lübbert, Christian Baars, Anil Dayakar, Norman Lippmann, Arne C Rodloff, Martina Kinzig, Fritz Sörgel
PURPOSE: High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market. METHODS: From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages...
April 26, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444600/antibiotic-sensitivity-pattern-of-indigenous-lactobacilli-isolated-from-curd-and-human-milk-samples
#11
Chetan Sharma, Sachin Gulati, Nishchal Thakur, Brij Pal Singh, Sanjolly Gupta, Simranpreet Kaur, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar Puniya, Jatinder Pal Singh Gill, Harsh Panwar
The gut microbiota plays a vital role in host well-being and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained an overwhelming attention as health promoter. This perception has evolved from traditional dairy products to a money-spinning market of probiotics. The safety of probiotics is coupled to their intended use and LAB may act as pool of antimicrobial resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogens, either in food matrix or in gastrointestinal tract, which could be detrimental to host. This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB isolated from curd (20) and human milk (11) samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444587/solid-state-fermentation-ssf-diversity-of-applications-to-valorize-waste-and-biomass
#12
REVIEW
M A Lizardi-Jiménez, R Hernández-Martínez
Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444464/effectiveness-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-non-emergency-cholecystectomy-using-data-from-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Ravinder S Vohra, James Hodson, Sandro Pasquali, Ewen A Griffiths
BACKGROUND: There is a variation in the administration of antibiotics prophylaxis to reduce the perceived risk of SSI in patients undergoing non-emergency cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis following non-emergency cholecystectomy to prevent 30-day superficial surgical site infections (SSIs) using non-selected, nationally collected, prospective data. METHODS: Data were extracted from the CholeS study, which examined and independently validated the outcomes on consecutive patients following non-emergency cholecystectomy across 166 hospitals in the UK and Ireland...
April 25, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444354/easy-assessment-of-levofloxacin-and-minocycline-in-relevant-biomimetic-media-by-hplc-uv-analysis
#14
Ana C Matos, Rosana V Pinto, Ana F Bettencourt
Simple, economic and environmental friendly high-performance liquid chromatography methods for levofloxacin and minocycline quantification in biomimetic media were developed and validate including their stability at body temperature, an often neglected evaluation parameter. Both methods are similar only differing in the wavelength setting, i.e., for levofloxacin and minocycline quantification the UV detection was set at 284 and at 273 nm, respectively. The separation of both antibiotics was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (15:85) with 0...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444315/towards-the-early-detection-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-by-maldi-tof-ms-analysis
#15
Marina Oviaño, Marta Gómara, Maria José Barba, María José Revillo, Luis Pedro Barbeyto, Germán Bou
Objectives: Development of a novel MALDI-TOF MS-based method for the rapid detection of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: The method was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity and turnaround time regarding the antibiotic used (cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefpodoxime or cefepime) and the performance of the automated MBT STAR-BL software (Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Germany) relative to qualitative interpretation of spectra for detecting β-lactamase resistance by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Daltonik) in a collection of 11 isogenic Escherichia coli control strains expressing different β-lactamases...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444224/pharmacodynamics-of-colistin-and-fosfomycin-a-treasure-trove-combination-combats-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#16
Miao Zhao, Zackery P Bulman, Justin R Lenhard, Michael J Satlin, Barry N Kreiswirth, Thomas J Walsh, Amanda Marrocco, Phillip J Bergen, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Jing Zhang, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae are an emerging public health problem around the globe. We defined the combinatorial pharmacodynamics and ability to suppress resistance of two 'old' antibiotics, fosfomycin and colistin, in time-kill experiments and hollow-fibre infection models (HFIM). Methods: Two KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were used: one susceptible to both colistin and fosfomycin (KPC 9A: MIC colistin 0.25 mg/L and MIC fosfomycin ≤8 mg/L) and the other resistant to colistin and susceptible to fosfomycin (KPC 5A: MIC colistin 64 mg/L and MIC fosfomycin 32 mg/L)...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444190/biological-aging-and-the-human-gut-microbiota
#17
Vincent J Maffei, Sangkyu Kim, Eugene Blanchard, Meng Luo, S Michal Jazwinski, Christopher M Taylor, David A Welsh
The human gastrointestinal microbiota plays a key homeostatic role in normal functioning of physiologic processes commonly undermined by aging. We used a previously validated 34-item frailty index (FI34) to identify changes in gut microbiota community structure associated with biological age of community-dwelling adults. Stool 16S rRNA cDNA libraries from 85 subjects ranging in age (43-79) and FI34 score (0-0.365) were deep sequenced, denoised, and clustered using DADA2. Subject biological age but not chronological age correlated with a decrease in stool microbial diversity...
April 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444166/the-effect-of-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-on-antimicrobial-prescribing-and-clostridium-difficile-risk-in-88-u-s-medical-centers
#18
Alan E Gross, Richard S Johannes, Vikas Gupta, Ying P Tabak, Arjun Srinivasan, Susan C Bleasdale
Background: Anti-infective shortages are a pervasive problem in the U.S. The objective of this study was to identify any associations between changes in antibiotic prescribing during a piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) shortage and hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) risk in 88 U.S medical centers. Methods: We analyzed electronically captured microbiology and antibiotic use data from a network of U.S. hospitals from July 2014 through June 2015...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443385/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-prevalence-antibiotic-resistance-and-antimicrobial-use-in-chinese-burn-wards-from-2007-to-2014
#19
Yi Dou, Jingning Huan, Feng Guo, Zengding Zhou, Yan Shi
Objective To assess the application of antibacterial agents, alongside pathogen prevalence and Pseudomonas aeruginosa drug resistance, with the aim of understanding the impact of inappropriate antibacterial use. Methods This retrospective study assessed bacteria from wounds, catheters, blood, faeces, urine and sputum of hospitalized patients in burn wards between 2007 and 2014. The intensity of use of antibacterial agents and resistance of P. aeruginosa to common anti-Gram-negative antibiotics were measured...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443364/green-synthesis-of-nano-zero-valent-iron-from-nettle-and-thyme-leaf-extracts-and-their-application-for-the-removal-of-cephalexin-antibiotic-from-aqueous-solutions
#20
Mostafa Leili, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Amit Bhatnagar
In this study, the removal of cephalexin (CEX) antibiotic from aqueous solution was examined using a novel green adsorbent without employing any toxic chemicals or capping agents. Nettle and Thyme extracts were used to synthesize novel nano zero-valent iron (NNZVI and TNZVI) for the adsorption of CEX. The nature and morphology of synthesized adsorbent were characterized by TEM, SEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to study the influence of various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of the CEX, solution pH and adsorbent dosage...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Technology
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